Vicente Alvarez Revolt

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This revolt named after its leader, Vicente Alvarez, led to the establishment of a republic in Mindanao separate from the Republic of the Philippines which was earlier declared by Emilio Aguinaldo in Luzon.


Vicente Alvarez, a local Zamboangueño, and his Chavacano troops, in the summer of 1899, fought the Spanish forces in Zamboanga who were then in the midst of retreating after the fall of Spanish rule in Luzon. It was one among the movements against the Spanish rule that was not part of the Katipunan movement, which was greatly known at the time throughout the archipelago. Alvarez established the Revolutionary Government of Zamboanga to whom the Spaniards in Fort Pilar eventually surrendered. In May 23, the remaining Spanish forces left the city of Zamboanga, but only after they burned down most of the city buildings in contempt of the Zamboangueños' revolt against them. Zamboangueños fully supported the revolution launched by Vicente Alvarez. He was afterwards declared as the first president of the new government of Zamboanga, the Republic of Zamboanga, in May 18 until November 16, 1899. Along with these, Vicente Alvarez also declared an overarching rule over the entire island of Mindanao, Basilan and Sulu - the entire southern Philippines, amidst a war between the United States, Spain, and the Philippine islands' natives. However, in reality his area sovereignty was only that of the same size as the present-day Zamboanga City.


The revolution led by Alvarez was successful but only for a time because months after, forces of United States, with collaboration from Alvarez' rival Isidoro Midel, overthrown him and made the republic not fully independent from foreign influence once again. This Vicente Alvarez Revolt made Zamboanga the first sovereign "Filipino" republic ever created in Philippine history, in contrast with Aguinaldo's heavily American-influenced Philippine Republic.


  • Republic of Zamboanga: A Recognition of History (Accessed on December 25, 2009)
  • The Republic of Zamboanga – 1899 (Accessed on December 25, 2009)



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