Surigao del Sur

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Surigao del Sur is a province in the Philippines located in the Caraga region in Mindanao. Its capital is Tandag City. Surigao del Sur is situated at the eastern coast of Mindanao and faces the Philippine Sea to the east.

Etymology

There are two hypotheses on the original meaning of "Surigao" among linguists, depending on the original root word. If the root word was taken to be sulig ("sprout" or "spring up"), then Surigao may have derived from suligao ("spring water"), likely referring to the Surigao River (known as "Suligaw" in Mandaya) that empties at the northern tip of the island of Mindanao.[1][2] Early historical accounts record the name of the river as Suligao, Surigao, or Zurigan.[3]

Another possibility is that it is derived from Visayan surogao or suyogao, meaning "water current". From suyog (also sulog or surog), "current"; cf. Sinulog, Sulu, and Tausug (Suluk).[4]

History

An old map showing the current territories of the province as part of the historical province of Surigao

In precolonial times, the region of Surigao was inhabited by the Visayan Surigaonon people in the coastal areas, as well as Lumad groups in the interiors like the Mandaya, Mansaka, Mamanwa and Manobo.[5]

During the Spanish Occupation in 1860, six military districts were created in Mindanao, with Surigao and Agusan forming the "East District". In 1870, the district was renamed to "Distrito de Surigao". In 1901, Distrito de Surigao became chartered province. Agusan became an independent province in 1907 during the American era, when it was separated from Surigao.[5]

Independent province

Surigao del Sur was created as the 56th Philippine province on June 19, 1960 through Republic Act 2786, separated from its mother province, Surigao, on September 18, 1960.[6]

At the time of its inception, it was classified as 4th Class province with an annual income of over P 300,000.00. Seven years later, because of rapid increase of revenue collection particularly from the logging ventures, it has been reclassified as Ist Class B and in 1980 as Ist Class A with an estimated annual income of around P 13,000,000. It has been reclassified as 2nd Class with a revenue adding up to P 315,888,300.63.

Recaredo B. Castillo was the appointed first governor and subsequently elected governor while Vicente L. Pimentel was the first elected congressman.

The province was formed with 13 municipalities. Six more were added, raising the number to 19 with Tandag as the capital. Two of its municipalities have been elevated to cities; the first was Bislig City. In 2007, Tandag was granted cityhood but it was nullified via a controversial decision by the Supreme Court a year later. In 2009, Tandag got back its city status after the court reversed its own ruling on December 22, 2009.

Geography

Surigao del Sur is located along the northeastern coast of Mindanao facing the Philippine Sea between 125°40' to 126°20' east longitudes and 7°55' and 9°20' north latitudes. It is bounded on the northwest by the province of Surigao del Norte, on the southeast by Davao Oriental, on the west and southwest by Agusan del Norte and Agusan del Sur.

Situated west is the Diwata Mountain Range, isolating the province from the rest of Mindanao. To the east lies the Philippine Sea. The Mindanao Deep, one of the deepest trenches in the world, is situated a few kilometers east of the coastline.[7][5]

Land area

Ricefield in Cantilan

The land area of the province is 4,932.70 square kilometres (1,904.53 sq mi) representing 27.75 percent of the total land area of Caraga Administrative Region and about 5.14 percent and 1.74 percent of the total land area of Mindanao and Philippines, respectively. The province is elongated in shape, extending from the northeastern portion at Carrascal to the southernmost municipality of Lingig. It is approximately 300 kilometres (190 mi) in length and 50 kilometres (31 mi) at its widest point which runs from Cagwait to San Miguel.

Municipal-wise, San Miguel has the biggest land area accounting for 11.31% (558 square kilometers) of the total provincial land area while Bayabas has the smallest constituting only about 2.39% (117.84 square kilometers).

Of the 5,230.50 square kilometres (2,019.51 sq mi) land, only 1,703.72 square kilometres (657.81 sq mi) or 32.22 percent are classified as alienable and disposable (A and D) while 3,583.523 square kilometres (1,383.606 sq mi) or 67.78 percent are forest land. Tagbina has the biggest share of alienable and disposable land with 234.21 square kilometres (90.43 sq mi) or about 56.51 percent of its land area followed by Hinatuan with 202.52 square kilometres (78.19 sq mi) or 63.56 percent of its land area.[citation needed]

The Britania Group of Islands

Of the 3,583.523 square kilometres (1,383.606 sq mi) of forest land, 636.076 square kilometres (245.590 sq mi) are protection forest, 2,582.43 square kilometres (997.08 sq mi) production forest, 12.68 square kilometres (4.90 sq mi) are non-forest agriculture and 352.337 square kilometres (136.038 sq mi) are for non-forest mining. As of today, the province still has vast area of remaining old growth and mossy forest.

Climate

The province falls under Type II climate of the Philippines, characterized by rainfall distributed throughout the year, although there is a distinct rainy season which begins from the month of November and ends in March. However, the climatic behavior of the province for the past few years has shown variations wherein the onset of the rainy seasons no longer occurs on the usual time. Months with low rainfall are from July to October with September as the driest month. Wet months are from November to June with January as the wettest month.

Administrative divisions

Surigao del Sur comprises 17 municipalities and two cities, further subdivided into 309 barangays. There are two congressional districts encompassing all cities and towns.

City or municipality District Area Density Barangays Coordinates
km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi
Barobo 2nd 242.50 93.63 210 540 21 8°32′11″N 126°07′14″E
Bayabas 1st 117.84 45.50 69 180 7 8°58′03″N 126°16′58″E
Bislig 2nd 331.80 128.11 280 730 24 8°12′42″N 126°19′00″E
Cagwait 1st 214.10 82.66 95 250 11 8°55′06″N 126°18′06″E
Cantilan 1st 240.10 92.70 130 340 17 9°20′05″N 125°58′33″E
Carmen 1st 160.01 61.78 65 170 8 9°13′43″N 126°01′00″E
Carrascal 1st 265.80 102.63 85 220 14 9°22′06″N 125°56′55″E
Cortes 1st 127.08 49.07 130 340 12 9°16′29″N 126°11′25″E
Hinatuan 2nd 299.10 115.48 130 340 24 8°21′56″N 126°20′09″E
Lanuza 1st 290.60 112.20 41 110 13 9°14′01″N 126°03′37″E
Lianga 1st 161.12 62.21 180 470 13 8°37′58″N 126°05′34″E
Lingig 2nd 305.17 117.83 100 260 18 8°02′15″N 126°24′44″E
Madrid 1st 141.20 54.52 110 280 14 9°15′45″N 125°57′49″E
Marihatag 1st 312.50 120.66 59 150 12 8°48′02″N 126°17′55″E
San Agustin 1st 277.28 107.06 82 210 13 8°44′37″N 126°13′19″E
San Miguel 1st 558.00 215.45 71 180 18 8°56′03″N 126°02′23″E
Tagbina 2nd 343.49 132.62 110 280 25 8°27′26″N 126°09′32″E
Tago 1st 253.28 97.79 140 360 24 9°01′10″N 126°13′59″E
Tandag 1st 291.73 112.64 190 490 21 9°04′47″N 126°11′51″E
Total 4,932.70 1,904.53 120 310 309

Demographics

The population of Surigao del Sur in the 2015 census was 592,250 people,  with a density of 120 inhabitants per square kilometre or 310 inhabitants per square mile.

The province is home to the Kamayo and Agusan people. Their dances are showcased in the local festival, "Sirong Festival", held especially during the town fiesta of Cantilan. The Sirong Festival depicts the early Christianization of the early Cantilan inhabitants where the natives tried to defend their land against Visayan invaders.

The indigenous people of the province were largely Christianized during the early times of the Spanish conquest.

Languages

Surigaonon and Tandaganon languages are spoken in most parts of Surigao del Sur (except in Bislig City and the towns of Barobo, Hinatuan, Lingig and Tagbina, where most of the inhabitants speak Cebuano and their native Kamayo, a different language but distantly related to Surigaonon, is spoken by the rest of the population), with Cantilangnon dialect, a northern variation of Surigaonon which is very much similar to the dialect of Surigaonon as spoken in Surigao del Norte, being spoken mostly in the five northern municipalities of the province namely Carrascal, Cantilan, Madrid, Carmen and Lanuza (or the municipal clusters called CarCanMadCarLan); these municipalities were once under a single Municipality of Cantilan before December 10, 1918.

Tagalog and English are also widely spoken throughout the province and used as the primary languages of education, business, and administration.

Economy

Coastal fishing in Cantilan

Surigao del Sur is one of the suppliers of rice, bananas and other tropical fruits. Copper, chromite and silver are also found here. Marine and aquaculture is abundant in the province, being a primary livelihood of the inhabitants as the province is well known for producing seafood and sea by-products.

Mineral resources

Surigao del Sur is endowed with metallic minerals such as copper, gold, chromite, cobalt, nickel and lead zinc, as well as non-metallic (limestone, coal and feldspar, clay diatomite/bentomite and coarse/fine aggregates). There are small and large scale mining activities in the province. Corporations operating in a large scale are the Marc Ventures Mining Development Corporation at Carrascal and Cantilan, operating in an area of 4,799 hectares (47.99 km2) within the Diwata Mountain Range. The CTP Construction and Mining Corporation, also in Carrascal, focuses on gold and nickel mining in an area of 35.64 square kilometres (13.76 sq mi) and 48.6916 square kilometres (18.80 sq mi), respectively. The Carac-an Development Corporation, also in Carrascal, has an area of 506.3764 square kilometres (195.51 sq mi). Small scale mining activities are found in the municipalities of Barobo, Carmen and San Miguel.

Tourism

Bislig's main tourist attraction is the Tinuy-an Falls, known as the little "Niagara Falls of the Philippines". It is a white water curtain that flows in three levels about 55 metres (180 ft) high and 95 metres (312 ft) wide. Its unique natural formation once appeared in the International Travel Magazine. It is also known as the widest waterfall in the Philippines.

Surfing in Surigao del Sur is widely known and has been one of the local tourist attractions. This extreme sport is often practiced in Cantilan and Lanuza.[8] Skimboarding is also found in several municipalities, attracting tourists.

See also

References

  1. Ethnomedical documentation of and community health education for selected Philippine ethnolinguistic groups: the Mandaya people of Davao Oriental, Philippines (2000).Template:Dead link
  2. (1898) La Islas Filipinas. Mindanao, Volume 1. Subinspección de Infantería. 
  3. in Pio A. De Pazos y Vela-Hidalgo: Jolo, Relato Historico-Militar: Desde Su Descubrimiento Por Los Espanoles en 1578 A Nuestros Dias (1879). Imprenta y Estereotipia de Polo. 
  4. (2017) The Monosyllabic root -ao in Mindanao Languages, 8th Annual In-house Review of the Research Office of Agusan del Sur State College of Agriculture and Technology. Agusan del Sur State College of Agriculture and Technology. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 (1995) "The Provinces; Surigao del Sur", Fast Facts about Philippine Provinces, The 2000 Millenium, Makati, Metro Manila, Philippines: Tahanan Books. ISBN 971-630-037-9. 
  6. Republic Act No. 2786 - An Act to Create the Provinces of Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur (19 June 1960).
  7. Philippine Provincial Profile; Surigao del Sur.
  8. "LGU wants to make Cantilan a surfing destination", MindaNews, Mindanao News and Information Cooperative Center, 11 November 2012.