Sultan Kudarat

From Wikipilipinas
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Sultan Kudarat (Hiligaynon: Kapuoran sang Sultan Kudarat; Maguindanao: Prubinsiya nu Sultan Kudarat; Ilocano: Probinsia ti Sultan Kudarat; Cebuano: Lalawigan sa Sultan Kudarat; Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Sultan Kudarat) is a province in the Philippines located in the Soccsksargen region in Mindanao. Its capital is Isulan and the commercial center is Tacurong.


The name Sultan Kudarat given to the province was derived from the Muslim ruler, Sultan Muhammad Dipatuan Kudarat who begun to assert his leadership in the year 1619 and reigned in the Sultanate of Maguindanao from 1625 to 1671. Through his leadership, Spanish forces were successfully repelled from encroaching the Cotabato region of south-central Mindanao.[1] He is considered a national hero, and in his honor the province was named after him.


Sultan Kudarat was part of the former province of Cotabato, until its creation as an independent province (along with Maguindanao and North Cotabato) on November 22, 1973, through Presidential Decree No. 341.[2]

Palimbang massacre

One notable event that took place in Sultan Kudarat was the Palimbang Massacre (also called the Malisbong Masjid Massacre), which saw the mass murder of Moro residents of Barrio Malisbong in Palimbang by units of the Philippine Military on September 24, 1974,[3][4]–1,500[3] two years after Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law. Accounts compiled by the Moro Women's Center in General Santos City state that 1,500 male Moros aged 11–70 were killed inside a mosque, 3,000 women and children aged 9–60 were detained – with the women being raped – and that 300 houses were razed by the government forces.[3]


Sultan Kudarat is situated on the southwestern section of central Mindanao. It is bounded on the north by the provinces of Maguindanao and North Cotabato; on the south by South Cotabato and Sarangani; on the east by Davao del Sur; and on the west by the Moro Gulf and the Celebes Sea. The province's total land area is 5,298.34 square kilometres (2,045.70 sq mi).

The Moro Gulf seen from Lebak

Two major mountain ranges encompass the province; the Alip Mountain Range in Columbio and the Daguma Mountain Range within the towns of Bagumbayan, Isulan and Esperanza.Template:Sfn The three coastal towns on the province's western side (Lebak, Kalamansig and Palimbang) are lined with mountain ranges that separate the central part of the province from the sea. There are also mountains on the eastern side, leaving flat land in between.Template:Sfn

The province has an irregular coastline of 132 kilometres (82 mi) in its three coastal towns, which face the Celebes Sea. These coastal areas are prone to tsunamis coming from the Celebes Sea. Approximately 2/3 of Lake Buluan's area is covered by the province in the towns of Lutayan and President Quirino. There are 7 major rivers within the province: Alip, Allah, Kapingkong, Tran, Salaman, Palimbang and Kabulnan. Additionally, there are 23 large creeks and 11 major springs within the province.

Land use and soil types

Forestland constitutes majority of the province land use (50.32% ), followed by agricultural land (44.77%), fishing grounds (2.42%), non-agricultural land (1.16%), "other bodies of water" (1.02%), and fishponds (0.31%).

Five major soil types are found within the province, majority of which is classified as Mountain Soil (71%), followed by Sandy Loam (12.036%), Silty Clay Loam (4.880%), Clay Loam (4.612%) and Loamy Sand (0.185).


The climate of Sultan Kudarat falls under Type IV of Climate (characterized by rain showers or evenly distributed rainfall throughout the year). Heavy rainfall occurs from April to November. Unlike most other provinces in the country, Sultan Kudarat is generally free from typhoons as it is situated outside the "typhoon belt".

The average temperature is 35 °C (95 °F), with 38 °C (100 °F) as the average maximum normally occurring in March. The lowest recorded was 18 °C (64 °F) in the Kulaman area in December to early January.

Administrative divisions

Sultan Kudarat comprises 11 municipalities and 1 city. Three of the municipalities (Kalamansig, Lebak, and Palimbang) are coastal towns, while the rest of the province is located inland. The 11 municipalities and Tacurong City are further subdivided into 249 barangays.

Tacurong City is the smallest unit in the province by land area, but is the most urbanized and is considered the province's commercial center. Other growth centers are Lebak and Isulan, the latter being the provincial capital.

City or municipality District Area Density Barangays Coordinates
km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi
Bagumbayan 2nd 672.06 259.48 100 260 19 6°32′25″N 124°34′01″E
Columbio 1st 926.15 357.59 36 93 16 6°37′54″N 124°58′27″E
Esperanza 2nd 324.29 125.21 200 520 19 6°43′21″N 124°31′14″E
Isulan 1st 541.25 208.98 170 440 17 6°38′02″N 124°35′50″E
Kalamansig 2nd 699.20 269.96 70 180 15 6°33′18″N 124°02′59″E
[[Lambayong|Lambayong Template:Small]] 1st 226.88 87.60 340 880 26 6°47′54″N 124°37′57″E
Lebak 2nd 470.86 181.80 190 490 27 6°37′57″N 124°03′58″E
Lutayan 1st 271.00 104.63 230 600 11 6°33′34″N 124°51′31″E
Palimbang 2nd 484.85 187.20 190 490 40 6°12′39″N 124°11′21″E
President Quirino 1st 208.40 80.46 200 520 19 6°41′54″N 124°44′25″E
Senator Ninoy Aquino 2nd 320.00 123.55 150 390 20 6°27′34″N 124°19′20″E
Tacurong 1st 153.40 59.23 640 1,700 20 6°41′18″N 124°40′43″E
Total 5,298.34 5,298.34 2,045.70 150 390


The population of Sultan Kudarat in the 2015 census was 812,095 people,  with a density of 150 inhabitants per square kilometre or 390 inhabitants per square mile.

At the 2000 census, the province had a total population of 586,505 inhabitants, which grew to 747,087 in the 2010 census. About 113 ethnic groups were identified in the province in the 2000 Census. The Hiligaynons constitute the majority of the population, with Hiligaynon being the province's most widely spoken language. Other languages spoken in the province are Maguindanaon, Karay-a, Dulangan Manobo, Blaan, Teduray, Ilocano, and Cebuano. Tagalog and English are also widely understood and used in education, business, and administration as the national official languages.

Aside from the Hiligaynons, who settled in Sultan Kudarat around the 17th to 18th centuries along with the Karay-as, other ethnic groups in the province include the Maguindanaons (who constitute the majority of the provincial Muslim population), as well as the Manobos, Tedurays and Blaans, the three autochthonous ethnic groups of the province. Ilocanos and Cebuanos meanwhile are relative newcomers to the province, with the former comprising the majority of the population in the towns of Lambayong and President Quirino, and the latter in the town of Kalamansig.


The four major religious groups in Sultan Kudarat are Roman Catholicism (55.99%), Islam (29.48%), Evangelical (7.20%), and Iglesia ni Cristo (2.26%).Template:Sfn Other Christian groups constitute most of the remainders such as the Seventh-day Adventists, United Church of Christ in the Philippines, Jehovah's Witnesses, United Methodist Church, Southern Baptists, as well as "tribal religions".[5] In 2015 the Philippine Statistics Authority recorded Islam followed by 29.48% of the population.[6]


Aerial view of the western coast of the province

The economy of Sultan Kudarat is predominantly agricultural. The leading crops produced in the province are rice, corn, coconuts, coffee, bananas, mangoes, durians and African palm. The province is self-sufficient in poultry, swine and root crops, and is one of the few producers of Irish potatoes in the Philippines. The southern Philippines Grain Complex in Tacurong is the largest grains-processing complex in the country. There are more than 200 rice mills in the province.

Fishing is an industry in the three coastal towns of the province (Kalamansig, Lebak and Palimbang).Tuna caught along the coasts along the Celebes Sea are exported to Japan and Europe.

Other economic activities include cottage industries, which include crafts made of rattan and other types of wood.

Metallic minerals, which include copper, gold and silver, are found within the mountainous areas of Isulan, Bagumbayan, Sen. Ninoy Aquino, Palimbang and Columbio. Non-metallic minerals which include sand, gravel and marbleized limestone are also found in the province.


For the school year 2009–2010, the province has 475 schools (401 public and 74 private), 368 of which were elementary schools, 90 were secondary, and 17 were tertiary. Sultan Kudarat State University is the only public tertiary school within the province, with its main campus at Tacurong City. Its other campuses are situated in Bagumbayan, Isulan, Kalamansig, Lutayan, Palimbang, and Senator Ninoy Aquino.

Health facilities

In 2010, Sultan Kudarat had 27 hospitals (5 government-owned, 22 private and 1 mobile hospital), which are classified into 17 primary (6-25 beds capacity), 8 secondary (25-100 beds capacity) and 2 tertiary (over 100 beds capacity). Tacurong had the most number of hospitals in the province with 11, followed by Isulan with 5.Template:Sfn


As of 2010, the provincial road network spanned a total length of 3,749.5813 kilometres (2,329.8818 mi) of which 49.26% were barangay roads, 27.97% provincial roads, 13.51% municipal/city roads and 9.25% national roads. Bagumbayan had the longest road network at 516.789 kilometres (321.118 mi), while Lutayan had the shortest at 107.38 kilometres (66.72 mi).

Sultan Kudarat has two seaports: the Port of Lebak in Kalamansig and the San Roque Port in Palimbang, and four airports (2 government-owned: Lebak Municipal Airport and President Quirino Airport, and 2 privately owned: Kalamansig Airport and Kenram Airport).


Seal of the province, in use since its creation in 1973. Its use was discontinued by the provincial government but recognized as legal seal of the province by NHCP.

Elected Officials

The following are the elected government officials and their years of tenure:

Elected Officials:

  • Governor: Pax S. Mangudadatu
  • Vice Governor: Raden C. Sakaluran
    • 1st District w/ Tacurong City: Suharto T. Mangudadatu
    • 2nd District: Horacio Suansing

Elected Officials:

  • Governor: Suharto T. Mangudadatu
  • Vice Governor: Ernesto F. Matias
    • 1st District w/ Tacurong City: Rep. Raden C. Sakaluran
    • 2nd District: Rep. Arnulfo F. Go

Elected Officials:

  • Governor: Suharto T. Mangudadatu
  • Vice Governor: Donato A. Ligo
    • 1st District w/ Tacurong City: Rep. Pax S. Mangudadatu
    • 2nd District: Rep. Arnulfo F. Go

Elected Officials:

  • Representative: Suharto T. Mangudadatu
  • Governor: Pax S. Mangudadatu
  • Vice Governor: Donato A. Ligo

Elected Officials:

  • Representative: Angelo O. Montilla
  • Governor: Pax S. Mangudadatu
  • Vice Governor: Miguel Domingo T. Jacalan III

Elected Officials:

  • Representative: Angelo O. Montilla
  • Governor: Nesthur R. Gumana
  • Vice Governor: Rose P. Jamison

Elected Officials:

  • Representative: Estanislao Váldez
  • Governor: Nesthur R. Gumana
  • Vice Governor: Sinsuat A. Andang, Sr.

List of former governors

The former governors who have administered the province are:

  • Carlos B. Cajelo (November 23, 1973 — February 28, 1974)
  • Gonzalo H. Siongco (March 1, 1974 — October 20, 1975)
  • Conrado E. Buencamino (October 21, 1975 — November 21, 1975)
  • Benjamin C. Duque (November 22, 1975 — December 31, 1979); was elected Governor (January 1, 1980 — June 30, 1984)
  • Aurelio C. Freires, Jr. (July 1, 1984 — March 19, 1986)
  • Perfecto C. Bautista (March 20, 1986 — November 30, 1987)
  • Fidel A. Fortez (December 1, 1987 — December 22, 1987)
  • Exequiel S. Mayordomo (December 23, 1987 — July 12, 1988)
  • Nesthur R. Gumana (July 13, 1988 — March 25, 1998)
  • Rosila P. Jamison (March 26 — June 30, 1998)
  • Pax S. Mangudadatu (July 1, 1998 — June 30, 2007)
  • Suharto T. Mangudadatu (July 1, 2007 — present)


Sultan Kudarat Provincial Capitol in Isulan at night

Festivals celebrated within the province include:

  • Kalimudan — celebrated in the province of Sultan Kudarat, a gathering of ethnic groups within the province
  • Bansadayaw — celebrated in Bagumbayan
  • Kastifun — celebrated in Columbio
  • Hinabyog — celebrated in Esperanza
  • Hamungaya — celebrated in Isulan
  • Salagaan — celebrated in Kalamansig
  • Timpuyog — celebrated in Lambayong
  • Kapeonan — celebrated in Lebak
  • Kanduli — celebrated in Lutayan
  • Kalilang — celebrated in Palimbang
  • Sambuyawan — celebrated in President Quirino
  • Sulok — celebrated in Senator Ninoy Aquino
  • Talakudong — celebrated in Tacurong City


  1. Manobo.
  2. Presidential Decree No. 341: Creating the Provinces of North Cotabato, Maguindanao and Sultan Kudarat. Philippine Laws, Statutes & Codes. Chan Robles Virtual Law Library (22 November 1973).
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "1,500 Moro massacre victims during Martial Law honored", Mindanews, September 26, 2014. 
  4. Santos, Chyna. "Violence in Mindanao", The Guidon, April 11, 2015. 
  5. "SocioEconomic Profile", Journal, Province of Sultan Kudarat, 2010. 
  6. Philippine Statistics Authority (July 26, 2017). Muslim Population in Mindanao (based on POPCEN 2015.