South Cotabato

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South Cotabato, officially the Province of South Cotabato (Hiligaynon: Bagatnan Cotabato; Cebuano: Habagatang Cotabato; Maguindanaon: Pagabagatan Kutawatu; Kapampangan: Mauling Cotabato; Tagalog: Timog Cotabato), is a province in the Philippines located in the Soccsksargen region in Mindanao. Its capital is city of Koronadal, and it borders Sultan Kudarat to the north and west, Sarangani to the south and northeast, and Davao del Sur to the far northeast. To the southeast lies Sarangani Bay.

General Santos, located on the shores of Sarangani Bay, is the most populous city in the region, but is governed independently from the province. The province of Sarangani used to be part of South Cotabato until it was made an independent province in 1992.


Centuries ago, the area that would be the South Cotabato was sparsely inhabited by Malay pioneers which later evolved into various ethnic groupings that still exist in the province today. The Spaniards launched expeditions to subdue the area throughout the colonial era but they never gained control of the region until the middle of the 19th century after the Spaniards established a military post at what is now Barangay Tamontaka, one of the earliest Christian settlements founded south of the Philippines, in present-day Cotabato City. Spaniards already took with them Chavacano-speaking Christians and Muslims from Zamboanga and Basilan, as well as the Visayans, especially the Hiligaynons and Cebuanos.

The area of what is now South Cotabato and Sarangani provinces used to be part of Davao province until 1914, when the reorganization of the districts in Mindanao took place, thus it became part of the then-undivided Cotabato province. Settlers, who would lay the foundation of what would become a progressive province, started trooping down 1914.

The significant thrust occurred during the term of President Quezon in late 1930s. General Paulino Santos led the first of wave of settlers that time. After World War II, the final exodus of settlers from Luzon and Visayas poured into the area's virgin land.

In the early 1960s as population, trade and industries grew in southern part of Cotabato, a clamor of local self-governance arose. Thus, on July 18, 1966, South Cotabato was separated from Cotabato as an independent province.[1] At that time, the province consisted of 11 municipalities, namely: Banga, South Cotabato, General Santos (now a city), Glan, Kiamba, Koronadal, Maitum, Norala, Polomolok, Surallah, Tantangan, and Tupi. These municipalities were established long before the creation of the province. Other component municipalities were formed after it fully functioned as a province.

With the creation of regions under Pres. Ferdinand Marcos, South Cotabato was grouped with Region XI, also known as Southern Mindanao, in 1975.[2]

In 1992, the province of Sarangani was formed out of South Cotabato. Seven towns in southern and coastal section of the province (Malungon, Alabel, Malapatan, Glan, Maasim, Kiamba and Maitum) became part of the new province, leaving South Cotabato with 11 remaining municipalities.[3]

Regional offices were relocated to South Cotabato in accordance with EO 429 dated October 12, 1990, issued by President Corazon C. Aquino during the expansion of the newly created Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao,[4] and EO No. 36 dated September 19, 2001, issued by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo which says South Cotabato is to be transferred from Southern Mindanao region to Region XII and having the city of Koronadal as the regional center of Region XII.[5]

On August 16, 2000, Republic Act No. 8803 was approved, that converted the municipality of Koronadal into a component city of South Cotabato.[6]

In 2015, the National Competitiveness Council declared the province as the 4th most competitive province in the country.


South Cotabato covers a total land area of 3,935.95 square kilometres (1,519.68 sq mi). When General Santos City is included for geographical purposes, the province's land area is 4,428.81 square kilometres (1,709.97 sq mi). The province is situated on the southern section of central Mindanao, bounded by the provinces of Sultan Kudarat to the north and west, Sarangani to the south and northeast, Davao del Sur to the far northeast, and the Sarangani Bay to the southeast.

The province is generally flat dotted with some hills and mountains.


South Cotabato belongs to the fourth type of climate, that is rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year. The average number of rainy days for the year 2004 is recorded between 122 and 180 days with the months of May, June, July, August and October having the most occurrence.

Air humidity generally follows closely the rainfall pattern. Humidity is highest during the period of June to October with 88% being recorded at the Tupi seed farm. The months of February and April have the lowest air humidity recorded at about 72%.

Maximum daytime temperature throughout the province is in the range of 36 to 38 °C (97 to 100 °F), falling to 23 to 32 °C (73 to 90 °F) during the night depending on the elevation. The hottest period is January to April while July to December being the coolest.

South Cotabato enjoys a mild, pleasant climate with no pronounced dry or wet season, and is practically typhoon-free.

Administrative divisions

South Cotabato comprises 10 municipalities and 1 component city. The highly urbanized city of General Santos is traditionally grouped with, but administered independently from the province.

City or municipality District Area Density Barangays Coordinates
km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi
Banga 2nd 240.35 92.80 350 910 22 6°25′25″N 124°46′24″E
General Santos Lone 492.86 190.29 1,200 3,100 26 6°06′50″N 125°10′18″E
Koronadal 2nd 277.00 106.95 630 1,600 27 6°30′01″N 124°50′37″E
Lake Sebu 2nd 702.00 271.04 120 310 19 6°13′29″N 124°42′42″E
Norala 2nd 123.20 47.57 380 980 14 6°31′08″N 124°39′24″E
Polomolok 1st 339.97 131.26 450 1,200 23 6°12′51″N 125°03′52″E
Santo Niño 2nd 86.20 33.28 480 1,200 10 6°26′17″N 124°40′24″E
Surallah 2nd 540.30 208.61 160 410 17 6°22′32″N 124°44′50″E
T'Boli 2nd 895.83 345.88 100 260 25 6°12′49″N 124°49′21″E
Tampakan 1st 390.00 150.58 100 260 14 6°26′38″N 124°55′38″E
Tantangan 2nd 351.12 135.57 120 310 13 6°33′48″N 124°46′06″E
Tupi 1st 228.00 88.03 310 800 15 6°19′52″N 124°57′03″E
Total 3,935.95 3,935.95 1,519.68 230 600


The population of South Cotabato (excluding General Santos) was 915,289 in the 2015 census,  making it one of the country's most populous province. The population density is 230 inhabitants per square kilometre or 600 inhabitants per square mile.

When General Santos is included for geographical purposes, the province's population is 1,509,735 people,  with a density of 341 inhabitants per square kilometre (880/sq mi).


The people of South Cotabato have diverse heritages. Ethnic Hiligaynons, descendants of migrants from Panay and Negros in the Visayas who settled in the municipalities/towns of Norala, Banga, Surallah, Santo Niño and the province's capital city, Koronadal, are the majority in the province. The province's major media of communication are Hiligaynon, Tagalog, and English. On the other hand, Ilocano-speaking peoples of Luzon settled in Tampakan, Tantangan and Tupi, and the Ilocano language may still be heard in these towns. The Cebuanos are the main ethnic group of the municipality of Polomolok, and are one of the main ethnic groups of Tupi (along with the Hiligaynons and Kapampangans). Both towns are near to General Santos, which speaks both Hiligaynon and Cebuano. Chavacano speakers are even found scattered in some areas of the province, as well as Maguindanaons. Tbolis mainly reside around the Lake Sebu area, while Blaans reside within General Santos and its outskirts.


Roman Catholics predominate the province with 65% adherence,[7] while Islam is a minority religion which is 6% of the population.[8] Other minorities are various Christian Churches such as Prostestants which form about 22% and consist of mostly evangelicals[9][10] of the province's population which can be mostly found in some urban parts of the province. Iglesia ni Cristo forms about 3-4% population.[11] The remainder are divided among Buddhist and animism.

The Maguindanao tribe is the major Muslim Filipino tribe in the province. Although many of them still wear their traditional costumes and practice their native customs, others have come to adapt the more liberal practices of their Christian neighbors such as wearing shorts and sleeveless shirts, eschewing the use of the headscarf, and attending dances/mixed gatherings. Other indigenous Filipino tribes are the T'boli and B'laan tribes in Lake Sebu and T'boli municipalities, famous for their brassworks, beadwork and t'nalak weave. The people of these tribes wear colorful embroidered native costumes and beadwork accessories. The women of these tribes, particularly, wear heavy brass belts with brass 'tassels' ending in tiny brass bells that herald their approach even when they are a long way off.

The people of South Cotabato retain many of the practices and traditions of their particular tribal heritages, although infused with a flavor that is distinctly Mindanaoan and the product of cultural interaction between the immigrants and the indigenous peoples of the area. One vivid example of this is the predominant use of the native malong, the colorful, tubelike garment used as a skirt by the indigenous tribes, in place of a blanket or sleeping bag.


Hiligaynon is the most widely spoken language in the province, followed by Cebuano, which is the majority language of General Santos. Tagalog and English are widely understood and often used for administrative functions by the local government and in education, with the former serving as dominant language in local media. Other languages spoken in the province are Tboli, Blaan, Maguindanao, as well as Kapampangan and Ilocano.


There are numerous Higher Educational Institutions in South Cotabato, mostly located Koronadal City.


  • Governor: Reynaldo S. Tamayo
  • Vice Governor: Vicente De Jesus

Provincial capital

The Local Provincial Government holds its official functions in the City of Koronadal. The Provincial Capitol, Provincial Hospital, and all related offices are found in the city.

Legislative districts

District City Municipality Population
  • Polomolok
  • Tupi
  • Tampakan
2nd Koronadal City
  • Banga
  • Lake Sebu
  • Norala
  • Santo Niño
  • Surallah
  • T'Boli
  • Tantangan
3rd General Santos City 594,446
  • 1st District Representative: Shirlyn Bañas-Nograles
  • 2nd District Representative: Ferdinand L. Hernandez
  • Lone District of General Santos: (To be elected on 2022 Presidential Elections)

House Bill No. 4678, filed on December 13, 2016 by First District Rep. Pedro B. Acharon, Jr., seeks to segregate the highly urbanized city of General Santos from the said district to form its own congressional district, separate from the representation of South Cotabato.[12] This bill was signed by the president last March 11, 2019.

List of Governors of South Cotabato since 1987

  • 1987 - 1992: Hon. Ismael Sueno
  • 1992 - 2001: Hon. Hilario De Pedro III
  • 2001 - 2010: Hon. Daisy P. Avance - Fuentes
  • 2010 - 2013: Hon. Arthur Y. Pingoy, MD
  • 2013 - 2019: Hon. Daisy P. Avance - Fuentes
  • 2019 - Present: Hon. Reynaldo Tamayo Jr.

Musical heritage

The native Maguindanaon of South Cotabato have a culture that revolves around kulintang music, a specific type of gong music, found among both Muslim and non-Muslim groups of the Southern Philippines.

Sister province

Notable people