Presidents of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines, under the 1987 Philippine Constitution, is both the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. There have been 16 presidents of the Philippines since 1898, including the one installed by the Imperial Japan during World War II (see Jose P. Laurel).
History of Philippine Heads of State
Before Spaniards arrived in the Philippines, the archipelago was not a unified nation. Rather, it was splintered into different barangays headed by a datu. These barangays were independent of one another, although some barangays united to form a confederation. In the barangays, the datu was leader, lawmaker, and judge. Although he often had a council of elders as his advisers, the datu’s word was law. After the Spanish conquest, the King of Spain became the de jure head of state of the country, represented by his Governor-General. After Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States of America for 20 million dollars, the head of state became the President of the United States, also represented by the American Governor-General. When the Filipinos fought for and achieved their independence, they elected their own Presidents.
|(no party affiliation)|
|Kilusang Bagong Lipunan|
|United Nationalists Democratic Organizations|
|Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino|
Counting of the order of terms and constitutional succession to the presidency starts with Manuel L. Quezon, the first President of the Philippine Commonwealth, although he led a nation still under American sovereignty. Two Presidents were deposed by EDSA Revolutions, but their successors are counted in the order of terms.
Emilio Aguinaldo was the first to assume the title of President, but his Malolos Republic was not recognized by other nations at the time of its existence, so he is not considered to be in the line of Constitutional succession and not counted in the order of terms. Neither is Jose P. Laurel, who was considered to have been a puppet president of a puppet government of the Japanese occupation. Nevertheless, they are still recognized as Philippine Presidents, especially Aguinaldo, whom most Filipinos consider the first Filipino president.
The colors indicate the political party or coalition of each President on the day of election.
- Presidents who became President after predecessor was deposed through EDSA Revolution
- Vice Presidents who succeeded to the Presidency
- Vice Presidents who were later elected President
- Presidents who were elected after serving the remaining term of predecessor
- Longest serving President: Ferdinand Marcos (5,259 days)
- Shortest serving President: Jose P. Laurel (479 days)
- Vice President of the Philippines
- List of Vice Presidents of the Philippines
- Prime Minister of the Philippines (presently defunct)
- Seal of the President of the Philippines