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Philippine Government and Politics

The Philippine Government is composed of a framework of presidential, representative, and democratic republic where the president is both the head of state and the head of government within a multi-party system. This system revolves around three separate and sovereign yet interdependent branches: the legislative branch (the law-making body), the executive branch (the law-enforcing body), and the judicial branch (the law-interpreting body).


The Republic of the Philippines has a representative democracy modeled after the system of government of the United States of America. The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, adopted during the Corazon Aquino administration, re-established a presidential system of government with a bicameral legislature and an independent judiciary.

  • Executive branch

The executive branch is headed by the President, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, who functions as both the head of state and the head of government. The president is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The president is elected by popular vote to a term of 6 years. The president, then, appoints his/her cabinet members whom she presides over. The executive seat of government is administered officially from Malacañang Palace - also the official residence of the president - in the capital City of Manila. The President may no longer run for re-election, unless he/she becomes president through constitutional succession and has served for no more than 4 years as president. The second highest official, Vice-President Noli de Castro, is also elected by popular vote. The vice-president is second in line to succession should the president resign, be impeached or die in office. The vice-president usually, though not always, may be a member of the president's cabinet.

  • Legislative branch

The bicameral Congress of the Philippines consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives; members of both are elected by popular vote. The Senate is elected at large. There are currently 24 senators. Of a possible 250 members of the House of Representatives, 206 are elected from the single-member districts. The remainder of the House seats are designated for party-list representatives elected at large through a complex "party list" system. The upper house is located in Pasay City, while the lower house is located in Quezon City. Senators are elected with a term of six years. The district and sectoral representatives are elected with a term of three years.

  • Judiciary

The Judiciary is headed by the Supreme Court, which has a Chief Justice as its head and 14 Associate Justices, all appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council.


The Philippines is divided into a hierarchy of local government units (LGUs) with the province as the primary unit. All provinces are grouped into 17 regions for administrative convenience. Provinces are further subdivided into cities and municipalities, which are in turn, composed of barangays, the smallest local government units. A Philippine province is headed by a Governor. The Provincial Council is composed of the Vice Governors and Provincial Board Members. A Philippine city and municipality is headed by a Mayor and a Vice Mayor. The City Council is composed of the Vice Mayor (as Presiding Officer) and Councilors. A barangay is headed by a Barangay Captain who is also the presiding officer of the barangay council composed of kagawads. A similar unit called Youth Council is headed by a SK Chairperson who had similar rank of a Barangay Captain.

Philippine Government

Executive Department

Local Government Units

Military and Police

Legislative Department


Judicial Department

Constitution and Laws

  • The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines. [1987]
  • Philippine Laws
    • Major Areas of Philippine Laws
      • Political Law
      • Civil Law
      • Criminal Law
      • Remedial Law
      • Mercantile Law
      • Labor and Social Legislation
      • Taxation Law
      • Legal and Judicial Ethics
      • Shariah Law
      • Natural Resources Law
    • Jurisprudence
    • History of Philippine Laws
      • Old Laws
      • Tribal and Traditional Laws

Non-government Organizations in the Philippines

  • UN Agencies
  • Humanitarian organizations
  • Labor groups
  • Agricultural reform groups
  • Civic groups

Philippine Politics


  • Presidents
  • Vice Presidents
  • Senators
  • Congressmen
  • Governors
  • Vice Governors
  • Sangguniang Panlalawigan
  • Mayors
  • Vice Mayors
  • Sangguniang Bayan
  • Barangay Captain
  • Barangay Council
  • Sangguniang Kabataan Chairmen
  • Sangguniang Kabataan Councilors
  • Famous Political Figures

Political Groups


  • Elections in the Philippines
  • Commission on Elections

Foreign Relations

  • Embassies
    • Ambassadors of the Philippines
    • Ambassadors to the Philippines
    • Diplomatic Missions
    • List of Philippine Embassies
    • Participation in international organizations
  • Consular offices
  • Overseas Employment
  • Espionage

Political Events

  • Public Holidays
  • Philippine Revolution
    • Independence Day
  • Philippine American War
  • Martial Law
  • EDSA Revolutions
  • Coup d’Etats
    • Oakwood Mutiny
    • Manila Pen Siege
  • Political Killings
    • Ninoy Aquino Assassination
    • Gomburza Execution
    • Rizal Execution
    • Bonifacio Execution
  • Rallies and Demonstrations
    • Mendiola Massacres
    • Plaza Miranda Bombing
  • Controversies
  • Impeachment Trials
  • Congressional Investigations
    • Memorable Moments in Congress
  • Newsmakers

Venues of Political Events

  • Mendiola
  • Plaza Miranda
  • EDSA
  • Ayala
  • Luneta
  • Quirino Grandstand
  • Malacanang Palace

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