Philippine National Police

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The Philippine National Police, acronymed as PNP, is the the primary law enforcement agency of the Philippines. Its national headquarters is located at Camp Crame in Bagong Lipunan ng Crame, Quezon City. Currently, it has approximately 220,000 personnel to police a population in excess of 100 million.[1]

The agency is administered and controlled by the National Police Commission and is part of the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG). Local police officers are operationally controlled by municipal mayors.[2] DILG, on the other hand, organizes, trains and equips the PNP for the performance of police functions as a police force that is national in scope and civilian in character.

The PNP was formed on 29 January 1991 when the Philippine Constabulary and the Integrated National Police were merged pursuant to Republic Act 6975 of 1990.[3]


Passed on December 13, 1990,[4] Republic Act No. 6975, the Department of the Interior and Local Government Act of 1990 paved the way for a new era for Philippine law enforcement as the law ordered the total merger of both the Philippine Constabulary and the Integrated National Police and formally created the Philippine National Police.[5] R.A. 6975 was further amended by R.A. 8551, the Philippine National Police Reform and Reorganization Act of 1998,[6] and by R.A. 9708.[7] The R.A. 8551 envisioned the PNP to be a community- and service-oriented agency.

On June 14, 2019, the PNP announced that the Counter-Intelligence Task Force will be replaced with the Integrity Monitoring and Enforcement Group.[8]



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Divisional organization

Regional Police Offices manage and administer Police Stations within the various regions of the Philippines, each of which include several provinces and independent cities. Each unit exercises independent control over all police units within their areas of operation and attached units of the PNP National Headquarters are ordered to assist these Regional Offices. The National Capital Region Police Office is one such regional office.

Regional Offices

Regional Offices Area of Responsibility Provincial/City/District Offices Regional Director
National Capital Region Police Office (NCRPO) National Capital Region – Metro Manila 5 (All District Offices) PMGen. Vicente D. Danao Jr.
Police Regional Office 1 (PRO1) Region 1 – Ilocos Region 4 (All Provincial Offices) PBGen. Emmanuel B. Peralta
Police Regional Office 2 (PRO2) Region 2 – Cagayan Valley 6 (5 Provincials, 1 City) PBGen. Steve B. Ludan
Police Regional Office 3 (PRO3) Region 3 – Central Luzon 9 (7 Provincials, 2 Cities) PBGen. Matthew P. Baccay
Police Regional Office 4A (PRO4A) Region IV-A – CALABARZON 5 (All Provincial Offices) PBGen. Eliseo DC Cruz
Police Regional Office 4B (PRO4B) Region IV-B – MIMAROPA 6 (5 Provincials, 1 City) PBGen. Nelson B. Bondoc
Police Regional Office 5 (PRO5) Region V – Bicol Region 7 (6 Provincials, 1 City) PBGen. Jonnel C. Estomo
Police Regional Office 6 (PRO6) Region VI – Western Visayas 8 (6 Provincials, 2 Cities) PBGen. Flynn E. Dongbo
Police Regional Office 7 (PRO7) Region VII – Central Visayas/ Cebu 7 (4 Provincials, 3 Cities) PBGen. Roque Eduardo DLP Vega
Police Regional Office 8 (PRO8) Region VIII – Eastern Visayas/ Leyte 8 (6 Provincials, 2 Cities) PBGen. Rommel Bernardo A. Cabagnot
Police Regional Office 9 (PRO9) Region IX – Zamboanga Peninsula 4 (3 Provincials, 1 City) PBGen. Florencio T. Ortilla
Police Regional Office 10 (PRO10) Region X – Northern Mindanao 7 (5 Provincials, 2 Cities) PBGen. Rolando B. Anduyan
Police Regional Office 11 (PRO11) Region XI – Davao Region 6 (5 Provincials, 1 City) PBGen. Filmore B. Escobal
Police Regional Office 12 (PRO12) Region XII – SOCKSARGEN / Bangsamoro barangays in North Cotabato[9] 6 (4 Provincials, 2 Cities) PBGen. Alexander C. Tagum
Police Regional Office 13 (PRO13) Region XIII – CARAGA/ Butuan 6 (5 Provincials, 1 City) PBGen. Romeo M. Caramat
Police Regional Office Bangsamoro Autonomous Region (PRO BAR)[9] BARMM – Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao and Cotabato City / Excluding Bangsamoro barangays in North Cotabato 5 (All Provincial Offices) PBGen. Eden T. Ugale
Police Regional Office Cordillera (PRO COR) Cordillera Administrative Region 7 (6 Provincials, 1 City) PBGen. Ronald O. Lee

Except in Metro Manila, regional police offices are organized into:

  • City Police Office (CPO)
    • City Special Weapons and Tactics (CSWAT)
    • Component City Police Station (CCPS)
    • Police Community Precincts (PCP)
  • Municipal Police Stations (MPS)
  • City Police Stations (CPS)
  • Police Provincial Office (PPO)
    • District Police Office (DPO)
    • District Police Maneuver Unit (DPMU)
    • Provincial Mobile Force Company (PMFC)
  • Police Regional Office (PRO)
    • Regional Mobile Force Battalion (RMFB)
    • Regional Headquarters Support Unit (RHSU)
  • Police Substations (PS)

Internal Affairs Service

Template:Main The PNP created a national Internal Affairs Service (IAS) in June 1999. It is an organization within the structure of the PNP and one of its tasks is to help the Chief institute reforms to improve the image of the police force through assessment, analysis and evaluation of the character and behavior of the PNP personnel. It is headed by the Inspector General.

National Operations Center (NOC)

The National Operations Center (NOC) is at Camp Crame. Chief Superintendent Constante Azares Jr., chief of the PNP-NOC, explained that "the NOC is the hub and nerve of this facility."[10]

Operational units

Within the PNP operational units there are:[11]

  • Anti-Cybercrime Group (ACG)

This Group is responsible for the implementation of pertinent laws on cybercrimes and anti-cybercrime campaigns of the PNP.

  • Anti-Kidnapping Group (AKG)

This Group serves as the primary unit of the PNP in addressing kidnapping menace in the country and in handling hostage situations.

This group provides security to all airports throughout the country.

  • Civil Security Group (CSG)

This group regulates business operations and activities of all organized private detectives, watchmen, security/agencies and company guard forces. It also supervises the licensing and registration of firearms and explosives.

This group monitors, investigates, prosecutes all crimes involving economic sabotage, and other crimes of such magnitude and extent as to indicate their commission by highly placed or professional criminal syndicates and organizations. It also conducts organized- crime –control, all major cases involving violations of the revised penal Code, violators of SPECIAL LAWS assigned to them such as Anti-hijacking, Anti-carnapping and Cyber crimes among others and atrocities committed by Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP)/New People's Army (NPA)/National Democratic Front (NDF).

  • Drug Enforcement Group (DEG)

This group arrests criminals who are into trading illegal drugs.

  • Highway Patrol Group (HPG)

This group is intended to enforce the traffic laws and regulations, promote safety along the highways, enhances traffic safety consciousness through inter- agency cooperation concerning Police Traffic Safety Engineering, Traffic Safety Education and Traffic Law enforcement functions and develops reforms in the crime prevention aspect against all forms of lawlessness committed along National Highway involving the use of motor vehicles.This group is rarely seen outside of highly urbanized areas or in any provincial areas however.

  • Integrity Monitoring and Enforcement Group (IMEG)

This group is designed to conduct intelligence build-up and law enforcement operations against PNP personnel who are involved in any illegal activities such as drug trafficking, human trafficking, financial crimes, cybercrime, malversation, graft and corrupt practices, security violations, and others. It replaced the Counter-Intelligence Task Force (CITF).[12]

  • Intelligence Group (IG)

This group serves as the intelligence and counter-intelligence op of the Crime Operatives (SOCO) This group provides scientific and technical, investigative aide and support to the PNP and other investigative agencies. It also provides crime laboratory examination, evaluation and identification of physical evidence gathered at the crime scene with primary emphasis on medical, biological and physical nature.

Philippine National Police boat on the Iloilo River, Iloilo City

This group is responsible to perform all police functions over Philippine territorial waters, lakes, and rivers along coastal areas to include ports and harbors and small islands for the security and the sustainable development of the maritime environment.

  • Police Security and Protection Group (PSPG)

This group provides security to government vital installations, government officials, visiting dignitaries and private individuals authorized to be given protection.

This group is a mobile strike force or a reaction unit to augment regional, provincial, municipal and city police force for civil disturbance control, internal security operations, hostage-taking rescue operations, search and rescue in times of natural calamities, disasters and national emergencies and other special police operations such as anti-hijacking, anti-terrorism, explosives and ordnance disposal.

  • PNP Air Unit is a highly specialized police unit specializing in providing air support to the entire PNP organization. It is staffed by a pool of professional, licensed and experienced pilots and aircraft mechanics with the heart to serve the nation and its people. Once a part of Special Action Force.[13]

Philippine National Police Academy


The Philippine National Police Academy is located at Camp Gen. Mariano N. Castaneda, Silang, Cavite and is the premier training academy for the Philippine National Police, Bureau of Jail Management & Penology and Bureau of Fire Protection.

Rank structure

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Full set of ranks

Per the current (2019) rank system, the National Police has no rank holders of Second Lieutenant, Technical Sergeant, Sergeant and Patrolman First Class.

Insignia Rank[14]
PNP PDG.png Police General (PGEN)
PNP PDEPDIR.png Police Lieutenant General (PLTGEN)
PNP PDIR.png Police Major General (PMGEN)
PNP PCSUPT.png Police Brigadier General (PBGEN)
PNP PSSUPT.png Police Colonel (PCOL)
PNP PSUPT.png Police Lieutenant Colonel (PLTCOL)
PNP PCI.png Police Major (PMAJ)
PNP PSI.png Police Captain (PCAPT)
PNP PI.png Police Lieutenant (PLT)
PNP SPO4.png Police Executive Master Sergeant (PEMS)
PNP SPO3.png Police Chief Master Sergeant (PCMS)
PNP SPO2.png Police Senior Master Sergeant (PSMS)
PNP SPO1.png Police Master Sergeant (PMSg)
PNP PO3.png Police Staff Sergeant (PSSg)
PNP PO2.png Police Corporal (PCpl)
PNP PO1.png Patrolman / Patrolwoman (Pat)


Recruitment and training

Two members of the PNP rappel down a tower during a joint U.S.-AFP-PNP Subject Matter Expert Exchange (SMEE).

The PNP conducts regular recruitment programs, depending on the annual budget. The entry level for non-commissioned officers is the rank of Police Patrolman (for male recruits) or Police Patrolwoman (for female recruits). The new recruits will undergo Public Safety Basic Recruit Course for six months, and a Field Training Program for another six months. Prior to their actual duty, they are required to undergo the mandatory special training of PNP BISOC or PNP Basic Internal Security Operations Course for 45 days to 5 months to enhance them in militaristic/tactics for future assignment in the field whether in the Striking Force or in the Police Station.

Commissioned officers for the Philippine National Police are from the Philippine National Police Academy as well as through "lateral entry" for specialized disciplines and requirements such as criminologists in line-officers, lawyers, doctors, engineers, chaplain and other technical positions and also the rose-from-the-rank personnel who have reached the qualifications to be a commissioned officer.


A police officer has to two ways for retirement i.e. Optional and Mandatory Retirement. Optional Retirement is an option of an uniformed personnel to retire who rendered at least 20 years retire from the service, while the latter is when they reach the mandatory retirement age of 56. Any officer may opt to go on non-duty status at most three months before the date when they reach the mandatory retirement age so they could prepare the pertinent documents for their retirement (some called it Terminal Leave). While on this status they are still considered as part of the police force and retains their ranking.[15]


Uniforms of the Philippine National Police.

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Shladot Tiger Mark II All Terrain Combat Vehicle of the PNP-Special Action Force (SAF)

PNP officers are equipped with Beretta 92 and Glock pistols. Their assault rifles used were M16 and M4A1 rifles and were used by SWAT Teams and the Special Action Force (SAF).The Israeli-made IMI Galil were procured by the PNP and later received 7,700 units in addition to the almost 1,000 units used by the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency. Submachine guns used were the MP5 and UMP45. Shotguns used are the Remington 870 and the Mossberg 590. Recently, PNP have add the IWI Masada from Israel. PNP can often be confused with Armed Forces personnel when wearing their battle dress uniforms - this tendency towards a "military look" can be seen daily in checkpoints where it is not at all unusual to see PNP members in camouflage uniforms carrying M16 assault rifles. For what purpose is anyones guess but possibly excessive for checking of vehicle documents and in 2020, quarantine passes (due to COVID-19 pandemic).


Template:Main The PNP is one of the "core security actors"[16] that are the focus of security sector governance and reform in the Philippines, which involves civilianizing, professionalizing, modernizing, and capacitating the Philippine government’s security institutions[16][17][18] to align them good governance and to principles such as human rights, freedom of information, and the rule of civilian law.[19][20] This has been a continuing process since the establishment of the Fifth Philippine Republic after the 1986 People Power Revolution,[17] before the concept had even been fully defined internationally in the 1990s. [21] The creation of the PNP itself, merging and replacing the PC and the INP, was an early and major step towards civilianization of the Philippine security sector.[16]


There are unfortunately too many controversies surrounding the PNP given its relatively young age as a Police force (est 1991), given the corruption (acknowledged by the Government) it is wise to always have a witness or use voice recording when dealing with PNP. Some of the better publicised controversies are listed below. Note that although the PNP does announce when one of its current/former officers have charges raised against them, it is very rare ever to receive any further news on the matter and indeed if the officers actually faced charges in court.

Manila blackmail incident

Template:Further A blackmail case occurred in Binondo, Manila when police officers abducted and blackmailed seven Chinese citizens suspected of drug trafficking on December 30, 1998.[22] After many months of detainment and torture, two Hong Kong residents were killed when the ransom money was not paid.[23] One police superintendent who knew of the operation was also killed.[22]

Euro Generals scandal

Template:Further The Euro Generals scandal involves Eliseo de la Paz and several Philippine National Police officials who went to Russia in October 2008 to attend an Interpol conference. De la Paz was detained for carrying a large sum of undeclared money. A House panel investigating the scandal concluded that the six police officials who attended the conference had made the trip without authorization.[24] In 2010, the Office of the Ombudsman filed graft charges against twelve former and active ranking PNP officials for their alleged involvement in the incident.[25][26]

Parañaque shootout

Template:Further On December 5, 2008, ten suspected criminals, one policeman, and five civilians, a total of 16 people, including a seven-year-old girl, were killed in a bloody shootout in Parañaque. Several others were wounded, including a ranking officer of the Highway Patrol Group, two members of the Special Action Force, a village watchman, and a security guard, said Director Leopoldo Bataoil, head of the Metro Manila regional police. The criminals belonged to a Waray-Waray gang and were armed with high-caliber M16 rifles fitted with grenade launchers.[27]

The head of the Internal Affairs Service of the PNP said, "We failed in our mission to protect the civilians. Because during the conduct of operation many civilian lives were lost,"[28] On July 29, 2009, it was reported that the Department of Justice (DOJ) had filed multiple murder charges against 29 policemen, including three generals, in connection with the shootout following the filing of a complaint-affidavit by Lilian de Vera, who lost her husband and daughter, age seven, in the incident.[29] On January 11, 2010, the Commission on Human Rights recommended the filing of criminal and administrative charges against 26 policemen[30] In March, it was reported that after two witnesses had said De Vera and his daughter were not killed in the shootout, that policemen already had complete control of the area where the two were killed, the Department of Justice filed two counts of murder charges against 25 policemen for the killings.[31]

Binayug torture case

Inspector Joselito Binayug, chief of the Asuncion police community precinct in Tondo arrested Darius Evangelista on March 5, 2009 for alleged robbery. A torture video was leaked to the media and shown on television showing a police officer whipping and cursing the suspect and pulling on a rope that was tied to the victim's genitals. The incident allegedly happened inside the Asuncion police precinct in Tondo. Binayug was arrested for violating the Anti-Torture act of 2009. Separate charges were filed for Evangelista being tortured to death.[32][33]

Maguindanao massacre

Template:Main On November 24, 2009, Senior Superintendent Abusana Maguid, the police chief of Maguindanao province, was reported to have been relieved of his duties after witnesses reported seeing three of his officers at the scene of the Maguindanao massacre in which 57 people, including journalists, lawyers, aides, and motorists who were witnesses were killed.[34] On November 25 Maguid and Chief Inspector Sukarno Dikay were reported to have been relieved from post and placed under restrictive custody.[35] On November 26, Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) Secretary Ronaldo Puno announced that Maguid, Dikay, and others were suspected of involvement in the massacre.[36] On December 19, Maguid, Dikay, and others were reported to have been recommended for summary dismissal by the PNP high command.[37] On April 16, 2010, the National Police Commission ordered a 90-day suspension against Maguid, Dikay, and 60 other police personnel for their possible involvement in the killings.[38] On July 10, it was reported that Dikay had applied to become state witness, saying that he is confident that his testimony will pin down the masterminds of the killing.[39]

Failed hostage rescue operation

Template:Further The Philippine National Police conceded that in the 2010 Manila hostage crisis they made blunders in ending a bus hijacking, as outrage grew over the bloody assault played out on live television that left eight Hong Kong tourists dead. The Hong Kong Economic Journal was reported to have accused the PNP of having "appalling professional standards" and "...[a] lack of strategic planning".[40]

"Wheel of Torture" secret detention facility

The Philippine Commission on Human Rights filed charges against ten police officers after it was discovered that they routinely tortured detainees inside a secret detention facility in Biñan, Laguna. It was alleged that some "were tortured for the police officers’ amusement" when they're intoxicated. The facility is notorious for utilizing a roulette called the "Wheel of Torture", a play on the Wheel of Fortune, where various torture methods were printed. The wheel is rotated and wherever the pin stops, the indicated torture method is perpetrated on the detainee.[41][42]

The torture methods included, a 20-second Manny Pacman punch, named after the famous boxer Manny Pacquiao, where the detainee is beaten for 20 seconds; "Paniki" which means being hung like a bat; "Tusok ulo ka" which means being pierced through the head; "Zombies" which means being electrocuted; and other degrading tasks like "duck walk" and "Ferris wheel".[42][43]

Kidnapping and killing of Jee Ick-Joo

Template:Main Sometime in January 2017, a Korean was killed inside Camp Crame.[44][45] The Philippine National Police Anti-Kidnapping Group (PNP-AKG) charged former NBI officials Roel Boliv, Ricardo Diaz, and Jose Yap in relation to the case.[46]


Template:Main On 2019, German news outlets reported that the Philippine National Police are receiving training from Uniter, a non-government organization suspected to be a neo-Nazi paramilitary due to its alleged affiliation with a far-right network called "Hannibal".[47][48] Kontraste, a news magazine of Germany's public broadcasting network ARD reported that Uniter members held a training seminar at the Seda Hotel with high-ranking officers of the PNP, and other government officials, including E.R. Ejercito who posted photos of the seminar on his Facebook page two days after he was convicted for graft.[49][50] Uniter denied claims of training Filipino police forces in an attempt to establish right-wing extremist networks overseas, but insisted that they were there for "humanitarian" support for the Philippine's national police, which they claimed it as "unfortunate" timing given the ongoing war on drugs. Despite being reported across Germany amidst a neo-Nazi scandal that hit the Bundeswehr (which revolves around an alleged terror plot called "Day X"), not even a single news article of it was made in Philippine local and national news.[51][52] The PNP has never made any statements of its involvement with Uniter (nor any of its affiliation) ever since.

2013 Pampanga Drug recycling scandal

In 2013, An anti-illegal drug unit led by Police Chief Inspector (Now Police Major) Rodney Baloyo launched an operation against a certain Chinese national inside a subdivision in Mexico, Pampanga. However, an alleged recycling of Methamphetamine Hydrocloride worth 648 million Philippine Pesos confiscated dubbed as "Agaw-Bato" by the media and setting drug lord Johnson Lee free were discovered by then Criminal Investigation and Detection Group (CIDG) Chief (now Baguio City Mayor) Benjamin Magalong resulting to a dismissal of the 13 Policemen dubbed as "Ninja Cops" (including Baloyo) involved in the said operation. In 2019, Magalong revealed that PNP Chief Oscar Albayalde who was then the Pampanga Provincial Director when the incident happened, asked not to implement the dismissal of the cops involved in the recycling of drugs and often profited along with the cops involved.[53] The revelations caused Magalong receiving death threats and the resignation of Albayalde on October 14, 2019.[54][55]

Mañanita during the COVID-19 pandemic

The holding of a mañanita for NCRPO's chief (later PNP Chief) Debold Sinas amidst the COVID-19 pandemic in Metro Manila was criticized for breaching quarantine regulations. A mañanita is a customary celebration in the PNP where senior officers are greeted by their personnel early in the morning of their birthdays. The national police has filed charges against Sinas over the event for violation of existing regulations on social distancing and mass gatherings. However, Sinas was still able to keep his post due to the "emergency situation" posed by the pandemic, as self-proclaimed by him.[56][57]

2020 Tarlac shooting


Indignation rally in response to Tarlac shooting incident, December 21, 2020, Boy Scout Circle, Quezon City.

Police Senior Master Sergeant Jonel Nuezca shot to death his two unarmed neighbors, Sonya Gregorio and her son Frank, in Paniqui, Tarlac, on December 20, 2020, at 5:10 pm (PST).[58] The incident was reported to the police 20 minutes later and, at 6:19 pm, Nuezca surrendered at the police station in Pangasinan.[58]

The incident started when Nuezca went to investigate the Gregorios who were shooting a boga–an improvised bamboo cannon used as a noisemaker every December. Nuezca tried to arrest Frank, who appeared to be drunk. This led to a heated argument with Sonya, which culminated in Nuezca killing the two by shooting them at close range.[58][59] According to Police Colonel Renante Cabico, director of the Tarlac Provincial Police Office, Nuezca was "off duty" at the time of the incident.[58] The police called the incident an "isolated case."[59]

The incident was captured on video and spread online. Several netizens and celebrities condemned the killings on social media with the hashtags #StopTheKillingsPH, #EndPoliceBrutality, #PulisAngTerorista, and #JusticeForSonyaGregorio dominating on Twitter in the Philippines, as well as in Singapore and Dubai.[60][61] Some critics also pointed at the government over the acts of impunity and human rights abuses in recent years.[62]

An indignation rally was done by numerous groups on December 21, 2020, at the Boy Scout Circle, Quezon City.[63]

The disgraced former PNP officer Jonel Nuezca was found guilty of murder in August 2021 and sentenced to "reclusion perpetua", which is 40 years imprisonment with parole possible after 30 years. He was also ordered to pay Php 476,000 (USD 9,377) to the heirs of each of the people he brutally murdered.[64]

Shootout with PDEA Agents (2021)


On February 24, 2021, personnel of the Philippine National Police (PNP) and the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA) was involved in a friendly fire incident. Personnel from both sides engaged in a gunfight with both sides saying they were conducting an anti-drug operation. The shootout resulted 2 deaths and 1 injured in the side of the PNP and 2 deaths and 3 injured in the PDEA Side.[65]

Quezon City 52-year-old woman shooting (2021)

On May 31, 2021, a police officer Police Master Sergeant Hensie Zinampan, who appeared to be drunk, was filmed with a cell phone when he shot a 52-year-old woman named Lilybeth Valdez dead in close range outside the store in Fairview, Quezon City at around 9:30pm, following the heated argument between the two.[66] The incident was caught on video.[67] PNP Chief Guillermo Eleazar confronts Zinampan for his crime.[68] The police filed an "administrative and criminal charges" against the police officer.[69] The incident sparked outrage on social media, trending the hashtag #PulisAngTerorista on June 1, 2021, with the netizen rejected the claims that the incident was "isolated case."[70] The incident was likened to the case of Tarlac shooting in December 2020.[70] As is typical with PNP cases like this, there has been no further news on the status of the disgraced officer.

See also



  1. "Top Philippine cop resigns after accusation of link to drug scandal", Reuters, October 14, 2019. (in en) 
  2. Except during the 30 days immediately preceding and following any national, local and barangay elections. During these periods, the local police forces are under the supervision and control of the Commission on Elections
  3. About the Philippine National police Archived March 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  4. Republic Act 8551: Philippine National Police Reform and Reorganization Act of 1998 | Philippine Commission on Women.
  5. Republic Act No. 6975 (13 December 1990). Template:PD-notice
  6. Republic Act 8551 (25 February 1998). Template:PD-notice
  7. Republic Act No. 9708 (12 August 2009).
  8. PNP to replace CITF with IMEG to monitor corrupt cops – UNTV News (en-us) (June 14, 2019).
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Cotabato City cops can join BARMM or transfer to PRO-12", The Philippine Star, March 25, 2019. “The PRO-BARMM, originally PRO-ARMM, covers Maguindanao and Lanao del Sur, both in mainland Mindanao, and the island provinces of Basilan, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi.” 
  10., PNP unveils state-of-the-art operations centerTemplate:Dead link
  11. About the Philippine National Police.
  13. Archived copy.
  14. "Modified PNP rank classification takes effect", Manila Bulletin, 26 March 2019. 
  15. "Albayalde goes on 'non-duty' leave", The Philippine Star, October 14, 2019. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Cruz, Rodel A.. "Security Sector Reform: Way Forward for Democracy and Development", The Study of National Security at Fifty: Re-awakenings. National Defense College of the Philippines. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 The Security Reform Agenda for the AFP and PNP in 2018 - Blueboard by Jennifer Santiago Oreta | Ateneo de Manila University.
  18. Security sector governance and reform in Southeast Asia - BusinessWorld Online.
  19. (2015) Security Sector Governance: Applying the principles of good governance to the security sector, SSR Backgrounder Series. Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF). 
  20. (2005) Security System Reform and Governance, DAC Guidelines and Reference Series. Paris: OECD DAC. ISBN 978-92-64-00786-4. 
  21. "SSR: Securing its success, justifying its relevance", Clingendael, 2014-08-19. (in en) 
  22. 22.0 22.1 " Archived 2010-08-30 at the Wayback Machine." Acting MPD chief facing raps over abduction of HK residents. Retrieved on August 28, 2010.
  23. " Archived 2011-10-06 at the Wayback Machine." 新任警察總長一天下台 涉綁架謀殺3港人. Retrieved on August 28, 2010.
  24. Jess Diaz, Moscow trip illegal – PNP, The Philippine Star, November 21, 2008.
  25. Kristine L. Alave, Alcuin Papa, Ombudsman says ‘euro generals’ lied Archived August 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Philippine Daily Inquirer, August 13, 2010.
  26. Michael Punongbayan, 'Euro generals' charged with graft Archived September 7, 2012, at, The Philippine Star, August 13, 2010.
  27. "Girl, 7, among 16 killed in shootout", Philippine Daily Inquirer, December 7, 2008. 
  28. Parañaque shootout a failed operation – police internal affairs head Archived July 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, GMA News, December 10, 2008.
  29. Multiple murder raps filed vs cops in Paranaque shootout Archived April 2, 2018, at the Wayback Machine,, July 29, 2009.
  30. CHR wants cops in Parañaque shootout charged Archived March 16, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, ABS-CBN News, January 12, 2010.
  31. DOJ files murder raps vs 25 cops in Parañaque shootout Archived October 30, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, ABS-CBN News, March 11, 2020.
  32., Tondo precinct cops face torture raps
  33., Torture victim identified
  34. Philippine Local Police Chief Detained After Massacre Archived September 24, 2015, at the Wayback Machine,, November 24, 2009.
  35. Paolo Romero, State of emergency in Maguindanao, The Philippine Star, November 25, 2009.
  36. Maguindanao massacre suspect turns self in Archived November 27, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, ABS-CBN News, November 26, 2009.
  37. 7 policemen face dismissal over 'neglect' in Maguindanao massacre Archived March 28, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, GMA News, December 19, 2009.
  38. 5 Ampatuans moved to Manila jail Archived June 28, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Sun-Star, April 17, 2010.
  39. Aie Balagtas, Andal Jr., 16 others plead not guilty, The Philippine Star, July 29, 2010.
  40. Channel NewsAsia – Philippine police admit blunders in deadly hostage ordeal.
  41. "Police Torture Chamber Found in Laguna" Archived January 29, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
  42. 42.0 42.1 "Philippine police accused of using "wheel of torture"" Archived June 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. NYPost. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
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  45. "Judge handling kidnap-slay case of Korean Jee Ick Joo inhibits himself", Manila Bulletin News. (in en-US) 
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  47. Uniter bildete "versehentlich" Polizei auf Philippinen aus (de).
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  49. Organisation Uniter auf den Philippinen (de).
  50. Marcelo, Elizabeth. ER Ejercito gets 8 years for graft.
  51. Welle (, Deutsche. Neo-Nazi scandal hits German elite military unit | DW | 01.12.2019 (en-GB).
  52. ZELLER, Frank. A German far-right plot has thrust the army's Nazi-era Wehrmacht history into the open again.
  53. "Ex-CIDG chief's Senate testimony crucial in reinvestigation of ninja cops: Perete", ABS-CBN News, 2019-10-08. (in en) 
  54. "'Malapit ka na': Magalong says worried about death threats after 'ninja cop' claims", ABS-CBN News, 2019-10-05. (in en) 
  55. "Albayalde resigns as PNP Chief amid 'ninja cops' controversy", CNN Philippines, 14 October 2019. (in en) 
  56. "Sinas stays as NCRPO amid public uproar, filing of charges over mañanita", Manila Bulletin, 18 May 2020. 
  57. "'Just like any other birthdays,' says Cebu-based media group head on Sinas", Philippine Daily Inquirer, 14 May 2020. 
  58. 58.0 58.1 58.2 58.3 "Cop shoots unarmed mother, son over 'boga' in Tarlac", Rappler. “The shooting happened at 5:10 pm then was reported to the Paniqui police station at 5:30 pm. Nearly an hour later, at 6:19 pm, Nuezca surrendered to the Rosales police station in Pangasinan province. Paniqui police picked up Nuezca and now have him in their custody.” 
  59. 59.0 59.1 "Pulis na viral sa pamamaril ng 2 dahil sa 'boga' sumuko; kasong double murder inihahanda", The Philippine Star. 
  60. "Rage and fury over cop's killing of mother and son: 'No license to kill'", Rappler. 
  61. "Maine Mendoza, Agot Isidro other celebrities concerned over cop's slaying of mother, son", Manila Bulletin. 
  62. Gutierrez, Jason. "A Brazen Police Shooting Caught on Video Sparks Anger in the Philippines", The New York Times. “MANILA — A video of a police officer shooting a woman and her adult son at close range on Sunday has spread rapidly across social media in the Philippines, provoking a wave of outrage directed at the government and a police force that many say acts with impunity.” 
  63. Template:Cite tweet
  64. Tarlac court convicts cop Nuezca for murder of mother and son.
  65. Commonwealth shooting a 'misencounter' between PNP and PDEA; 2 die – police (en) (2021-02-24).
  66. "'Drunk' cop arrested after shooting woman dead in QC", Philippine Daily Inquirer. 
  67. "Cop kills 52-year-old woman in Quezon City, faces murder complaint", Rappler. 
  68. "Eleazar confronts police who shot 52-year-old woman in Quezon City", Rappler. 
  69. "Cop to face murder charges for fatally shooting woman in QC", CNN Philippines. 
  70. 70.0 70.1 "#PulisAngTerorista trends after cop kills 52-year-old woman", Rappler. 

External links

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