Pedro Manuel de Arandia Santisteban

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Pedro Manuel de Arandia Santisteban (died 1759) was the Governor-General of the Philippines from July 1754 to May 1759.[1] His death, and concurrently the vacancy of the position that he occupied, resulted in the conflict between Bishop Miguel Lino de Ezpeleta and Archbishop Manuel Antonio Rojo del Rio over who would assume the position of acting governor-general. It also coincided with the British invasion of Manila.


Santisteban was born in Ceuta.[2] He was a member of the Order of Calatrava and a gentleman of the bedchamber of King Charles III.[3]

He became the governor-general in July 1754, succeeding Francisco José de Ovando.[4] He reformed the army and built the Alcaicería (market) of San Fernando in Manila.[5] He authorized the free use of communal lands by the neighbors of the corresponding municipality and abolished the collection of tributes by a third party for a fixed percentage.[6] At the same time, he issued several provisions against the Chinese, and expelled the non-Christian Chinese.[7]

Despite his achievements, he was criticized for his unwillingness to make demands on the military and for favoring the local elite.[8]

He died while in office in 1759.[9] His death, which coincided with the vacancy of the position of Archbishop of Manila, resulted in a power struggle between Bishop Ezpeleta, who assumed the position of acting governor-general after his death, and Archbishop Rojo, who was supposed to take over Bishop Ezpeleta's position after he was appointed as archbishop.[10] Archbishop Rojo eventually took over as acting Governor-General upon the orders of King Charles III in July 1761.[11] The vacancy of the position that he occupied also coincided with the British invasion of Manila, which Archbishop Rojo as acting governor-general never expected.[12]


  1. Carlos Quirino, Old Manila, ed. María Eloísa G. Parco-de Castro, 2nd ed. (Quezon City: Vibal Foundation, 2016), 293.
  2. Quirino, Old Manila, 293.
  3. Quirino, Old Manila, 293.
  4. Quirino, Old Manila, 293.
  5. Quirino, Old Manila, 293.
  6. Quirino, Old Manila, 293.
  7. Quirino, Old Manila, 293.
  8. Quirino, Old Manila, 293.
  9. Quirino, Old Manila, 293.
  10. Quirino, Old Manila, 293.
  11. Quirino, Old Manila, 293.
  12. Presidential Museum and Library, "The British Conquest of Manila," accessed 12 January 2021,



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