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The Palawanon (also known as Palawani or Pinalawan) are still in the stage of being Islamized, i.e., many are recent converts to Islam, while about half of their estimated number are animists. They are mostly found inhabiting the southern interior of Palawan, particularly the areas south of Apu Rauan on the west coast and south of Abu-abu on the east coast. Some are also distributed among the other Bangsa Moro groups in the Balabak-Bugsuk Island group.

The Palawanon closely resemble the Tagbanua (literally "people of the village") and in the past they were doubtless the same people. Some Tausug residents in Palawan call the Palawanon Traan. "people in scattered places". Like the Yakan of Basilan, the Palawanon live in houses out of sight of each other, scattered among their plots of farm lands. Their main occupation is substinence farming, cultivating mainly upland rice.