National Scientist of the Philippines
The rank and title of Order of National Scientist of the Philippines, abbreviated as ONS (Filipino: Pambansang Alagad ng Agham ng Pilipinas) or the Order of National Scientists is the highest award accorded to Filipino scientists by the Philippine government.
The award was created on December 16, 1976 by President Ferdinand Marcos through Presidential Decree Nos. 1003 and 1003-A, which also created the National Academy of Science and Technology. For the purposes of the law, a scientist is defined as “an individual who has earned a doctoral degree in any field of the sciences” and “has demonstrated and earned distinction in independent research or significant innovative achievement in the basic and applied sciences, including agricultural, engineering, and medical sciences, in mathematics and in the social sciences as manifested by published works in recognized scientific and technical journals.”  It was elevated to the Order of National Scientists in 2003.
Nomination and selection
It is the task of the National Academy of Science and Technology which is composed of Filipino scientists to recommend not more than 10 scientists annually to the President of the Philippines for conferment of the rank of National Scientist. It is the President of the Philippines who makes the ultimate selection, which is based on "distinguished individual or collaborative achievement in science and technology."
Awardees are conferred the rank and title of “National Scientist”, with an accompanying medallion and citation. They are also given a financial gratuity with the amount determined by the National Academy. In addition, they are entitled to the same privileges enjoyed by National Artists of the Philippines, which include a monthly life pension, medical and hospitalization benefits, and a place of honor, in line with protocular precedence, at national state functions. They are likewise by law entitled upon death to a state funeral conducted by the National Academy and the Armed Forces of the Philippines, befitting their recognized status as heroes of the Philippines.
List of National Scientists
Since 1978, there have been 42 men and women have been designated as National Scientist in the roster where 14 of them are currently living. The most recent conferment was made to honor Emil Q. Javier. Honorees such as the Ramon Magsaysay Award-winning pediatrician Fé del Mundo, have garnered international recognition as well.
As of August 2019, the National Scientists of the Philippines are:
|1978||Juan Salcedo, Jr.||Nutrition and Public Health|
|Alfredo Santos||Physical Chemistry|
|Gregorio Y. Zara||Engineering and Inventions|
|1980||Fe Del Mundo||Pediatrics|
|Eduardo Quisumbing||Plant Taxonomy, Systematics, and Morphology|
|1982||Geminiano T. de Ocampo||Ophthalmology|
|Casimiro del Rosario||Physics, Astronomy, and Meteorology|
|1983||Francisco Fronda||Animal Husbandry|
|Francisco Santos||Human Nutrition and Agricultural Chemistry|
|1985||Teodoro Agoncillo [lower-alpha 1]||Philippine History|
|Encarnacion Alzona||Philippine History|
|Hilario Lara||Public Health|
|Dioscoro L. Umali||Agriculture and Rural Development|
|1987||Jose Encarnacion, Jr.||Economics|
|1988||Alfredo Lagmay||Experimental Psychology|
|1989||Paulo Campos||Nuclear Medicine|
|1994||Pedro Escuro||Genetics and Plant Breeding|
|Clara Lim-Sylianco||Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry|
|1998||Dolores Ramirez||Biochemical Genetics & Cytogenetics|
|Jose R. Velasco||Plant Physiology|
|1999||Gelia T. Castillo||Rural Sociology|
|2001||Clare Baltazar||Systematic Entomology|
|Benito Vergara||Plant Physiology|
|2004||Onofre Corpuz||Political Economics and Government|
|2005||Ricardo Lantican||Plant Breeding|
|2008||Teodulo Topacio, Jr.||Veterinary Medicine|
|Ernesto Domingo||Internal Medicine/ Gastroenterology|
|Perla Dizon Santos Ocampo||Pediatrics|
|2011||Raul V. Fabella||Economics|
|Bienvenido Nebres, S.J.||Mathematics|
|2014||Angel Alcala||Biological science|
|Edgardo Gomez||Marine Biology|
|Gavino Trono, Jr.||Marine Biology|
|2019||Emil Q. Javier||Agriculture|
- Posthumous award
- Section 2, Pres. Decree No. 1003-A
- Executive Order No. 236, s. 2003 Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- Section 8, Pres. Decree No. 1003-A
- Section 3, Executive Order No. 131 (26 October 1993)
- First Whereas Clause, Executive Order No. 131 (26 October 1993)
- Former UP president Emil Javier named national scientist.
- PNoy confers National Scientist Award to Dr. Santos-Ocampo. Abs-cbnnews.com (2010-06-23). Retrieved on 2012-06-30.
- Aquino names economist ‘national scientist’ | Inquirer News. Newsinfo.inquirer.net (2011-07-27). Retrieved on 2012-06-30.
- Helen Flores (2011-06-30). Nebres, Fabella named 'national scientists'. Philstar.com. Retrieved on 2012-06-30.
- Duterte confers National Scientist title to ex-UP president. news.abs-cbn.com. Retrieved on 2019-08-08.
- (2000) National Scientists of the Philippines (1978–1998). Pasig City, Philippines: Anvil Publishing, Inc.. ISBN 978-9712709326.