Nacionalista Party

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The Nacionalista Party (Filipino: Partido Nacionalista) is the oldest political party in both the Philippines and in Southeast Asia in general. It is responsible for leading the country throughout the majority of the 20th century since its founding in 1907; it was the ruling party from 1935 to 1946 (under Presidents Manuel Quezon and Sergio Osmeña), 1953–1961 (under Presidents Ramon Magsaysay and Carlos P. Garcia) and 1965–1972 (under President Ferdinand Marcos).

Ideology

The Nacionalista Party was initially created as a Filipino nationalist party that supported Philippine independence until 1946 when the United States granted independence to the country.[1][2][3] Since then, many scholarly articles that dealt with the history of political parties during the Third Republic agreed that the party has been increasingly populist,[4][5][3][6][7] although some argued they had conservative[1][8] tendencies because of their opposition to the Liberal Party and the Progressive Party. The populist ideology of the party remained to present day as described on their website.

History

The original Nacionalista Party was founded on August 21, 1901 in Calle Gunao, Quiapo, Manila. In that Quiapo Assembly, officers were elected, namely Santiago Álvarez and Pascual Poblete as co-presidents; Andres Villanueva, vice president; Macario Sakay, secretary general; Francisco Carreón, Alejandro Santiago, Domingo Moriones, Águedo del Rosario, Cenón Nicdao, Nicolás Rivera, Salustiano Santiago, Aurelio Tolentino, Pantaleón Torres, Valentín Diza, Briccio Pantas, Lope K. Santos, Pío H. Santos, Salustiano Cruz, Valentín Solís and José Palma.

The party was organized as a vehicle for Philippine independence, advocating self-rule; and espousing this advocacy through representation in the Philippine Assembly of 1907–1916, and in the succeeding Philippine Legislature of 1916–1935. The ranks of Nationalista politicians rose to prominence through the Commonwealth of the Philippines spanning 1935–1941, ending when political parties were replaced by a singular and monolithic KALIBAPI Party during the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines.

By the second half of the century, the Nationalista Party evolved into being main political contenders for leadership in the Philippines, in competition with its rivals, the Liberal Party and the Philippine Progressive Party. This leadership endured until the turbulent suppression of partisan politics during the Ferdinand Marcos regime. In 1978, akin to the Japanese occupation, disparate political parties were coerced to merge into a regime-controlled coalition, the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan. Preferring not to be involved, the Nacionalistas went to hibernation. Years later, in the late 1980s, the party was revived under the leadership of Salvador Laurel until the latter's passing.

The Nacionalista Party is presently led by former Senator Manuel Villar, and had fielded three vice-presidential candidates either running independently or in tandem with other political parties, namely Alan Peter Cayetano, Bongbong Marcos and Antonio Trillanes, albeit unsuccessfully.[1]


Electoral performance

President

Election Candidate Number of votes Share of votes Outcome of election
1935 Manuel L. Quezon 695,332 67.99% Won
1941 Manuel L. Quezon 1,340,320 81.78% Won
1946 Sergio Osmeña 1,129,996 45.71% Lost
1949 José P. Laurel 1,318,330 37.22% Lost
1953 Ramon Magsaysay 2,912,992 68.90% Won
1957 Carlos P. Garcia 2,072,257 41.28% Won
1961 Carlos P. Garcia 2,902,996 44.95% Lost
1965 Ferdinand Marcos 3,861,324 51.94% Won
1969 Ferdinand Marcos 5,017,343 61.47% Won
1981 Alejo Santos (Roy wing) 1,716,449 8.25% Lost as main wing boycotted
1986 N/A N/A N/A Supported Corazon Aquino who won
1992 Salvador Laurel 770,046 3.40% Lost
1998 N/A N/A N/A Did not take part
2004 N/A N/A N/A Supported Gloria Macapagal Arroyo who won
2010 Manuel Villar 5,573,835 15.42% Lost
2016 N/A N/A N/A Supported Rodrigo Duterte who won

Vice president

Election Candidate Number of votes Share of votes Outcome of election
1935 Sergio Osmeña 812,352 86.91% Won
1941 Sergio Osmeña 1,445,897 92.10% Won
1946 Eulogio Rodriguez 1,051,243 47.38% Lost
1949 Manuel Briones 1,184,215 46.08% Lost
1953 Carlos P. Garcia 2,515,265 62.90% Won
1957 José Laurel Jr. 1,783,012 37.91% Lost
1961 Gil Puyat 1,787,987 28.06% Lost
1965 Fernando Lopez 3,531,550 48.48% Won
1969 Fernando Lopez 5,001,737 62.76% Won
1986 N/A N/A N/A Supported Salvador Laurel who won
1992 Eva Estrada Kalaw 255,730 1.25% Lost
1998 N/A N/A N/A Did not take part
2004 N/A N/A N/A Supported Noli de Castro who won
2010 N/A N/A N/A Supported Loren Legarda who lost
2016 N/A N/A N/A Supported either Alan Peter Cayetano, Bongbong Marcos or Antonio Trillanes who all lost

Senate

Election Number of votes Share of votes Seats won Seats after Outcome of election
1916 See seats after 22 / 24
1919 See seats after 21 / 24 Won
1922 See seats after 15 / 24 Split into Osmeña bloc (12) that won and Quezon bloc (3) that lost
1925 See seats after 14 / 24 Won
1928 See seats after 24 / 24 Won
1931 See seats after 22 / 24 Won
1934 See seats after 7 / 24 Lost
1941 See seats after 24 / 24 Won
1946 7,454,074 41.2% 7 / 16 15 / 24 Lost
1947 10,114,453 45.0% 1 / 8 8 / 24 Lost
1949 8,900,568 36.6% 0 / 8 4 / 24 Lost
1951 13,266,643 59.1% 9 / 9 12 / 24 Won
1953 9,813,166 39.8% 5 / 8 13/24 Won
1955 17,319,389 67.6% 9/9 21/24 Won
1957 13,273,945 47.2% 6/8 20/24 Won
1959 17,160,618 50.1% 5/8 19/24 Won
1961 17,834,477 45.1% 2/8 13/24 Won
1963 22,983,457 50.2% 4/8 11/24 Lost
1965 21,619,502 43.8% 5/8 11/24 Won
1967 30,704,100 62.8% 6/8 16/24 Won
1969 32,726,305 60.8% 6/8 18/24 Won
1971 24,819,175 42.6% 3/8 16/24 Won
1987 N/A N/A N/A N/A Took part as member of GAD
1992 14,499,923 5.3% 0/24 0/24 Lost
1995 N/A N/A N/A N/A Did not take part
1998 N/A N/A N/A N/A Did not take part
2001 770,647 0.3% 0/13 0/24 Lost
2004 N/A N/A N/A N/A Did not take part
2007 27,125,724 10.1% 2/12 3/24 Nacionalista-led coalition
2010 49,585,503 16.7% 3/12 4/24 Split as two supported the PMP-led coalition, but both lost
2013 45,100,266 15.3% 3/12 5/24 Liberal-led coalition
2016 2,775,191 14.4% 0/12 3/24 Split, PDP–Laban-led coalition and lost
2019 60,955,374 16.01% 3/12 4/24 Split, NPC-led coalition

House of Representatives

Election Number of votes Share of votes Seats Outcome of election
1907 32/80 Won
1909 62/81 Won
1912 62/81 Won
1916 75/90 Won
1919 83/90 Won
1922 64/93 Split into Quezon bloc (35) that won and Osmeña bloc (29) that lost
1925 64/92 Won
1928 71/94 Won
1931 66/94 Won
1934 89/92 Split into Quezon bloc (70) that won and Osmeña bloc (19) that lost
1935 83/89 Won
1938 98/98 Won
1941 95/98 Won
1946 908,740 37.84% 35/98 Lost
1949 1,178,402 34.05% 33/100 Lost
1953 1,930,367 47.30% 31/102 Lost
1957 2,948,409 61.18% 82/102 Won
1961 3,923,390 61.02% 74/104 Won
1965 3,028,224 41.76% 38/104 Lost
1969 4,590,374 80.00% 88/110 Won
1978 688,130 0.33% 0/165 Lost
1984 2/183 Lost
1987* 1,444,399 7.19% 4/200 Lakas ng Bansa-led coalition
1992** 730,696 3.92% 4/199 Lakas–NUCD–UMDP-led coalition
1995* 153,088 0.79% 1/204 Lakas–NUCD–UMDP-led coalition
1998* 4,412 0.02% 0/205 Did not take part
2001 N/A N/A N/A Did not take part
2004 2/237 Lakas–CMD-led coalition
2007 11/271 Lakas–CMD-led coalition
2010 3,872,637 11.35% 25/287 Liberal-led coalition
2013 2,340,994 8.49% 17/292 Liberal-led coalition
2016 3,512,975 9.42% 24/297 PDP–Laban-led coalition
2019 6,554,911 13.73% 42/304 Nacionalista-led coalition

*It does not include candidates who ran as under a Liberal Party ticket along with another party.
**In coalition with PDP–Laban

Notable Nacionalistas

Past

Throughout their careers, many of the country's politicians, statesmen and leaders were in whole or in part Nacionalistas. Notable names include the following:

Senators

Most of these individuals embody solid political traditions of economic and political nationalism are pertinent today, even with the party's subsequent decline.

Current party officials

Some members of the House of Representatives and Senate include—but are not limited to—the following:

Nacionalista-affiliated parties

Candidates for Philippine general election, 2010

Senatorial Slate (11)

Candidates for Philippine general election, 2013

Senatorial Slate (3) (Team PNoy)

Candidates for Philippine general election, 2016

Vice President:

Senatorial Slate

Candidates for Philippine general election, 2019

Senatorial Slate (3) (Hugpong ng Pagbabago)

Current members, 18th Congress

Senate

House of Representatives

District Representatives

Partylist allies

  • Ronnie Ong (Ang Probinsyano)
  • Naealla Rose Bainto-Aguinaldo (Bahay)
  • Michael Edgar Aglipay (DIWA)
  • Sharon Garin (AAMBIS-OWA)
  • Rico Geron (AGAP)
  • Irene Gay Saulog (Kalinga)
  • Allan Ty (LPGMA)
  • Francisco Datol, Jr. (Senior Citizen)

Nacionalista Party presidents

Term Name
1907–1935 House Speaker Sergio Osmeña
1935–1944 President Manuel L. Quezon
1944–1953 President Sergio Osmeña
1953–1964 Senator Eulogio Rodriguez
1964–1980 Senator Gil Puyat
1980–1989 Former House Speaker José Laurel, Jr.
1989–2003 Last Prime minister and Former Vice President Salvador Laurel
2003–present Former Senate President Manuel Villar

Controversy over dominant-minority status

In the 2010 general election, the Nacionalista and the Nationalist People's Coalition (NPC) formed an alliance after it was approved by the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) on April 12, 2010.[14] The Nacionalistas fielded Senator Manuel Villar and running with fellow Senator Loren Legarda who is a member of the NPC. It became the dominant minority party after a resolution passed by the COMELEC. On April 21, 2010, it was blocked by the Supreme Court after a suit filed by the rival Liberal Party.[14] On May 6, 2010, the Supreme Court nullified the merger and therefore giving the Liberal Party to be the dominant minority party. It was based on a resolution by the COMELEC giving political parties to be accredited by August 17, 2009.[15]

The coalition was made to help the Nacionalista Party to help boost the presidential campaign of Senator Villar and have a chance to be the dominant minority party by the COMELEC which give the rights to poll watchers during the canvassing of votes.[16] However, it is being challenged by the Liberal Party calls the said alliance a bogus alliance and they are seeking the same party status by the COMELEC.[14] Several local races are also being challenged from both parties, therefore causing confusion in those races.[16]

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Dayley, Robert (2016). Southeast Asia In The New International Era. Avalon Publishing. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Liow
  3. 3.0 3.1 Celoza, A. Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism. Connecticut, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named bertrand
  5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named berneo
  6. Simbulan, D. (2005). The Modern Principalia: The Historical Evolution of the Philippine Ruling Oligarchy. Quezon City: UP Press.
  7. Del Rosario, Simon G. (1973). An Integrated Course on Communism and Democracy. SGR Research & Pub.
  8. Philippine Journal of Public Administration, Volumes 34–35 (1990). UP College of Public Administration. Retrieved October 19, 2017.
  9. Laurel was member of the NP before 1942 and from 1945–1959. During his tenure as President, he was affiliated with KALIBAPI.
  10. During the 1946 presidential election, Roxas, who is a member of the liberal-wing of the NP, formed the Liberal Party and eventually moved there.
  11. Moved to the Liberal Party during the 1946 presidential election.
  12. In 1978, Marcos left the NP and formed his own political party known as the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL).
  13. Estrada was a member of the NP during his term as Senator. In 1991, he formed his own party known as the Pwersa ng Masang Pilipino (PMP).
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Alvarez, Kathrina. "NP-NPC coalition formally granted (5:15 p.m.)", Sun.Star Cebu, April 12, 2010. 
  15. Torres, Tetch. "SC nullifies NP-NPC coalition", Philippine Daily Inquirer, May 6, 2010. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Maragay, Fel V.. "NP-NPC coalition complicates fight in the local level", SunStar, March 1, 2010. 

External link