Mount Hamiguitan is a mountain located in the province of Davao Oriental, Philippines. It has a height of Template:Convert. The mountain and its vicinity has one of the most diverse wildlife populations in the country. Among the wildlife found in the area are Philippine eagles and several species of Nepenthes. Some of the latter, such as the Nepenthes peltata and Nepenthes micramphora, are endemic to the area. The mountain has a protected forest area of approximately 2,000 hectares. This woodland is noted for its unique pygmy forest of century old trees in ultramafic soil, with many endangered, endemic and rare species of flora and fauna.
The Mount Hamiguitan range, with an area of Template:Convert, was declared a national park and a wildlife sanctuary in 2003. In 2014, the park was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, becoming the first in Mindanao and the sixth in the Philippines.
Mount Hamiguitan is part of the Eastern Mindanao Biodiversity Corridor. Conservation of the mountain range is a multisectoral effort done involving the provincial government of Davao Oriental, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, local communities, and indigenous people.
Mount Hamiguitan is located in the province of Davao Oriental in the southeastern part of the island of Mindanao, Philippines. It occupies the land area within the political boundaries of Mati, San Isidro, and Governor Generoso.
Flora and fauna
Inventory of flora species in the mountain and its vicinity showed that its montane forest has the highest species richness of plants with 462 species, followed by its dipterocarp forest with 338 species, mossy forest with 246 species and agro-system with 246 species. The mountain also harbors 45 species of orchids, 23 of which are endemic to the Philippines. Some of the plants commonly found on Mount Hamiguitan include the following:
- Leptospermum flavescens
- Wendlandia nervosa
- Tristaniopsis micrantha
- Dacrydium elatum
- Calophyllum blancoi
- Symplocos polyandra
- Almaciga (Agathis philippinensis)
- Elaeocarpus verticillatus
- Patersonia lowii
- Astronia lagunensis
- Nepenthes alata (sensu lato)
- Nepenthes hamiguitanensis
- Nepenthes justinae
- Nepenthes micramphora
- Nepenthes peltata
- Schizaea inopinata
- Schizaea malaccana
- Paphiopedilum ciliolare
- Dipodium paludosum
- Epigeneium sp.
- Dendrochilum longilabre
- Dendrochilum tenellum
- Dendrochilum sp. (unknown species)
- Macodes petola
- Coelogyne chloroptera
- Bulbophyllum sp.
- Appendicula sp.
- Gleichennia hirta
- Drimys piperita
- Hydnophyton sp.
- Dilochia deleoniae
- Lindsaea hamiguitanensis
- Ceratostylis latipetala
- Bulbophyllum colubrimodum
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List has identified at least 11 endangered vertebrate species. The Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources and Development (PCARRD) reported that the mountain is inhabited by five endangered species, 27 rare species, 44 endemic species and 59 economically important species. The following species can be found in the area:
- Philippine eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi)
- Giant golden-crowned flying fox (Acerodon jubatus)
- Philippine forest roundleaf bat (Hipposideros obscurus)
- Philippine tarsier (Tarsius syrichta)
- Philippine warty pig (Sus philippensis)
- Philippine brown deer (Cervus mariannus)
- Fischer's pygmy fruit bat (Haplonycteris fischeri)
- Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus)
- Tawitawi brown-dove (Phapitreron cinereiceps)
- Tarictic hornbill (Penelopides panini)
- Grey-hooded sunbird (Aethopyga primigenius)
- Giant scops-owl or Mindanao eagle-owl (Mimizuku gurneyi)
- Batomys hamiguitan (a yellow-brown furry-tailed rat species endemic to the area)
In 2004, Mount Hamiguitan was declared as a wildlife sanctuary through the Mount Hamiguitan Law which was enacted under the initiative of senator Loren Legarda.
- Nepenthes species in the Philippines. The International Carnivorous Plant Society (April 2008).
- Hamiguitan Range: A sanctuary for native flora. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences (January 2011).
- "Davao Oriental wants Hamiguitan declared as world heritage site", GMA News, GMA 7, 2008-05-05.
- Nine new sites inscribed on World Heritage List. UNESCO.
- An Act Declaring Mount Hamiguitan Range And Its Vicinities As Vicinities As Protected Area Under The Category of Wildlife Sanctuary And Its Peripheral Areas As Buffer Zone and Appropriating Funds Therefor. Congress of the Republic of The Philippines (2003-07-23).
- Mt. Hamiguitan (en-US).
- Quismundo, Tarra (2013-06-25). Mt. Hamiguitan being considered as Unesco world heritage site (en).
- Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary (en).
- "Noteworthy records of Philippine endemic gingers (Zingiberaceae) in the buffer zone of Mt. Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary, Davao Oriental, Philippines". Environmental and Experimental Biology. 16 (2): 111–115. 2018-06-30. doi:10.22364/eeb.16.10. ISSN 1691-8088.
- McPherson, S.R. 2009. Pitcher Plants of the Old World. 2 volumes. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole.
- Gronemeyer, T., A. Wistuba, V. Heinrich, S. McPherson, F. Mey & A. Amoroso 2010. Nepenthes hamiguitanensis (Nepenthaceae), a new pitcher plant species from Mindanao Island, Philippines. In: S.R. McPherson Carnivorous Plants and their Habitats. Redfern Natural History Productions Ltd., Poole. pp. 1296–1305.
- Gronemeyer, T., W. Suarez, H. Nuytemans, M. Calaramo, A. Wistuba, F.S. Mey & V.B. Amoroso 2016. Two new Nepenthes species from the Philippines and an emended description of Nepenthes ramos. Plants 5(2): 23. Template:DOI
- Six new sites inscribed on World Heritage List. UNESCO.
- Amoroso, V.B. & R.A. Aspiras 2011. Hamiguitan Range: a sanctuary for native flora. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 18(1): 7–15. Template:DOI