Mariano Llanera

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Mariano Llanera (b. November 9,1855 - d. September 19,1942) was a revolutionary general who fought in the provinces of Bulacan, Tarlac, Pampanga and Nueva Ecija. He officially used a black flag with a white "K" on the left and a white skull-and-bones on the right in his battles.

Early Life

Mariano was a native of Cabiao, Nueva Ecija, who studied at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran. He became a cabeza de barangay (barrio chief) then a municipal captain for two terms. At first he was sympathetic to the Spanirads, but later he became a mason and rebel.


He became a member of the Katipunan in which he had his own banner depicting a white skull above two crossed bows, and the letter "K" against a field of black. He gathered about 3,000 men, they armed themselves by bolos, few guns and bamboo spears. With the brass band named BANDA MAKABAYAN DE CABIAO in front of them they took siege of a Spanish garrison in San Isidro, Nueva Ecija, for three days. But when the reinforcement of two hundred rifle-bearing Spanish troops arrived they were forced to retreat and leave their post. Llanera and his troops were also responsible for the insurgents in Bulacan, Tarlac, Pampanga and Nueva Ecija. The Spaniards wanted him badly and in order for him to surrender they thought of plan. They killed civilians, demolished houses, and jailed his preganant wife but he was not intimidated. After the death of Andres Bonifacio, he was designated as the lieutenant general in Montalban, Rizal. He also helped in the drafting of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, 1897. He was also exiled in Hong Kong together with Emilio Aguinaldo.

American Era

When the Philippine-American War broke out, he was assigned by Gen.Antonio Luna in Manila. In 1899, he was captured by the Americans and wrote the poem Sa Inang Bayang Filipinas while he was in prison. He was deported to Guam and returned to the Philippines in 1902. He lived in his hometown and remained there until his last days.


  • Quirino, Carlos. Who's who in Philippine History. Manila: Tahanan Books, 1995.
  • Hipolito,Jose. History of Cabiao. Nueva Ecija: Kabyawan Books, 2010.



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