Mariano Alvarez

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Mariano M. Alvarez (15 March 15 1818 - 25 August 1924) was a statesman and a revolutionary general known for leading Filipino forces in several battles against the Spanish army in Cavite during the Philippine Revolution.

Early Life

Alvarez was the son of Severino Alvarez and Maria Malia. His father was a former capitan-municipal of Noveleta, Cavite.

He started his formal education when he was 10 years old in the friar school in his hometown. Then, he obtained his diploma in teaching from San Jose College in Manila.

As a student, Alvarez enjoyed reading corridos like Los Siete Infantes de Lara and Doce Fares, which opened his mind to the tyranny of the Spaniards in the Philippines.

He practiced teaching at Naic and Maragondon, Cavite. In May 1863, he married Nicolasa Virata y del Rosario. They had a son, Santiago, who would later become a revolutionary general like his father.

Spanish Critic

Alvarez's hatred for the Spanish tyranny first manifested in 1871 when he ordered that a cup of dirty water be given to a Spanish soldier who had been thrown off his horse. The next day, Alvarez was brought to the headquarters to be tortured. He was released after the town people appealed to the provincial governor.

In 1872, he was again arrested and tortured for possessing an autographed photo of Father Jose A. Burgos, an advocate for the Filipinization of the clergy. Alvarez was placed in solitary confinement, chained on his neck and legs to secure him in the corner of the cell and to prevent him from making unnecessary movements, and was fed one meal each day. Together with other suspected rebels, Alvarez was exiled to Manila. He returned to his town after he was released.


In 1881, Alvarez was elected capitan-municipal of Noveleta, then Justice of the Peace.

In 1896, he joined the Katipunan and used the name Mainam. He was elected president of the Magdiwang faction of the Katipunan in Cavite. He led an ambush against Spanish civil guards, took over their headquarters, and seized their firearms. He also ordered the destruction of the Calero Bridge in Dalahican to prevent the entry of the Spaniards, and ambushed Spanish soldiers to stop them from crossing the Calero Bridge. Antonio Reboleda, leader of the civil guards, was killed in the attack.

With his many contributions and victories, Alvarez was nominated for the vice presidency in the Tejeros Convention in 1896. However, his lost, the conflict within Katipunan, and Andres Bonifacio's death in 1897 greatly affected his revolutionary activities.

Eventually, the Americans took over the Philippines after the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1898. Alvarez joined the Nacionalista Party and was later elected municipal president of Noveleta. During his term, a public market and cemetery were constructed in the town.

After his term as town president, he retired to his farm and devoted his time to agriculture. On 25 August 1924, Alvarez died of chronic rheumatism at the age of 106.


  • Manuel, Arsenio. 1970. Dictionary of Philippine Biography Volume 2. Quezon City: Filipiniana Publications.
  • National Historical Commission of the Philippines. 2015. Martyrs & Patriots. Accessed 3 April 2021.
  • Quirino, Carlos. 1995. Who's who in Philippine History. Manila: Tahanan Books.



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