Marcelino de Oraa Lacumberri

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A portrait of Marcelino de Oraá Lacumberri, Governor-General of the Philippines from 1841-1843 (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons/Francisco Sainz)

Marcelino de Oraá Lacumberri or Xavier Antonio Marcelino Oráa Lecumberri (28 April 1788 – 23 June 1851)[1] was the Governor-General of the Philippines from 14 February 1841 to 17 June 1843.[2]

Biography

Oraá Lacumberri was born in Beriáin, Navarre in Spain.[3] He was the son of Juan Bautista Oráa Miguel and Joaquina Lecumberri Irisarri.[4]

He undertook basic training, and then went to Pamplona to begin his studies in Jurisprudence, however he was forced to abandon his studies due to health reasons.[5]

During the Spanish War of Independence (1807–1814), he enlisted as a soldier.[6] He was eventually admitted as a cadet on 1 September 1810.[7] Since then, he participated in numerous campaigns against the French, including the Battle of Vitoria and the siege of Zaragoza.[8] He also participated in campaigns during the First Carlist War (1833 – 1840), during which he sided with the liberals.[9] He also participated in several battles, including the Battle of Arquijas (15 December 1834), Battle of Mendaza (12 December 1834), and the Battle of Luchana (23–24 December 1836).[10] It was during this war that he attained the rank of lieutenant general.[11]

However, he was removed from his command and was sent back to the barracks in Madrid on 3 October 1838. He was appointed as a senator representing the province of Teruel on 7 November 1837, occupying the position from 1838 until in 1839.[12] He was appointed as Governor-General of the Philippines on 13 May 1840.[13]

As Governor-General

Oraá Lacumberri arrived in Manila in February 1841 to assume the position of Governor-General, succeeding Luis Lardizábal.[14]

During his term, he successfully quelled the rebellions initiated by Hermano Pule and by Irineo Samaniego.[15] A weekly newspaper, Seminario Filipino, published its first issue during his term.[16]

It was also during his term that the non-inclusion of the Chinese mestizos in the polo and service tax was questioned.[17] The natives in Vigan, Ilocos Sur raised a petition against the mestizos, who did not furnish provisions to the troops in their province.[18] Many of these natives then joined the mestizo rank, arguing that the colonial government profited from because they paid a double tribute.[19] An expediente was eventually formed, and in July 1841 the natives were ordered to send an agent to conduct a suit against the mestizos.[20] However, because the natives cannot afford to pay for an agent, and that the mestizos paid a bribe of 1,000 pesos to the assessor, nothing was done to resolve the issue.[21] As for the natives who joined the mestizo rank, they were punished by Oraá Lacumberri by paying a fine.[22]

After his term

Oraá Lacumberri was succeeded by Francisco de Paula Alcalá de la Torre as Governor-General on 17 June 1843, and returned to Spain. He was appointed as senator for life on 15 August 1845, and served from 1845 until his death.[23] He was also appointed as a member of the Royal Council on 27 September 1845, and as vice president of the Ultramar section of the Council on 29 November.[24] He became Minister of War on 15 February 1847, but was only able to occupy the position until 28 March 1847.[25]

Throughout his military career, he received numerous decorations. Such are the following: Knight of the Order of San Hermenegildo in 1832; Cross of San Fernando, 3rd Class; Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic in 1836; two Laureadas Crosses, 4th Class, of the Order of San Fernando in 1837 and August 1838; Grand Cross of the Order of San Hermenegildo in 1841; and the Great Cross of the Order of Charles III in 1844.[26]

References

  1. Real Academia de la Historia, "Xavier Antonio Marcelino Oráa Lecumberri," accessed 3 February 2021, http://dbe.rah.es/biografias/13654/xavier-antonio-marcelino-oraa-lecumberri
  2. Carlos Quirino, Old Manila, ed. María Eloísa G. Parco-de Castro, 2nd ed. (Quezon City: Vibal Foundation, 2016), 296.
  3. Quirino, Old Manila, 296.
  4. Real Academia de la Historia, "Xavier Antonio Marcelino Oráa Lecumberri."
  5. Real Academia de la Historia, "Xavier Antonio Marcelino Oráa Lecumberri."
  6. Real Academia de la Historia, "Xavier Antonio Marcelino Oráa Lecumberri."
  7. Real Academia de la Historia, "Xavier Antonio Marcelino Oráa Lecumberri."
  8. Real Academia de la Historia, "Xavier Antonio Marcelino Oráa Lecumberri."
  9. Quirino, Old Manila, 296.
  10. Quirino, Old Manila, 296.
  11. Real Academia de la Historia, "Xavier Antonio Marcelino Oráa Lecumberri."
  12. Senado de España, "ORÁA LECUMBERRI, MARCELINO," accessed 18 January 2021, https://www.senado.es/web/conocersenado/senadohistoria/senado18341923/senadores/fichasenador/index.html?id1=2074; Real Academia de la Historia, "Xavier Antonio Marcelino Oráa Lecumberri."
  13. Real Academia de la Historia, "Xavier Antonio Marcelino Oráa Lecumberri."
  14. Quirino, Old Manila, 296.
  15. Quirino, Old Manila, 296.
  16. Quirino, Old Manila, 296.
  17. Sinibaldo de Mas, “Internal political condition of the Philippines,” in The Philippine Islands 1493-1898, trans. Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson, vol. 52 (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1906), 73.
  18. Mas, “Internal political condition," 73.
  19. Mas, “Internal political condition," 73.
  20. Mas, “Internal political condition," 73.
  21. Mas, “Internal political condition," 73.
  22. Mas, “Internal political condition," 73.
  23. Senado de España, "ORÁA LECUMBERRI, MARCELINO;" Real Academia de la Historia, "Xavier Antonio Marcelino Oráa Lecumberri."
  24. Real Academia de la Historia, "Xavier Antonio Marcelino Oráa Lecumberri."
  25. Real Academia de la Historia, "Xavier Antonio Marcelino Oráa Lecumberri."
  26. Real Academia de la Historia, "Xavier Antonio Marcelino Oráa Lecumberri."

External links

Citation

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