Manila International Airport

From Wikipilipinas
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Ninoy Aquino International Airport (Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino) formerly known and still commonly referred to as Manila International Airport, is the airport serving Manila and its surrounding metropolitan area. Located along the border between the cities of Pasay and Parañaque, about Template:Convert south of Manila proper and southwest of Makati. NAIA is the main international gateway for travellers to the Philippines and serves as a hub for Cebgo, Cebu Pacific, PAL Express, and Philippine Airlines, as well as a base for Philippines AirAsia. It is managed by the Manila International Airport Authority (MIAA), an attached agency of the Department of Transportation (DOTr).[1]

Officially, NAIA is the only airport serving the Manila area. However, in practice, both NAIA and Clark International Airport, located in the Clark Freeport Zone in Pampanga, serve the Manila area, with Clark catering mostly to low-cost carriers because of its lower landing fees compared to those charged at NAIA. In the recent past, there have been calls for Clark to replace NAIA eventually as the primary airport of the Philippines.[2]

The airport is named after Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr., who was assassinated at the airport in 1983.

In 2018, all terminals at NAIA handled a record-breaking annual passenger traffic of 45,082,544, an increase of 6.79% from the previous year.[3] It will be complemented by two new airports, the New Manila International Airport, which is located in Bulacan, to serve both Metro Manila and Central Luzon, and Sangley Point Airport, which is located on a reclaimed land in Cavite City. After the completion of the two new airports that will serve Metro Manila and its surrounding regions, NAIA will be made into a domestic airport also catering to general aviation, maintenance, cargo, air taxis, business flight, and state/diplomatic visits.Template:Citation needed


Old Nielson Field Terminal Tower.

The original airport that served Manila, Grace Park Airfield, also known as Manila North, was opened in 1935 in Grace Park, Caloocan. It was the city's first commercial airport, and was used by Philippine Aerial Taxi Company (later Philippine Airlines) for its first domestic routes.[4] In July 1937, Manila International Air Terminal located in the Template:Convert Nielson Airport was inaugurated and had served as the gateway to Manila. Its runways of which now form Ayala Avenue and Paseo de Roxas in Makati.[5] In 1948, following Philippine independence, the airport was moved to its current site adjacent to the Villamor Airbase, which was then called Nichols Field due to the reasons of less terrain slope, expansive land area in the new site, and the USAF base runway (Runway 13/31) which can be used for the airport.[6] The original structure was built on what is now the site of Terminal 2. In 1954, the airport's international runway and associated taxiway were built, and in 1956, construction was started on a control tower and a terminal building for international passengers. The new terminal was inaugurated on September 22, 1961.[7] On January 22, 1972, a fire caused substantial damage to the original terminal building, which also resulted in six casualties,[8] and a slightly smaller terminal was rebuilt in its place the following year. This second terminal would serve as the country's international terminal until 1981 when it was converted to a domestic airport upon the completion and opening of a new, higher-capacity terminal, known today as Terminal 1.[9] The old international terminal was later damaged by another fire in May 1985.

One year after its opening, the present-day Terminal 1 became a scene of a controversial event in Philippine history on August 21, 1983. Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. was assassinated at the terminal's Gate 8 (now Gate 11) after returning to the Philippines from his self-imposed exile in the United States. Ironically, his flight number, China Airlines 811, was the same flight number that was involved in an accident three years ago at the same airport, albeit that the aircraft involved in the 1983 assassination was a Boeing 767-200. Four years after the incident, during the presidency of Ninoy's wife Corazon Aquino in 1987, Republic Act No. 6639 was enacted without executive approval,[10] renaming the airport in Ninoy's honor.[11]

Plans for a new terminal were conceived in 1989, when the Department of Transportation and Communications commissioned Aéroports de Paris to do a feasibility study to expand capacity. The recommendation was to build two new terminals, and in 1998 Terminal 2 was completed. Terminal 2 was nicknamed the Centennial Terminal as its completion coincided with the 100th anniversary of the Philippine Declaration of Independence from Spain. In 1997 the government approved the construction of Terminal 3, which was originally scheduled to be completed in 2002. After many delays caused by technical and legal issues, the terminal became partially operational in mid-2008 and fully operational in August 2014.[12] The government aims to return services from many of the airlines which cancelled services to Manila as a result of Terminal 1's problems.


File:NAIA Terminal 3 Departure 2009 MC.jpg
Departure hall of NAIA Terminal 3

The original proposal for the construction of a third terminal was proposed by Asia's Emerging Dragon Corporation (AEDP).[13] AEDP eventually lost the bid to PairCargo and its partner Fraport AG of Germany, who went on to begin construction of the terminal under the administration of Joseph Estrada. In August 1997, President Fidel V. Ramos led the groundbreaking ceremony of Terminal 3.[13] The structure was mostly completed several years ago and was originally scheduled to open in 2002. The ultra-modern US$640 million, Template:Convert facility was designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) to have a capacity of 13 million passengers per year.[14] However, a legal dispute between the government of the Philippines and the project's main contractor, Philippine International Air Terminals Co. Inc. (Piatco), over the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) contract, delayed the final completion and opening of the terminal.[15]

While the original agreement was one in which PairCargo and Fraport AG would operate the airport for several years after its construction, followed by a handing over of the terminal to the Philippine government, the government offered to buy out Fraport AG for $400 million, to which Fraport agreed. However, before the terminal could be fully completed, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, called the contract "onerous" and therefore formed a committee to evaluate the agreement to buy out Fraport AG. It is this action that sparked the most controversy. The Philippine Supreme Court eventually found the Piatco contract "null and void" citing a variety of anomalies.[16]

The administration of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo eventually abrogated Piatco's BOT Contract for allegedly having been anomalous in certain important respects. In a subsequent decision, the Philippine Supreme Court upheld the Philippine Government's position on the matter and declared the BOT contract "null and void" for, among other things, violations of certain provisions of the BOT law. More specifically, the Court found that the original contract was revised to allow for a Philippine government guarantee of Piatco's obligations to its creditors, contractors and suppliers. The BOT law disallows the granting of such sovereign guarantees. Piatco disagrees and continues to maintain that the provisions cited by the Supreme Court do not amount to a prohibited sovereign guarantee by the Philippine Government.[17]


In December 2004, the Philippine government expropriated the terminal project from Piatco through an order of the Pasay Regional Trial Court. However, the court only allowed the Philippine government to take over the terminal upon payment of an initial amount of Template:Philippine peso (approximately US$64 million) to Piatco. The Philippine government paid Piatco this amount during the second week of September 2006. According to the Philippine government, NAIA-3 was 98% complete (prior in 2006) and required at least an additional US$6 million to complete. The government was then in the process of negotiating a contract with the builder of the terminal, Takenaka Corporation, because another factor that delayed the terminal's opening was the ongoing investigation into the collapse of an Template:Convert area of the terminal's ceiling.[18]

Piatco (and its German partner, Fraport) have instituted arbitration proceedings before different international bodies to recover a fair settlement. Piatco sued the government before the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) in Singapore. Fraport separately sued the Philippine government at the International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) in Washington.[19] In 2007, the ICSID case was decided in favor of the Philippine government because of a violation of Philippine law by Fraport. However, this decision was annulled in 2010 due to a violation of Fraport's right to be heard.[20] A new proceeding before the ICSID is ongoing.[21] Piatco formally withdrew its second application to set aside the earlier ICC ruling that dismissed its claims against the Philippine government in December 2011. The ICC ruling in favor of the Philippine government became final and executory in 2012.[22]

Through Executive Order No. 732, the NAIA Terminal 3 Task Force was made[23] and Michael Defensor was appointed on June 19, 2008, as head, creating the Presidential Task Force on NAIA-3 that was "mandated to ensure the immediate opening and operation of Terminal 3." The order provides for the NAIA-3 opening based on decisions of the Supreme Court and applicable laws.[24]

Terminal 3 began partial operations at 05:15am on July 22, 2008, with 16 inbound and outbound domestic flights from Cebu Pacific. Philippine Airlines' subsidiary PAL Express (then known as Air Philippines and AirPhil Express) moved their operations to this terminal two days later.[25] Cebu Pacific moved all of its domestic and international operations to the terminal on August 1, 2008.


On August 1, 2010, then-president Benigno Aquino III announced plans to utilize Terminal 3 to its maximum capacity by the Christmas season, which may mean moving international carriers to Terminal 3, but the goal was never reached.[26]

The Philippine government has made a new plan where Terminal 3 would be fully operational by the end of 2011, but lowered their goal to 55% operational after further study.[27] The move of international carriers began in February 2011 with All Nippon Airways (ANA) starting a new service to Manila from Terminal 3, rather than Terminal 1 with other international carriers.[28] On July 31, 2014, Terminal 3 became fully operational.[29] ANA was the only foreign carrier at Terminal 3 until October 1, 2014, when nine international airlines, namely Delta Air Lines, KLM, Emirates, Singapore Airlines, and Cathay Pacific, Qantas, United Airlines, Qatar Airways and Turkish Airlines, transferred operations from Terminal 1.

In October 2015, reports of an extortion scam concerning bullets planted by airport security officials in airline passengers' luggages (dubbed in the local media as the "tanim-bala scam") spread, creating a scare among travelers.[30] former Davao City mayor Rodrigo Duterte, then a presumptive presidential candidate in the 2016 Philippine presidential election, further alleged that a syndicate is behind the series of incidents. Duterte said the operation had been going on for more than two years.[31] The Malacañang Palace and the Philippine Senate has since conducted an investigation on the incidents. Jose Angel Aquino Honrado, the chairman of MIAA, which manages the airport, is President Benigno Aquino III's first cousin.[32][33] In April 2016, yet another laglag-bala incident occurred.[34]

On February 12, 2018, a consortium of seven conglomerates consisting of Aboitiz InfraCapital Incorporated, AC Infrastructure Holdings Corporation, Alliance Global Group Incorporated, Asia's Emerging Dragon Corporation, Filinvest Development Corporation, JG Summit Holdings, and Metro Pacific Investments Corporation, submitted a ₱350 billion, or US$6.75 billion, 35-year unsolicited proposal to rehabilitate, expand, operate, and maintain the Ninoy Aquino International Airport.[35][36] The consortium's airport rehabilitation and expansion proposal will be divided into two phases which are the improvement and expansion of terminals in the current NAIA land area, and the development of an additional runway, taxiways, passenger terminals, and associated support infrastructure. Changi Airport Consultants Pte. Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of Changi Airports International Pte. Ltd., will provide technical support in relation to their unsolicited proposal.[37] Singapore's Changi Airport Group is also eyeing a 30-percent stake in this venture.[38] DOTr is expected to finish its evaluation of the proposal by April 2017.[35] On February 28, 2018, Speaker Pantaleon Alvarez from the House of Representatives on Wednesday announced the extension from forty-five days to six months of the deadline for airlines to transfer some of their flights to Clark International Airport to decongest the airport.[39][40]

On March 1, 2018, Megawide Construction Corporation and its India-based consortium partner GMR Infrastructure, the consortium which revamped the Mactan–Cebu International Airport, have submitted a ₱150 billion, or US$3 billion, proposal to decongest and redevelop the airport as well.[41][42] GMR-Megawide, unlike the aforementioned consortium, is not pushing for the construction of a new runway. According to GMR Megawide Mactan–Cebu International Airport Corp. chief executive adviser Andrew Harrison, such a structure would not significantly boost capacity.[42]

On March 3, 2018, the Manila International Airport Authority announced the termination of MIASCOR's extended lease and concession contract on April 21, 2018, to be taken over by five ground-handling service providers.[43]

The NAIA consortium pulled out of the rehabilitation project due to some undisclosed issues, and thus Megawide-GMR took over as the original proponent status of the project. Megawide-GMR also operates the Mactan–Cebu International Airport.[44] On December 15, 2020, the Manila International Airport Authority revoked the original proponent status (OPS) of Megawide-GMR and they filed a motion for reconsideration on December 21, 2020.[45] The Manila International Airport Authority denied the motion for reconsideration filed by Megawide-GMR on January 25, 2021. The rehabilitation project is now currently on hold.[46]


Volume of passengers

Passengers at the arrivals area.

This table of passenger movements at MNL is based on the data from Airports Council International (ACI).[47] 2010 NAIA passenger traffic was based on Manila International Airport Authority's website for the full year of 2010. Template:Airport-Statistics

Calendar Year Passenger movement % Change Rank
2003 12,955,809 Template:Increase 81
2004 15,186,521 Template:Increase17.2% 75 (Template:Increase6)
2005 16,216,031 Template:Increase6.8% 77 (Template:Decrease2)
2006 17,660,697 Template:Increase8.9% 73 (Template:Increase4)
2007 20,467,627 Template:Increase15.9% 64 (Template:Increase9)
2008 22,253,158 Template:Increase8.7% 57 (Template:Increase7)
2009 24,108,825 Template:Increase8.3% 51 (Template:Increase6)
2010 27,119,899 Template:Increase12.5% 49 (Template:Increase2)
2011 29,552,264 Template:Increase9.0% 46 (Template:Increase3)
2012 31,878,935 Template:Increase7.9% 45 (Template:Increase1)
2013 32,865,000 Template:Increase3.1% 45 (Template:Nochange)
2014 34,015,169 Template:Increase3.5% 49 (Template:Decrease4)
2015 36,681,601 Template:Increase7.84% 49 (Template:Nochange)
2016 39,516,782 Template:Increase7.73% 47 (Template:Increase2)
2017 42,022,484 Template:Increase6.34% 44 (Template:Increase3)
2018 45,082,544 Template:Increase7.28% 42 (Template:Increase2)
2019 47,898,046 Template:Increase6.25%
2020 7,275,786 Template:Decrease84.81%

Cargo volume

This table of Cargo Statistics at MNL is based on data from its Official WebsiteTemplate:Dead link[48]

Calendar Year International Domestic
Incoming Outgoing Total Incoming Outgoing Total
2009 114,510.68 137,454.13 251,964.81 50,694.88 46,334.56 97,029.44
2010 143,476.06 164,439.40 307,915.46 62,762.91 54,704.34 117,467.25
2011 139,901.34 150,603.97 290,505.31 57,862.02 62,009.72 119,871.74
2012 148,822.59 162,232.63 311,055.22 71,402.63 77,677.30 149,079.93
2013 93,159.95Template:Ref 99,684.77Template:Ref 192,844.72 39,244.25Template:Ref 47,407.90Template:Ref 86,652.15

Busiest international routes

Rank City Carriers
1 Hong Kong Cathay Pacific, Cebu Pacific, Hong Kong Airlines, Philippine Airlines, Philippines AirAsia
2 Singapore Cebu Pacific, Jetstar Asia Airways, Philippine Airlines, Philippines AirAsia, Scoot, Singapore Airlines
3 Taipei–Taoyuan Cebu Pacific, China Airlines, EVA Air, Philippine Airlines, Philippines AirAsia, Starlux Airlines
4 Seoul–Incheon Asiana Airlines, Cebu Pacific, Jeju Air, Korean Air, Philippine Airlines, Philippines AirAsia
5 Tokyo–Narita All Nippon Airways, Cebu Pacific, Japan Airlines, Jetstar Japan, Philippine Airlines
6 Kuala Lumpur–International Philippine Airlines, Cebu Pacific, Philippines AirAsia, AirAsia, Malaysia Airlines
7 Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi Philippine Airlines, Cebu Pacific, Thai Airways
7 Bangkok–Don Mueang Philippines AirAsia
8 Dubai–International Emirates, Cebu Pacific, Philippine Airlines
9 Osaka–Kansai Cebu Pacific, Philippine Airlines, Philippines AirAsia, Jetstar Japan
10 Sydney Cebu Pacific, Philippine Airlines, Qantas

Airport lounges

Terminal 1 (intl. flights)

Terminal 2 (domestic & intl. flights of Philippine Airlines)

  • Mabuhay Lounge by Philippine Airlines

Terminal 3 (domestic & intl. flights of all other airlines)

Terminal 4 (domestic flights of all other airlines)

  • does not offer any airport lounges



Terminal 1

File:NAIA Terminal 1 Jan 2018.jpg
NAIA Terminal 1 – January 2018
Terminal 1 check-in hall in 2015, post-renovation

Template:Main Terminal 1 or NAIA 1, has an area of Template:Convert and having been completed in 1981 is the second oldest terminal at NAIA (after the Old Domestic Terminal, now called Terminal 4) with a design capacity of 4.5 million passengers per year[9] but was further expanded to accommodate 6 million passengers. The terminal currently serves foreign carriers operating in Manila, except for those in Terminal 3 include All Nippon Airways, Cathay Pacific, Delta Air Lines, Emirates, Etihad Airways, KLM, Qantas, Qatar Airways, Singapore Airlines, Turkish Airlines and United Airlines. It also serves Philippine Airlines flights to and from Canada (Toronto and Vancouver) and the Middle East, except Dubai flights.[50] The detailed designs were adopted by the Philippine Government in 1974 and was subsequently approved by the Asian Development Bank on September 18, 1975. Actual work on the terminal began during the second quarter of 1978. In 1989, a Master Plan Review recommended the construction of two new terminals (NAIA 2 and NAIA 3), as well as many other facility improvements.[51]

The development of the Manila International Airport was finally approved through the promulgation of Executive Order No. 381, which authorized the airport's development. In 1973, a feasibility study/airport master plan was done by Airways Engineering Corporation through a US$29.6 million loan from the Asian Development Bank.[52] The Detailed Engineering Design of the New Manila International Airport Development Project was done by Renardet-Sauti/Transplan/F.F. Cruz Consultant while the terminal's Detailed Architectural Design was prepared by Leandro Locsin's L.V. Locsin and Associates.[51]

The terminal reached capacity in 1991, when it registered a total passenger volume of 4.53 million. Since 1991, the terminal has been over capacity and has been recording an annual average growth rate of 11%,[51] but improvements to the airport increased its capacity to 6 million passengers yearly.[53] Compared to international terminals in other Asian countries, Terminal 1 has consistently ranked at the bottom due to limited and outdated facilities, poor passenger comfort, and crowding (the Terminal has been operating above designed capacity for decades now).[54] From 2011 to 2013, Terminal 1 was on the list of worst airports in Asia and the world by the travel website "The Guide to Sleeping In Airports", ranking on number one.[55] In this regard, transport authorities plan to give Terminal 1 a makeover; the plans were approved by President Benigno Aquino III. The makeover and upgrade includes the expansion of the arrival area, addition of parking spaces, and improvement of other terminal facilities.[56]

The Transportation and Communications Department previously announced that as soon as Terminal 3 becomes fully operational, Terminal 1 was eyed by Cebu Pacific with the intention rehabilitating the terminal into an "Airport City" and serve as an exclusive terminal for their aircraft.[57]

Terminal 1 started renovation on January 23, 2014, to upgrade and modernize the 32-year-old passenger terminal building and to be finalized and operational by May 2015.[58][59] Divided into six phases with 40% completion on December 16, 2014,[60] renovations include the installation of buckling restrained braces to strengthen the structural integrity of the building, and a much-needed facelift in the interior design of the terminal.[61] Five international airlines, which are Delta Air Lines, KLM, Emirates, Singapore Airlines, and Cathay Pacific, have transferred to Terminal 3 from August 1 to October 1, 2014, and four international airlines, which are Qantas, Qatar Airways, United Airlines, and Turkish Airlines have transferred to Terminal 3 from October 28, 2018, to January 1, 2019, in an effort to decongest the terminal.[62]

Terminal 2

The departure concourse of the South Wing (domestic/regional flights) section of Terminal 2

Template:Main Terminal 2 (NAIA-2), also known as the Centennial Terminal, has an area of Template:Convert, and is located at the Old MIA Road. It began construction in December 1995 and was inaugurated on May 1, 1999[63] and began operations in 1999. It has been named the Centennial Terminal in commemoration of the centennial year of the declaration of Philippine independence. The terminal was originally designed by Aéroports de Paris to be a domestic terminal, but the design was later modified to accommodate international flights.[64] It has a capacity of 2.5 million passengers per year in its international wing and five million in its domestic wing. It is able to be modified to accommodate nine million passengers per year if needed.[64]

Terminal 2 is exclusively used by Philippine Airlines and PAL Express for both its domestic and international flights. It is divided into two wings: the North Wing, for international flights, and the South Wing, which handles domestic operations. It currently has 12 jet bridges. There are several cafes and restaurants in the Terminal post-security. There is also a small duty-free section in the north wing. The need for two more terminals was proposed by a Master Plan Review of the Airport that was undertaken in 1989 by Aéroports de Paris (ADP). The study was facilitated by means of a grant from the French Government. The review cost 2.9 million French francs and was submitted to the Philippine Government for evaluation in 1990.[51]

In 1991, the French government granted a 30-million-franc soft loan to the Philippine government, which was to be used to cover the Detailed Architectural and Engineering Design of the NAIA Terminal 2. ADP completed the design in 1992 and in 1994, the Japanese Government granted an 18.12-billion-yen soft loan to the Philippine Government to finance 75% of the terminal's construction costs and 100% of the supervision costs. Construction of the Centennial Terminal began on December 11, 1995, and was formally turned over to the government of the Philippines on December 28, 1998. The terminal became fully operational by 1999.[65]

In August 2014, DOTC formally announced the plan of expanding of Terminal 2. The plan also considers to build a structure interconnecting Terminals 1 and 2.[66] It also includes the demolition of the unused Philippine Village Hotel complex beside the terminal awaiting the fixing of certain issues.[67] A fuel depot located between the terminals will be transferred to the demolished area to give way for the expansion.[68] The 26 comfort rooms are being renovated, in which 16 are located in a passenger movement area.[69] Four of the 7 air-handling units are being repaired and 21 additional units are expected to be installed to improve the temperature in the terminal.[70]

On February 16, 2021, Terminal 2 was inaugurated after expansion works were made to the passenger terminal. The area used for the expansion was Template:Convert. The newly expanded terminal, along with an extended and improved runway were inaugurated on the same day.[71]

Terminal 3

File:NAIA Terminal 3 checkin.jpg
NAIA Terminal 3's check-in counters

Template:Main Terminal 3 (NAIA-3) is the newest and largest terminal in the NAIA complex. Construction started on it in 1997. Since construction, the terminal has been at the center with legal battles, red tape, and arbitration cases in both the United States and Singapore, as well as technical and safety concerns which delayed its opening several times.[15] Terminal 3 is built on a Template:Convert lot that sits on Villamor Air Base. The terminal building has a total floor area of Template:Convert and has a total length of Template:Convert. A four-level shopping mall connects the terminal and parking buildings. The parking building has a capacity of 2,000 cars and the outdoor parking area has a capacity of 1,200 cars. The terminal is capable of servicing 33,000 passengers daily at peak or 6,000 passengers per hour.[72] A Template:Convert footbridge that opened in April 2017, known as Runway Manila, connects the terminal with Newport City. The bridge contains moving walkways and can accommodate about 2,000 persons at any given time.[73]

Its apron area has a size of Template:Convert. The terminal has 34 jet bridges and 20 contact gates with the ability of servicing 28 planes at a time. The terminal has 70 flight information terminals, 314 display monitors, and Template:Convert of fiber-optic I.T. cabling. It also has 29 restroom blocks. The departure area has five entrances all equipped with X-ray machines with the final security check having 18 X-ray machines. Its baggage claim has 7 large baggage carousels, each with its own flight display monitor.[64]

The terminal officially opened to selected domestic flights from July 22, 2008 (initially Cebu Pacific only, then Philippine Airlines' subsidiaries Air Philippines and PAL Express), with Cebu Pacific international flights using it from August 1, 2008.[74] All international operations, except for those from PAL, are intended to operate from Terminal 3 in the future, originally proposed to move in fourth quarter of 2010;[75] however, domestic carriers Cebu Pacific and PAL Express (then Air Philippines and became Airphil Express) remained the only tenants for the first two years of its operation. The vast majority of international flights still operate from Terminal 1, but All Nippon Airways became the first foreign-based carrier to operate out of Terminal 3 starting February 27, 2011.[76]

Template:Wide image

The terminal underwent a rehabilitation under the contractor Takenaka Corp. of Japan to improve its facilities and utilize the whole terminal. Previously, it only operated at half of its capacity awaiting the completion of the remaining system works.[77] The terminal became fully operational on August 1, 2014, leading to the transfer of five international airlines to Terminal 3 to ease congestion at Terminal 1 starting with Delta Air Lines on that day,[62] followed by KLM on August 4,[78] Emirates on August 15,[62] Singapore Airlines on September 1,[78] and Cathay Pacific on October 1.[78][79] Both United Airlines and Qantas are relocated to Terminal 3 from Terminal 1 on October 28, 2018.[80] Middle Eastern carriers Qatar Airways and Turkish Airlines transferred to Terminal 3 on December 1, 2018, and January 1, 2019, respectively.[81] Etihad Airways was also transferred to Terminal 3 on October 25, 2020.

Terminal 4

Exterior of NAIA Terminal 4

Terminal 4[82] named as Manila Domestic Passenger Terminal, and still known as the Old Domestic Terminal, is the oldest of the four existing terminals, having been built in 1948.Template:Citation needed It is host to all domestic flights within the Philippines that are operated by Cebgo, among others. There are no jet bridges and passengers walk to and from the aircraft or are occasionally bussed. Twenty-six check-in counters are located in the terminal. The departure hall has the seating capacity for 969 people at a time. Several food stores and a book and magazine stall are also available. Five baggage carousels are located in the terminal while domestic airline offices, banks, restaurants and a grocery store are also located right beside the domestic passenger terminal.[83] The Domestic Terminal is on the old Airport Road near the north end of Runway 13/31. An old hangar has since been annexed to the terminal.

Airlines and destinations


On March 15, 2020, all domestic flights were suspended due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[84] On March 20, 2020, almost all international flights were suspended also due to the pandemic.[85][86] Due to cancellation of flights following the COVID-19 pandemic, this list is no longer current and destinations are subject to change without prior notice.[87][88][89] Template:Airport-dest-list






  • Philippine Airlines also maintains integrated airport ground handling services, cargo operations and a full catering service for it and other airlines.[90] This is composed of PAL Airport Services, Philippine Airlines Cargo and the PAL Inflight Center.
  • Based at both the Centennial Terminal (Terminal 2) and International Cargo Terminal of Ninoy Aquino International Airport, PAL Airport Services offers ground handling for seven international airlines calling at Manila, while Philippine Airlines Cargo processes and ships an average of 200 tons of Manila publications and 2 tons of mail daily throughout the country and 368 tons of cargo abroad daily.



NAIA has a primary runway that is Template:Convert long running at 061°/241° (designated as Runway 06/24), and a secondary runway that is Template:Convert long, running at 136°/316° (designated as Runway 13/31). The primary runway was oriented at 06/24 in order to harness the southeast and southwest winds. Runway 13/31 is the runway of a former USAF base, Nichols Field known today as Villamor Air Base. On May 26, 2012, Runway 06/24 was partially closed for the replacement of the threshold lightning system on the end of Runway 06.[91] Runway 13/31 was closed to give way for its renovation/expansion and reopened on May 29, 2013. The runway upgraded its length from Template:Convert to Template:Convert.[92] Out of the 550 planes that fly on NAIA daily, 100 of them take the secondary runway. It mostly caters small private planes as well as Airbus A320 aircraft and acts as the main runway of the NAIA Terminal 4.[93] On February 16, 2021, Runway 13/31 reopened after repair, extension and overlay works were made in the runway, along with a newly constructed taxiway that opened on the same day.[94]

Third runway plan

There is a proposal according to Transportation Secretary Joseph Abaya that there will be a new runway adjacent to the existing Runway 06/24.[95] The proposed runway has a length of Template:Convert that could allow the landing of an Airbus A320 and increase the numbers of aircraft that the airport can handle from 40 planes per hour to about 60–70.[96] However, according to the consultant hired by the government, building the runway may affect the current operations in the main runway and considering building another terminal to be less disruptive.[97] Previously, the Japan International Cooperation Agency proposed Sangley Point in Cavite as the site of the new international airport serving Greater Manila Area meaning Sangley could serve as NAIA's third runway until the long-term expansion is planned.[98]

Airbus A380 capability

An Airbus A380 parked on its test flight in 2007.

NAIA is one of two airports in the Philippines that meet the infrastructure requirements for the Airbus A380, the other being Clark International Airport. The airport provides MRO services conducted by Lufthansa Technik Philippines. On October 11, 2007, NAIA hosted the debut of the Airbus A380 in the Philippines, after test aircraft MSN009 (registered as F-WWEA) landed on Runway 24. The test flight demonstrated that the A380 could land on existing runways in Asia and that the primary international airport of the Philippines can support aircraft as large as the A380.[99]

However, according to Jose Angel Honrado, who served as MIAA General Manager from 2010 to 2016, NAIA is currently not capable of handling regular commercial flights on the A380, as it would "cause a lot of inconvenience and delay for other scheduled flights" due to the airport's runway's and taxiway's centerline not reaching the "wing-tip-to-wing-tip clearance" safety requirement for the aircraft to operate at the airport on a regular basis.[100] Therefore, no airlines have regular commercial flights that operate using this aircraft, although some airlines who have Airbus A380 flies to NAIA for maintenance at Lufthansa Technik Philippines. On October 7, 2014, Emirates flew their A380 to NAIA in a one-off commercial flight from and to Dubai to commemorate the transfer of the airline's operations to Terminal 3.[101] In command of the flight was Capt. Franklyn Desiderio, the first Filipino pilot certified to fly the Airbus A380.[102]


Lufthansa Technik Philippines

Lufthansa Technik Philippines (LTP) (formerly PAL Technical Center) was founded in 2000 as a joint venture of German firm Lufthansa Technik (51%) and Philippine aviation service provider MacroAsia Corporation (49%). Lufthansa Technik Philippines offers aircraft maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) services to customers.

The company focuses on maintenance checks for the Airbus A320 family and A330/A340 aircraft. Seven hangar bays and workshops have been upgraded to the latest industry standards to support aircraft maintenance, major modifications, cabin reconfigurations, engine maintenance and painting for the Airbus A320 family, A330/A340, as well as the Boeing 747-400 and 777 aircraft. A new widebody hangar was recently added to meet the increasing demand for A330/A340 base maintenance checks.

The company also opened an Airbus A380 maintenance hangar to allow the aircraft to be repaired at the airport facility.[103] Lufthansa Technik Philippines opens A380 maintenance hangar. In July 2012, A Qantas Airbus A380 completed its passenger cabin reconfiguration. It is one of the 12 Airbus A380 that was cabin reconfigured in the LTP Manila's facility.[104] It also provides total technical and engineering support for the entire Philippine Airlines, PAL Express fleet and other international airline fleets as well.[105]

Aviation Partnership (Philippines) Corporation

Aviation Partnership (Philippines) Corporation is SIA Engineering's third line maintenance joint venture outside Singapore. The joint venture of SIA Engineering Company (51%) and Cebu Pacific Air (49%) provides line maintenance, light aircraft checks and technical ramp handling as well as other services to Cebu Pacific Air and third-party airline customers.


The airport also serves as a gateway facility of the logistics company DHL. On March 12, 2006, the company opened its first quality control center at NAIA Terminal 3 to show support in its local market.[106]

Philippine Airlines Facility

Philippine Airlines operates several aviation facilities in the Philippines. These include various training facilities for pilots and cabin crew, catering services, as well as a data center and an A320 flight simulator.[107]

Philippine Airlines also maintains training facilities both for its pilots and other crew, composed of the PAL Aviation School, the PAL Technical Center, and the PAL Learning Center. The PAL Aviation School, located within the premises of Clark Civil Aviation Complex, provides flight training for its own operations and as well as for other airlines, the Philippine government and individual students. It currently operates ten Cessna 172Rs, five of which is fitted with a Glass Cockpit Garmin G1000 for student pilots' training with complete training facilities including simulators for the Airbus A320 and for turboprop aircraft (FRASCA 142). More than 5,000 students graduated from the PAL Aviation School, eventually joining the ranks of pilots at PAL and other airlines.

PAL Learning Center, located in Manila, serves as the integrated center for Philippine Airlines flight deck crew, cabin crew, catering, technical, ticketing and ground personnel. Located at the PAL Maintenance Base Complex in Pasay, the PAL flight simulator, designed to simulate an Airbus A320, can duplicate all flight conditions complete with sound and visual system capability for day, dusk and night operations.

Ground transportation

Inter-terminal transportation

The Manila International Airport Authority runs a shuttle bus system which connects all four terminals for passengers who have onward connections on flights departing from another terminal.[108] Shuttle buses run every fifteen minutes during daytime hours, but passengers are required to clear immigration and customs to use the system.

Philippine Airlines operates an airside shuttle service between Terminals 1, 2 and 3 for passengers connecting to onward PAL Express flights and vice versa.

External connections


Template:See also Nine city bus routes serve the airport from various points in Metro Manila, eight which go via Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA), and one via Circumferential Road 5 (C-5). Route 18 or the PITX-NAIA Loop route of the Metro Manila Rationalized Bus Transit also stops at all four airport terminals and connects the airport to the Parañaque Integrated Terminal Exchange.

Ultimate Bus Experience (UBE Express) operates a Premium Airport Bus Service that serves on all NAIA Terminals and hotels and commercial areas located in the cities of Manila, Makati, Mandaluyong, Muntinlupa, Quezon City, Pasay, Pasig and Parañaque, all in Metro Manila and in the city of Santa Rosa in Laguna. It also has stops at JAM Liner, Philtranco and Victory Liner terminals in Pasay for passengers going to/coming from the provinces of Northern and Southern Luzon.

HM Transport provides an Airport loop shuttle bus and Premium Point-to-point bus service from Taft Avenue MRT Station and Alabang in Muntinlupa to NAIA Terminal 3. Genesis Transport also provides Premium Point-to-point bus service to Clark International Airport from NAIA Terminal 3.


All four terminals are also served by local jeepney routes serving Parañaque and Pasay.


The Nichols railway station with the elevated roads above leading to the airport

The airport is connected, albeit indirectly, by rail: Baclaran station of the Manila LRT Line 1 and Nichols station of the Philippine National Railways both serve the airport complex.

In the future, with the extension of the existing LRT Line 1, a new station, Manila International Airport station, is set to connect the airport, albeit still indirectly, to the LRT-1. A four-station spur extension of the LRT Line 1, directly connecting Terminal 3 to Baclaran, is also proposed.

Under the new LRT Line 6 proposal, a station will be built near Terminal 1. Once approved, it will directly connect Cavite province with NAIA.[109]

A station of the Metro Manila Subway line will connect the airport directly by rail.[110]



The NAIA Expressway is the first airport expressway in the Philippines.

The NAIA Expressway or NAIA Skyway is the first airport expressway and second elevated tollway in the Philippines. It starts from Sales Interchange of Skyway at the boundary of Pasay and Taguig and ends in Entertainment City, Parañaque. The access ramps of the expressway connects with Terminals 1, 2 and 3 of the airport and also connects with Macapagal Boulevard for motorists and commuters going to/coming from Manila and Manila-Cavite Expressway or CAVITEx for motorists and commuters travelling to/from the province of Cavite.

Accidents and incidents

  • On July 25, 1971, a Pan American World Airways Boeing 707-321C named "Clipper Rising Sun" was on a cargo flight from San Francisco via Honolulu, Guam and Manila to Saigon. While on a VOR/DME approach to Manila runway 24, the aircraft struck Mount Kamunay at an altitude of Template:Convert. All 4 occupants were killed.[111]
  • On November 15, 1974, an Orient Air System and Integrated Services Douglas C-47A registered RP-C570 was damaged beyond economical repair when a forced landing was made in a paddy field shortly after take-off from Manila International Airport following failure of the starboard engine. One of the eight people on board was killed.[112]
  • On February 7, 1980, a China Airlines Boeing 707 originating from Taipei Chiang Kai-Shek International Airport with the flight number CI 811 undershot the runway on landing and caught fire. Of all the 135 on board, there were only 2 fatalities.[113]
  • On September 15, 1981, a Korean Airlines Boeing 747 originating from Seoul, South Korea and bound for Zürich, Switzerland overshot the runway during takeoff and hit the airport perimeter fence, with its nose blocking traffic on the service road of South Luzon Expressway. The plane had a one-hour layover in Manila when the accident happened. Forty out of the 332 passengers and 20 crew were injured.[114][115]
  • On December 13, 1983, a Philair Douglas C-47B registered RP-C287 crashed shortly after takeoff following an engine failure. The aircraft was on a non-scheduled passenger flight. All ten people on board survived.[116]
  • On April 28, 1989, a MATS Douglas C-47A registered RP-C81 crashed shortly after takeoff on a non-scheduled domestic passenger flight to Roxas Airport following an engine failure. MATS did not have a licence to fly passengers. Seven of the 22 passengers were killed. The aircraft had earlier made a forced landing on a taxiway at the airport.[117]
  • On May 6, 1989, a Manila Aero Transport System (MATS) Douglas C-47A registered RP-C82 crashed on takeoff following an engine failure. The aircraft was being used on a domestic non-scheduled passenger flight although it was not licensed to carry passengers. All 18 people on board survived.[118]
  • On July 21, 1989, a Philippine Airlines BAC One-Eleven operating Flight 124 overran a runway in poor visibility and heavy rain. No passengers or crew on board were killed but eight people on the ground were killed when the jet crossed a road.[119]
  • On May 11, 1990, a Philippine Airlines Boeing 737-300 operating Flight 143 suffered an explosion in the center fuel tank near the terminal of the airport while preparing for takeoff. The fire and smoke engulfed the aircraft before it could be completely evacuated. The explosion was similar to what happened to TWA Flight 800 six years later. Eight people died.[120]
  • On May 18, 1990, an Aerolift Philippines Beechcraft 1900C-1 operating a domestic scheduled passenger flight bound for Surigao Airport crashed into a residential area following takeoff. The aircraft reportedly suffered an engine failure. All 21 occupants and 4 people on the ground were killed.[121]
  • On September 4, 2002, an Asian Spirit de Havilland Canada Dash 7-102 operating Flight 897, carrying 49 occupants, was the last flight of the day to Caticlan and departed the Manila domestic airport at 15:36 for a one-hour flight. On approach to Caticlan Airport, the right main gear failed to deploy. The approach was abandoned and the crew decided to return to Manila for an emergency landing. The plane circled for about 35 minutes over Las Piñas to burn off fuel. The crew then carried out an emergency landing with the right gear retracted on Manila's international airport runway 24. After touchdown, the aircraft swerved off the runway onto a grassy area. There were no reported injuries or fatalities, but the aircraft was written off.[122]
  • On November 11, 2002, a Laoag International Airlines Fokker F27 operating Flight 585 took off from Manila runway 31 just after 6 o'clock for a flight to Laoag International Airport. Shortly after takeoff, engine trouble developed in the aircraft's left engine. The pilot declared an emergency and he tried to land the plane but decided at the last minute to ditch it into the sea. The aircraft broke up and sank in the water to a depth of about Template:Convert. 19 of the 34 occupants were killed.[123]
  • On August 23, 2009, a South East Asian Airlines Dornier 328 registered RP-C6328 operating flight DG-0624 was hit by strong crosswinds when decelerating after landing on runway 13. The aircraft veered off the runway and came to a stop in the grass. None of the 32 passengers and 3 crews was injured. The airport had to be temporarily closed to tow the aircraft away.[124]
  • On October 17, 2009, a Victoria Air Douglas DC-3, registered RP-C550, crashed shortly after takeoff on a flight to Puerto Princesa International Airport after an engine malfunctioned. The plane crashed near a factory in Las Piñas. All on board died.[125]
  • On December 10, 2011, a Beechcraft 65–80 Queen Air cargo plane en route to San Jose crashed into the Felixberto Serrano Elementary School in Parañaque, Metro Manila. The plane crashed after takeoff straight into the school. The cause of the crash was pilot error. At least 14 people including 3 crew members on board the aircraft died, and over 20 people were injured. Approximately 50 houses in the residential area were set ablaze by the subsequent fire.[126]
  • On August 16, 2018, Xiamen Airlines Flight 8667 crash-landed amidst heavy monsoon rains. The 737-800 skidded off the end of the runway. All 157 passengers and crew were unharmed, however, the aircraft was written off.[127] According to Flightradar24 data, the flight aborted its first landing attempt.[128]
  • On March 29, 2020, a Lionair IAI Westwind registered RP-C5880 burst into flames on the airport's runway 24 as it was taking off. The plane was conducting a medical evacuation mission bound for Haneda Airport, Japan. All 3 aircraft crew, 3 medical crew, and 2 passengers on board the aircraft, a total of 8 people, died. There were no survivors among the 8 on board. The cause is still being investigated.[129]

See also



  1. Creating the Manila International Airport Authority, Transferring Existing Assets of the Manila International Airport to the Authority, and Vesting the Authority with Power to Administer and Operate the Manila International Airport. Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Republic of the Philippines.
  2. "Arroyo wants DMIA to become top airport amid plan to close NAIA", GMA News and Public Affairs, January 29, 2008.
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named 2018 stats
  4. Grace Park Airfield (Manila North). Pacific Wrecks (December 30, 2013).
  5. Nielson Airport. Filipinas Heritage Library.
  6. The airport as a cultural and functional showcase: Case of the Ninoy Aquino International Airport.
  7. "Manila's International Airport: Gateway to the world", The Philippine Star, November 10, 2001. 
  8. Sarasota Herald-Tribune – Google News Archive Search.
  9. 9.0 9.1 TERMINAL 1 Archived October 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  10. Republic Act No. 6639 (November 27, 1987).
  11. TODAY IN HISTORY: Ninoy Aquino assassinated at airport.
  12. "Naia 3 fully operational by Aug. 1–Miaa officials", Philippine Daily Inquirer, July 4, 2014. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Impossible Dream", Philippine Daily Inquirer. 
  14. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Summary with attachments : Resettlement Action Plan, Other. International Finance Corporation.
  15. 15.0 15.1 "NAIA 3 inspected again for Monday opening – report", GMA News, GMA News and Public Affairs, June 26, 2008. 
  16. PIATCO NAIA3 Deal Null and Void – Supreme Court. (May 6, 2003).
  17. Ninoy Aquino Intl Airport.
  18. "NAIA terminal 3 ceiling falls off one more time", GMA News, GMA News and Public Affairs, September 11, 2008. 
  19. PH Government wins NAIA 3 case against PIATCO. Port Calls Asia (January 21, 2012).
  20. Error page.
  21. Fraport files new claim at ICSID over expropriation of airport terminal project; Annulment committee ruling paved way for new hearing by finding breach of investor's right to be heard.
  22. "It's final: Phl gov't wins NAIA-3 case in Singapore", The Philippine Star, January 27, 2012. 
  23. "Palace forms task force for NAIA 3 opening", GMA News, GMA News and Public Affairs, June 18, 2008. 
  24. Abs-Cbn Interactive, Arroyo appoints Mike Defensor as NAIA-3 task force head.
  25. "Planes start flying out of NAIA 3 for 1st time", Philippine Daily Inquirer, July 22, 2008. 
  26. "Aquino targets NAIA 3 full operations in December", ABS-CBN News, August 2, 2010. 
  27. "New NAIA-3 target in 2011: Over 55% operational", ABS-CBN News, January 20, 2011. 
  28. ANA Unveils its Timetable for New Narita-Manila Route – ANA widens choice for Southeast Asian travelers -. All Nippon Airways (January 11, 2011).
  29. "Naia Terminal 3 finally starts full operations", Philippine Daily Inquirer, August 2, 2014. 
  30. "Philippine Airport Security Allegedly Put Bullets In Bags", Newsy, October 30, 2015. 
  31. Tesiorna, Ben O.. "Duterte says syndicate is behind 'tanim bala' extortion scheme", CNN Philippines, November 3, 2015. 
  32. "Philippine legislators angered by Manila 'bullet scam'", BBC News, October 29, 2015. 
  33. "Uproar over NAIA bullet mess widens", Manila Bulletin, October 31, 2015. 
  34. Fernandez, Ariel. "'Laglag-bala' rears its ugly head anew", Manila Bulletin, April 19, 2016. 
  35. 35.0 35.1 "DOTr to review P350-billion NAIA rehabilitation proposal", Rappler. (in en) 
  36. "Conglomerates form 'Super Consortium' to propose NAIA upgrade", Rappler. (in en) 
  37. "'Super consortium' taps Singapore airport operator for NAIA rehab bid", GMA News. (in en-US) 
  38. Camus, Miguel R.. "Changi Airport eyes up to 30% stake in P350-B Naia project", Philippine Daily Inquirer. (in en) 
  39. Manalastas, Jester P.. "Alvarez okays six months to decongest NAIA". (in en-gb) 
  40. "Airlines given 6 months to move flights to Clark | BusinessMirror", BusinessMirror. (in en-US) 
  41. "GMR-Megawide submits $3bn plan for Ninoy Aquino airport – Airport Technology", Airport Technology, March 5, 2018. (in en-GB) 
  42. 42.0 42.1 "GMR-Megawide takes on 'Goliath' in bid to rebuild NAIA", ABS-CBN News. (in en-US) 
  43. Aning, Jerome. "MIAA terminates Miascor's contract", Philippine Daily Inquirer. (in en) 
  44. Lopez, Melissa Luz. "Megawide GMR replaces NAIA Consortium in airport rehab project", CNN Philippines. (in en) 
  45. Marasigan, Lorenz. "Megawide, partner seek return of OPS on Naia", Business Mirror. (in en) 
  46. Cabuenas, Jon Viktor D.. "Megawide officially loses NAIA rehab bid", GMA News Online, January 26, 2021. 
  47. Airport Council International Archived January 3, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  48. Cargo (August 10, 2014).
  49. Marhaba opens airport lounge in Manila (en).
  50. Several PAL Mid-East flights to transfer to T1. Philippine Airlines (June 27, 2017).
  51. 51.0 51.1 51.2 51.3 Airport : Terminal 1Template:Dead linkTemplate:Cbignore Manila International Airport Authority Archived April 14, 2006, at the Wayback Machine Accessed September 7, 2006
  52. LN0164-PHI: Manila International Airport Development. Asian Development Bank.
  53. About NAIA Terminal 1.
  54. Reviews of Manila Ninoy Aquino Airport with Passenger reviews about Manila Ninoy Aquino Airport standards
  55. "NAIA no longer on worst airports list", The Philippine Star, October 19, 2017. 
  56. "PNoy okays P1.16B budget for NAIA-1 facelift", ABS-CBN News, January 2, 2012. 
  57. "Cebu Pacific eyeing 'Airport City'--DoTC", Philippine Daily Inquirer, November 11, 2007. 
  58. "NAIA-1 rehab underway", The Philippine Star, January 24, 2014. 
  59. NAIA Terminal 1 fully rehabilitated and operational by May 2015 – Abaya. (December 17, 2014).
  60. Naia 1 rehabilitation 40% complete–Abaya. BusinessMirror (December 16, 2014).
  61. "Steel braces to make Naia quake-resistant", Philippine Daily Inquirer, August 27, 2014. 
  62. 62.0 62.1 62.2 "Major foreign airlines move to NAIA-3 next week", GMA News, GMA News and Public Affairs, July 24, 2014. 
  63. "Farolan mistaken; Ramos pushed airport dev't", Philippine Daily Inquirer, May 9, 2011. 
  64. 64.0 64.1 64.2 Ninoy Aquino International Airport, Philippines. Airport Technology.
  65. Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 2, Philippines.
  66. "DOTC eyes interconnecting NAIA terminals 1 and 2", Rappler, August 1, 2014. 
  67. "Gov't mulls over Naia Terminal 2 expansion", Philippine Daily Inquirer, August 2, 2014. 
  68. "DOTC eyes interconnection of NAIA 1 and 2", The Philippine Star, August 2, 2014. 
  69. "New toilets, cooler aircon system at NAIA by December", Rappler, August 22, 2014. 
  70. "NAIA 2 also being renovated", ABS-CBN News, August 11, 2014. 
  71. "NAIA Inaugurates Improved Runway, Expanded Terminal 2",, February 17, 2021. 
  72. "P1.3-B NAIA 1 rehabilitation awarded to D.M. Consunji", Manila Bulletin, December 23, 2013. 
  73. "Sign of progress", Manila Bulletin, April 18, 2017. 
  74. CEB moves partial domestic operation to NAIA Terminal 3 today. Cebu Pacific (July 22, 2008).
  75. Bright future for rural banks – Business Mirror Accessed May 14, 2009.
  76. "1st foreign carrier flies out of NAIA 3", ABS-CBN News, March 2011. 
  77. "NAIA Terminal 3 starts full operations in July", ABS-CBN News, June 12, 2014. 
  78. 78.0 78.1 78.2 "Delta Airlines moves to NAIA Terminal 3", ABS-CBN News, July 31, 2014. 
  79. "5 international airlines relocating to NAIA Terminal 3", GMA News, GMA News and Public Affairs, June 12, 2014. 
  80. The Exciting Centennial of Philippine Aviation: NAIA Terminal Rationalization Takes Effect.
  81. "2 international airlines to move flights to NAIA Terminal 3", ABS-CBN News, October 27, 2018. 
  82. About NAIA Terminal 4. Manila International Airport Authority.
  83. Domestic Terminal Archived April 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  84. "PAL, AirAsia, CEB suspend all domestic flights to NAIA", Manila Standard. 
  85. Merez, Arianne. "DOTr: Int'l flights to and from Luzon suspended by March 20", ABS-CBN News, March 17, 2020. 
  86. "Remaining Manila flights to be at NAIA Terminal 1 starting March 28", Rappler. 
  87. Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) (en).
  88. Air, Cebu Pacific. Cebu Pacific Air (en-us).
  89. Travel updates | Help | Emirates Philippines (en-PH).
  90. Philippine Airlines Cargo. Philippine Airlines.
  91. "Naia runway closed for repairs", Philippine Daily Inquirer, May 27, 2012. 
  92. "CAAP orders opening of secondary runway at NAIA", ABS-CBN News, May 29, 2013. 
  93. "2nd runway opened in NAIA for early morning flights", Philippine Daily Inquirer, May 29, 2013. 
  94. "NAIA's new P500-M runway extension inaugurated", Manila Bulletin, February 16, 2021. 
  95. Another Runway planned for Ninoy Aquino International Airport. Philippine Flight Network (May 16, 2014).
  96. New NAIA Runway Construction Begins. Philippine Flight Network (May 23, 2014).
  97. "Gov't eyeing another NAIA terminal", BusinessWorld, December 16, 2014. 
  98. "Sangley Airport eyed as NAIA's 'third runway'", ABS-CBN News, May 23, 2014. 
  99. Jumbo airbus lands at NAIA.
  100. "NAIA not capable of accommodating A380 flights regularly", Manila Bulletin, October 9, 2014. 
  101. Template:Unordered list
  102. "Meet Pinoy pilot who flew world's largest plane", ABS-CBN News, October 9, 2014. 
  103. Lufthansa Technik Philippines opens A380 maintenance hangar. Aircraft Interiors International.
  104. "First A380 repair completed in Manila", Philippine Daily Inquirer, July 30, 2012. 
  105. Portrait: Lufthansa Technik Philippines – Lufthansa Technik AG.
  106. Mary Anne Ll. Reyes. "DHL opens first quality control center in RP at NAIA", The Philippine Star, March 12, 2006. 
  107. B737-300 Full Flight Simulator. Philippine Airlines.
  108. Airport Shuttle Service. Manila International Airport Authority.
  109. LRT6-Executive Summary English. Environmental Management Bureau, Department of Environment and Natural Resources (August 15, 2019).
  110. comms. Economic Managers approve Metro Manila Subway with extension to NAIA.
  111. Harro Ranter (July 25, 1971). ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 707-321C N461PA Manila International Airport (MNL).
  112. Accident description. Aviation Safety Network.
  113. AirDisaster.Com Accident Photo: China Airlines Boeing 707 B-1826.
  114. 40 Hurt as Korean Jumbo Jet Veers off a Runway in Manila. New York Times (September 16, 1981).
  115. "A Korean Airlines Boeing 747 jetliner overshot the runway", United Press International, September 15, 1981, retrieved September 9, 2018
  116. PR-C287 Accident report. Aviation Safety Network.
  117. RP-C81 Accident description. Aviation Safety Network.
  118. RP-C82 Accident description. Aviation Safety Network.
  119. Template:ASN accident
  120. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette – Google News Archive Search.
  121. Philippine Commuter Plane Crashes Into House, 25 Dead.
  122. "ATO grounds 2 Asian Spirit aircraft", The Philippine Star. 
  123. Harro Ranter (November 11, 2002). ASN Aircraft accident Fokker F-27 Friendship 600 RP-C6888 Manila-Ninoy Aquino International Airport (MNL) [Manila Bay].
  124. Incident: SEAir D328 at Manila on Aug 23rd 2009, veered off runway on landing, The Aviation Herald, August 23, 2009, retrieved August 25, 2014
  125. Accident description. Aviation safety network.
  126. "Parañaque plane crash underscores need for open space around Naia", Philippine Daily Inquirer, December 12, 2011. 
  127. Chinese Boeing 737 crash-lands at Manila airport.
  128. Flightradar24. – Live flight tracker!.
  129. "Fire engulfs plane on NAIA runway", ABS-CBN News. (in en) 

Further reading



External links

Template:Commons category Template:Wikivoyage

Template:Airports in the Greater Manila Area Template:Airports in the Philippines

Template:Authority control