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Kalinga is a landlocked province in the Philippines situated within the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Tabuk and borders Mountain Province to the south, Abra to the west, Isabela to the east, Cagayan to the northeast, and Apayao to the north. Kalinga and Apayao are the result of the 1995 partitioning of the former province of Kalinga-Apayao which was seen to better service the respective needs of the various indigenous peoples in the area.

Unbeknownst to many, President Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed Lubuagan town the seat of government for 73 days from Template:Date to Template:Date before finally fleeing to Palanan.[1][2]


The province's name is derived from the Ibanag and Gaddang noun "kalinga", which means "enemy", "fighter", or "headtaker".[3]


The mountains of Kalinga in Lubuagan

Kalinga covers a total area of Template:ConvertTemplate:PSGC detail occupying the central section of the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. The province is bordered by Mountain Province to the south, Abra to the west, Isabela to the east, Cagayan to the northeast, and Apayao to the north.

The topography of Kalinga province is rugged and sloping, with mountain peaks ranging from Template:Convert in elevation. The province's western side is characterised by sharp, crested, interlinking peaks of steep slopes, isolated flatlands, plateaus and valleys. The eastern lands are mainly of rolling and gradually sloping foothills.

Large swaths of the province's lowlands are open grassland suitable for pasture, while the highlands have extensive areas of tropical rainforest. In higher elevations to the west, particularly in the mountains of Balbalan, lie some of the most intact pine forests of Luzon island. Rizal and Tabuk with their flatlands are the biggest rice producers. Next in rice production are the mountainous area, and of note are the rice terraces of Balbalan, Lubuagan, Pasil, Pinukpuk, Tinglayan, and Tanudan.

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The province experiences an average temperature ranging from Template:Convert with Type 3 weather patterns. The dry season extends from November to April, while the rest of the year is considered the rainy season, the heaviest rains usually occurring from July to October.


The Chico River passing through Tinglayan

The province is drained mainly by the Chico River, with its headwaters in the Mountain Province and emptying into the Cagayan River. The Chico River has several tributaries: Bunog River in Tinglayan in the south; the Tanudan and Biga Rivers in the east; Pasil River in the central area; and Poswoy, Dao-angan, Mabaca and Saltan Rivers in the west.

Several small lakes can also be found in Kalinga.

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Administrative divisions

Butchered remains of a Rhinoceros philippinensis found in Rizal, Kalinga. An evidence of early hominins in the Philippines about 709,000 years ago.

Kalinga comprises one component city and seven municipalities, all encompassed by a single legislative district.

Tabuk was proclaimed a component city in 2007, but in November 2008 the Supreme Court of the Philippines ruled that its cityhood was unconstitutional. However, Tabuk had its city status reinstated by the Supreme Court on December 22, 2009.[4]

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City Template:Small municipalityTemplate:ThinspTemplate:Efn-lr Population Template:PSGC rubric AreaTemplate:PSGC detail Density
Template:SmallTemplate:PH census Template:SmallTemplate:PH census km2 sqTemplate:Thinspmi /km2 /sqTemplate:Thinspmi
Template:Coord Balbalan Template:Percent and number 12,082 Template:PAGR Template:Convert Template:Convert 14
Template:Coord Lubuagan Template:Percent and number 9,369 Template:PAGR Template:Convert Template:Convert 9
Template:Coord Pasil Template:Percent and number 9,626 Template:PAGR Template:Convert Template:Convert 14
Template:Coord Pinukpuk Template:Percent and number 29,596 Template:PAGR Template:Convert Template:Convert 23
Template:Coord Rizal Template:Percent and number 15,942 Template:PAGR Template:Convert Template:Convert 14
Template:Coord Tabuk Template:Percent and number 103,912 Template:PAGR Template:Convert Template:Convert 42
Template:Coord Tanudan Template:Percent and number 8,529 Template:PAGR Template:Convert Template:Convert 16
Template:Coord Tinglayan Template:Percent and number 12,557 Template:PAGR Template:Convert Template:Convert 20
Total 212,680 201,613 Template:PAGR 3,231.25 Template:Convert Template:Sigfig Template:Convert 152
Template:Color boxTemplate:ThinspProvincial capital and component city Template:Color boxTemplate:ThinspMunicipality


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The seven municipalities and one component city of the province comprise 152 barangays, with Bulanao in Tabuk City as the most populous in 2010, and Anggacan Sur in Tanudan as the least. If the City of Tabuk is excluded, Pinukpuk Junction in Pinukpuk municipality has the highest population.Template:PSGC detail



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The population of Kalinga in the Template:PH wikidata was Template:PH wikidata people,Template:PH census with a density of Template:Convert.

On the 2000 census survey, Kalinga people comprised Template:Percent and number of the total provincial population of 173,638. Ilocanos came in second at Template:Percent and number, while other ethnic groups in the province were the Kankanaey at Template:Percent and number, Bontoc at Template:Percent and number, Tagalog at Template:Percent and number and Applai at Template:Percent and number.[5]

The primary language spoken is Kalinga, including its dialects of Balangao, Butbut, Limos, Lower Tanudan, Lubuagan, Mabaka, Madukayang, Southern Kalingan, and Upper Tanudan. Gaddang, as well as Ilocano, Tagalog, and English are also spoken in as lingua francas with varying degrees of proficiency.

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107-year old Apo Whang Od, the embodiment of Kalinga tattoo artistry.
A student from Tinglayan, vested in traditional garb and holding a handcrafted weapon.

There are many sub-tribes in the province. The strong sense of tribal membership and filial loyalty results in frequent tribal unrest and occasional outright war. Due to the mountainous terrain and warrior-culture of the people, the Kalinga were able to preserve their culture despite centuries of occupation in the lowlands by the Spaniards, Americans, and the Japanese.

The Kalinga people are highlanders and the most extensive rice farmers of the Cordillera peoples, having been blessed with some of the most suitable land for both wet and dry rice farming. Like the Ifugao, the Kalinga are prolific terrace builders. The Kalinga are also skilled craftsmen, well-versed in basketry, loom weaving, metalsmithing, and pottery, the last centred in the lower Chico River Valley.

On February 22, 2019, the Department of Tourism announced the bid of Digdiga Ni Tupayya, a Kalinga courtship dance, to be included in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists.[6][7]

Historic figures

  • Macli-ing Dulag - a Kalinga warrior and leader (pangat) who opposed the Chico River Dam Project. Murdered by military personnel under the command of dictator Ferdinand Marcos. Dulag's death is remembered as one of the two occasions for the declaration of Cordillera Day in the entire Cordillera Administrative Region. His name has been inscribed in the heroes' marker in Quezon City.
  • Conrado Balweg - a former Filipino Catholic priest and rebel who was the founder of the Cordillera People’s Liberation Army, a militant group which advocated autonomy for the Cordillera region in the Philippines. He was also known by the nom-de-guerre Ka Ambo.
  • Whang-od - a Kalinga master tattooist (mambabatok) and recipient of the prestigious Dangal ng Haraya Award.
  • Alonzo Saclag - Awarded as a National Living Treasure for his efforts to preserve the culture of Kalinga through performing arts.


  1. History.
  2. Municipality of Lubuagan.
  3. http://nlpdl.nlp.gov.ph:81/CC01/NLP00VM052mcd/v1/v27.pdf
  4. "SC reverses self, upholds creation of 16 cities", The Daily Tribune, 23 December 2009. 
  5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named CensusGovPH-2000
  6. "DOT eyes Kalinga courtship dance in UNESCO heritage list", Philippine News Agency, Template:Date. (in en) 
  7. http://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1062739

External links


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