Juan Antonio Martinez

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Juan Antonio Martínez (18th century – 1825)[1] was the Governor-General of the Philippines from 30 October 1822 to 14 October 1825.[2]

Biography

Martínez was a native of Madrid.[3] Prior to his appointment as governor-general, he served as a mariscal de campo or field marshal.[4]

He began his term of office after his arrival in Manila on 30 October 1822.[5] He succeeded José Ramón de Gardoqui. Before his appointment, Mariano Fernández de Folgueras served as acting governor-general.

He brought with him numerous military officers from Spain.[6] This was requested by then acting Governor-General Folgueras due to the lack of officers in the regiments in the country, and the colonial government's failure to stop the killings committed by the natives to the foreigners in 1820.[7] This earned the ire of the military officers in the archipelago, who were mostly Spanish creoles from the Americas.[8] The creoles complained that the arrival of the new officers would stop their promotions, and that there was a conflict between them because of their origin.[9] Martínez became suspicious and eventually discovered that the creole officers were plotting against the government.[10] He had them arrested and sent to Spain on 18 February 1823.[11] However, this did not stop the remaining creole officers from plotting against the government, which led to the outbreak of the Novales Revolt.[12] The revolt was eventually stopped and its leaders were executed.[13]

During his term, a great earthquake destroyed much of Manila on 26 October 1824.[14] This was followed by a hurricane which destroyed many buildings.[15] Moro raids continued to ravage the archipelago, until Martinez sent an expedition on 29 February 1824 to attack Jolo and southern Mindanao, which led to the death of many Moros including their chieftains.[16] His term was also marked by the effects of the reactionary movements in Spain on the archipelago.[17]

He was replaced by Mariano Ricafort Palacín in 1825 and left for Spain.[18] However, he died at sea while traveling.[19] He was buried in Cochinchina.[20]

References

  1. Real Academia de Historia, "Juan Antonio Martínez Alcobendas," accessed 1 February 2021, http://dbe.rah.es/biografias/54924/juan-antonio-martinez-alcobendas
  2. Carlos Quirino, Old Manila, ed. María Eloísa G. Parco-de Castro, 2nd ed. (Quezon City: Vibal Foundation, 2016), 295.
  3. Quirino, Old Manila, 295.
  4. Quirino, Old Manila, 295.
  5. José Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," in The Philippine Islands 1493-1898, trans. Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson, vol. 51 (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1906), 46.
  6. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 46.
  7. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 46.
  8. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 46-7.
  9. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 47.
  10. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 47.
  11. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 47.
  12. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 47-8.
  13. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 48.
  14. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 48.
  15. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 48.
  16. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 48-9.
  17. Quirino, Old Manila, 295.
  18. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 49.
  19. Quirino, Old Manila, 295.
  20. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 49.

Citation

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