Jose Ramon de Gardoqui

From Wikipilipinas
Jump to navigation Jump to search

José Ramón de Gardoqui y Jaraveitia (19 April 1755 – 9 December 1816)[1] was the Governor-General of the Philippines from 4 September 1813 to 9 December 1816.[2]

Biography

Gardoqui was from Bilbao, Spain. He was the son of Juan Bautista de Gardoqui and María José Jaraveitia.[3]

He was a naval officer who participated in several expeditions.[4] He became a member of the Compañía del Departamento de Cádiz in 1775 and participated in the invasion of Algiers (1775), the journey in the Strait of Magellan in 1785, and the sojourn of the frigate Santa María in 1788.[5] He also took part in several battles such as the Battle of Cape Santa María during the American Revolutionary War in 1780 and the Battle of Trafalgar.[6]

He was appointed through an order of 6 March 1813 as the Governor-General of the Philippines, succeeding Manuel González de Aguilar.[7] He began his term of office on 4 September 1813.[8] At the same time, he was appointed as the chief of the naval station.[9] This angered treasury officials, since their previous control of the naval station gave them the opportunity to profit from its gains.[10] As a result, they opposed Gardoqui in all his proposals and actions.[11]

He prohibited the introduction of opium into the archipelago on 1 December 1814.[12] He imposed a punishment of six years of confinement in a presidio on those who will be caught importing the drug.[13] He also imposed the following punishments on those who will be found smoking it: a fortnight's imprisonment for the first offense, thirty days of imprisonment for the second offense, and four years confinement in a presidio for the third offence.[14]

He also implemented the following reforms: the repair of the fortifications in Cavite; the regulation of weights and measures; the creation of a general administration to manage revenues from the selling of wine; the improvement and development of tobacco plantation; and the creation of a military commission tasked to punish bandits, smugglers, and gamblers.[15]

It was also during his term that the Mayon Volcano erupted on 1 February 1814.[16] The eruption led to the deaths of 12,000 people and the destruction of many villages in Albay and Camarines.[17] Also, uprisings occurred in many parts of the archipelago, especially in Ilocos Norte.[18] This was a result of the natives who believed that the reforms introduced in the archipelago in 1812 made them exempt from tributes and public services, which Gardoqui later clarified in an edict.[19] Another uprising occurred in Ilocos, wherein 1,500 Ilocanos plundered, killed, and destroyed properties around the province.[20] This was because of the abolition of the Spanish Cortes on 4 May 1814 and the reestablishment of the Inquisition and the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) by King Ferdinand VII.[21] Eventually, the Spaniards suppressed the uprising.[22] Problems regarding the Moros became prevalent once again.[23] Moro pirates began attacking vessels in 1813, and targeted both Spanish and British ships.[24] In order to stop this, Java Governor Stamford Raffles proposed to Gardoqui a joint British-Spanish invasion of Sulu and Mindanao.[25] However, Gardoqui declined this proposal.[26]

It was also during his term that the Society of Jesus was reestablished in the Philippines through a royal decree of 22 August 1815.[27] A hospital for lepers was established in Laoag in 1814 by Fray Vicente Febras, an Augustinian.[28]

His last days of office were marred with issues.[29] One of his secretaries substituted a false report from the one Gardoqui had dictated which recommended the retaining of the naval bureau.[30] As a result, the false report was the one that was signed by Gardoqui and sent to Spain, which resulted in the suppression of the naval bureau through a royal decree of 23 March 1815.[31] This disappointed Gardoqui, which led to his death on 9 December 1816.[32] Mariano Fernández de Folgueras once again assumed the position of acting Governor-General.

References

  1. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de Gardoqui y Jaraveitia," accessed 4 February 2021, http://dbe.rah.es/biografias/65748/jose-ramon-de-gardoqui-y-jaraveitia
  2. Carlos Quirino, Old Manila, ed. María Eloísa G. Parco-de Castro, 2nd ed. (Quezon City: Vibal Foundation, 2016), 295.
  3. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de Gardoqui y Jaraveitia."
  4. Quirino, Old Manila, 295.
  5. Quirino, Old Manila, 295.
  6. Quirino, Old Manila, 295.
  7. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de Gardoqui y Jaraveitia."
  8. Quirino, Old Manila, 295.
  9. José Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," in The Philippine Islands 1493-1898, trans. Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson, vol. 51 (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1906), 34.
  10. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 34.
  11. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 34.
  12. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 36.
  13. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 36.
  14. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 36.
  15. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 37.
  16. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de Gardoqui y Jaraveitia."
  17. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de Gardoqui y Jaraveitia."
  18. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 37.
  19. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 34.
  20. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 34.
  21. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de Gardoqui y Jaraveitia."
  22. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 36.
  23. Quirino, Old Manila, 295.
  24. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 37.
  25. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 37.
  26. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 37.
  27. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 37.
  28. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 37.
  29. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 38.
  30. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 38.
  31. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 38.
  32. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 38; Quirino, Old Manila, 295.

Citation

Wiki.png

Original content from WikiPilipinas. under GNU Free Documentation License. See full disclaimer.