Jose de la Gandara

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A lithograph of José Ramón de la Gándara, Governor-General of the Philippines from 1866 to 1869. (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons/Arturo Carretero/La Ilustración Española y Americana)

José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro (1820 – 1 September 1885)[1] was the Governor-General of the Philippines from 26 October 1866 to 7 June 1869.[2]

Biography

Gándara was the son of José de la Gándara and Manuela Navarro.[3] He entered the Army, becoming a cadet on 11 March 1832.[4] At that time, the First Carlist War (1833 – 1840) was ongoing.[5] He eventually joined with his regiment in a campaign to fight the Carlists on 1 January 1834, during which his father died.[6] He continued his training until in January 1836.[7] He soon joined the Liberal forces in the north to fight the Carlists.[8] Once, he was imprisoned by the Carlists from December 1836 to 6 June 1837.[9]

He continued to render military service after the war, participating in campaigns to quell some uprisings that are occurring in the country.[10] He then joined the Overseas Army, and was assigned in Cuba in 1842.[11] During his assignment in Cuba, he was appointed as politico-military governor of Nueva Filipinas (present-day Pinar del Río City in Cuba).[12] He returned to Spain on 8 July 1856, and was appointed as governor of the islands of Fernando Póo (present-day Bioko Island in Equatorial Guinea) and Annobon y Corisco (present-day islands of Annobón, Elobey Grande, Elobey Chico, and Corisco in Equatorial Guinea).[13]

He was then appointed as military governor and commander-in-chief of the province of Santiago de Cuba in November 1862.[14] At the time of his appointment, discontent among citizens of the Dominican Republic were forming due to Spain's recolonization of the country in 1861.[15] Soon, Dominican nationalists waged a guerilla war (the Dominican Restoration War) against the Spaniards in 1863.[16] Gándara, without waiting for orders from the royal government, dispatched reinforcements to aid his fellow Spaniards.[17] He then marched with all his forces to the country, landing in Puerto Plata on 17 September 1863, which drove the Dominican forces back.[18] He was then able to occupy the cities of Santo Domingo and San Cristobal.[19] He was promoted as lieutenant-general and appointed as captain-general and commander-in-chief of the country.[20] However, with the decision of the royal government to abandon the campaign to retake the Dominican Republic, Gándara and his troops evacuated the island.[21] The Dominican Republic eventually restored its independent status in 1865.

As Governor-General

He then returned to Spain, where he received his appointment as Governor-General of the Philippines.[22] His term of office began on 26 October 1866, succeeding Joaquin del Solar e Ibáñez.[23]

During his term, he worked on creating a uniform monetary system for the archipelago.[24] He also introduced reforms in the primary educational system.[25]

His term of office ended on 7 June 1869, with Manuel Maldonado assuming the position of acting Governor-General.[26]

After his term

He then returned to Spain, where he occupied various military positions.[27] During King Amadeo I's reign, he was appointed as head of the King's Military House.[28] During the First Spanish Republic, he was appointed as head of the Captaincy General of Castilla la Vieja on 28 September 1874.[29] During King Alfonso XII's reign, he became president of the Higher Advisory Board of War.[30] He eventually died on 1 September 1885.[31]

Trivia

In honor of Governor-General Gándara, the inhabitants of the town of Bangahon in the province of Samar renamed their town to Gandara in 1902.[32]

References

  1. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro," accessed 19 February 2021, http://dbe.rah.es/biografias/10156/jose-ramon-de-la-gandara-y-navarro
  2. Carlos Quirino, Old Manila, ed. María Eloísa G. Parco-de Castro, 2nd ed. (Quezon City: Vibal Foundation, 2016), 297.
  3. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro."
  4. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro."
  5. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro."
  6. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro."
  7. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro."
  8. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro."
  9. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro."
  10. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro."
  11. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro."
  12. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro."
  13. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro;" "Gándara y Navarro, José de la," vol. 5 of Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography, ed. James Grant Fisher and John Fiske (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1888), 588, https://archive.org/details/appletonscyclopdwils/page/588/mode/2up
  14. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro."
  15. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro."
  16. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro."
  17. "Gándara y Navarro, José de la," 588.
  18. "Gándara y Navarro, José de la," 588.
  19. "Gándara y Navarro, José de la," 588.
  20. "Gándara y Navarro, José de la," 588.
  21. "Gándara y Navarro, José de la," 588.
  22. "Gándara y Navarro, José de la," 588.
  23. Quirino, Old Manila, 298.
  24. Quirino, Old Manila, 298.
  25. Quirino, Old Manila, 298.
  26. Quirino, Old Manila, 298.
  27. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro."
  28. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro."
  29. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro."
  30. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro."
  31. Real Academia de la Historia, "José Ramón de la Gándara y Navarro."
  32. Municipality of Gandara, "Historical Background," accessed 19 February 2021, https://www.lgugandarasamar.gov.ph/?page_id=13

Citation

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