Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act

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The Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act (1933) was the first United States (U.S.) law passed setting a definite date for the independence of the Philippines.


The U.S. Congress passed the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act as a result of pressure from two groups: American farmers who were hit by the Great Depression and feared Filipino imports of sugar and coconut oil that were not subject to US tariff law; and Filipino politicians who were eager to run their own government. The law was passed by the United States Congress in December 1932, but was vetoed by President Hoover. To his surprise, however, the Congress overrode the veto on 17 January 1933.

The law promised Philippine independence after a 10-year transition period, but reserved several military and naval bases for the United States, as well as imposing tariffs and quotas on Philippine exports. It also required the Philippine Senate to ratify the law.

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Many Filipinos, however, did not like the conditions set in the law. Leading the opposition was Quezon, who urged the Philippine Senate to reject the bill, which it did, and instead advocated a new bill that won the support of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The result was the Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934 which was very similar to the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act except in minor details. The Tydings-McDuffie Act was ratified by the Philippine Senate.

The Philippines was granted independence on 4 July 1946.



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