Maria Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal-Arroyo (born 5 April 1947) is a politician who served as the 14th president of the Philippines, holding office from 2001 to 2004 after the ouster of President Joseph Estrada, having been the vice president during his term. She ran for president in 2004 and won, staying in office until 2010. She is the second female president of the Philippines, after Corazon Aquino, and the first female vice president of the country. She is the daughter of former president, Diosdado Macapagal.
Prior to her presidency, Arroyo served as vice president, senator, cabinet secretary, undersecretary, and assistant secretary. After her presidency, she was elected congresswoman of the second district of Pampanga. An economist by training, she was also a professor of economics in leading Philippine tertiary educational institutions.
Arroyo's political standing since 2001 has been marked by triumphs, setbacks, and controversies. She was seen as the unifying figure in the Philippines after the ouster of President Estrada and given credit for the country's modest economic growth during her presidency. Internationally, she was included in Forbes Magazine's World's 100 Most Powerful Women, ranking fourth and 45th in 2005 and 2006, respectively. However, President Arroyo was also continuously hounded by questions regarding her political legitimacy, threats of impeachment, military adventurism, and a fragile peace and order situation.
Arroyo was born in San Juan, Metro Manila (then part of Rizal province) to Diosdado Pangan Macapagal, the ninth president of the Philippines, and Evangelina Macaraeg Macapagal, a medical doctor. Arroyo was raised in Lubao, Pampanga, her father’s hometown, and would stay with her maternal grandmother, Irinea de la Cruz Macaraeg, in Iligan City, Lanao del Norte during summer until she was 11. In 1961, she moved with her family to Malacañang Palace after her father was elected president of the Philippines.
Arroyo was married to lawyer Jose Miguel Tuason Arroyo on August 2, 1968. They have three children, namely Juan Miguel “Mikey,” Evangelina Lourdes “Luli,” and Diosdado Ignacio “Dato.” Except for Luli Arroyo, the Arroyo siblings have engaged in politics. Mikey Arroyo is the congressional representative of the 2nd district of Pampanga, serving in this capacity first between 2004 and 2010 and since 2019, while Dato Arroyo was the congressional representative of the first district of Camarines Sur from 2007 to 2010 and of the second district of the province from 2010 to 2016.
Arroyo went to the Assumption Convent from 1954 to 1960 for her primary education and from 1960 to 1964 for her secondary education, where she was the class valedictorian of the graduating class. In 1964, she was sent to the United States to study at the Georgetown University Walsh School of Foreign Service. She returned to the Philippines after two years and continued her studies at the Assumption College, where she earned a BA in economics, graduating magna cum laude in 1968. Arroyo earned an MA from the Ateneo de Manila University in 1978 and a PhD from the University of the Philippines School of Economics in 1985.
Academician and technocrat
Before entering government service and politics, Arroyo was an educator. From 1977 to 1987, she was an assistant professor of economics at the UP School of Economics and the Ateneo. She also taught at Maryknoll College (now Miriam College), St. Scholastica's College, and the Assumption College. From 1984 to 1987, Arroyo served as chairperson of the economics department of the Assumption College.
In 1987, she was among the new batch of technocrats and specialists invited by President Corazon Aquino to join government service and reorganize the bureaucracy. From 1987 to 1989, Arroyo served as assistant secretary of the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). In a concurrent capacity, she was also the executive director of the Garment and Textile Export Board from 1988 to 1990. In 1989, she was promoted to undersecretary of the DTI, serving in that capacity until 1992.
In 1992, Arroy's political career was launched when she was named as one of the senatorial candidates of the Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (LDP). Arroyo placed 13th in the senatorial elections and served from 1992 to 1995. Only the first 12 senators in the said elections earned a six-year term. She ran for reelection in 1995 and topped the senatorial elections that year. In the history of Philippine elections, her 16 million votes was the biggest ever garnered by any candidate in any national position at the time.
From 1992 to 1998, Arroyo distinguished herself in the Senate with the quantity and quality of her legislative work and output. She is credited to have filed more than 400 Senate bills and resolutions and authored and/or coauthored 55 bills that were enacted into laws. Many of the bills pertained to women’s empowerment and social development. But it was in her economic legislation that she was particularly lauded. Being an economist, she pursued the enactment of laws that would address the emerging economic challenges faced by the Philippines during the 1990s.
The following are some of the laws attributed to President Arroyo during her six years as a senator:
- RA 7844 – The Export Development Act
- RA 7718 – The Amended Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) Law
- RA 7721 – Bank Entry Liberalization Law
- RA 7916 – Creating the Philippine Economic Zone Authority
- RA 7900 – Promoting the production, processing, marketing and distribution of high-value crops
- RA 7942 – Instituting a new system of mineral resources exploration, development, utilization and conservation
Social Development and Women Empowerment Legislations
- RA 7877 – The Anti-Sexual Harassment Act
- RA 7637 – Creating the Mt. Pinatubo Assistance, Resettlement and Development Commission
- RA 7657 – Appropriating 10 Billion Pesos for the victims of Mt. Pinatubo eruption
- RA 7833 – Tax Exemption of 13th Month Pay
- RA 7882 – Loans for Women's Microenterprises
With her popularity, Arroyo tested the political climate and made an early bid for the 1998 presidential elections under her own political party, the Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino (Kampi). However, it was then vice president Joseph Ejercito Estrada who was the leading contender for the presidency at the time. Although she was also one of the early frontrunners in surveys, several factors contributed to her eventual decision to instead run for vice president. For one, her supposed running mate, then senator Tito Sotto, was implicated in a controversy that linked him with a suspected drug lord. Arroyo needed to distance herself from Sotto and their tandem did not materialize. Kampi was also not logistically and financially prepared to mount a national campaign and the dominant political party at that time, Lakas-NUCD-UDMP, and its leader, President Fidel V. Ramos, could not accommodate her. Lakas endorsed the presidential candidacy of House Speaker Jose de Venecia.
Instead of running independent, Arroyo's Kampi formed a coalition with Lakas, eventually becoming the running-mate of de Venecia. Despite her popularity, Arroyo could not help the ratings of de Venecia during the campaign period. Estrada won the presidency but his running mate, Edgardo Angara, lost to Arroyo in the vice presidential elections. She was ahead of Angara by more than seven million votes, her closest opponent for the vice presidency.
President Estrada appointed Arroyo secretary of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) almost as soon as they were sworn in. As DSWD secretary from July 1998 to October 2000, Arroyo initiated projects aimed at delivering basic social services to underprivileged Filipinos. Among her projects were the following:
- Ahon Bata sa Lansangan – aimed at strengthen attempts to address the plight of street children
- Ahon Bayan – a resource generation project to address the insufficiency of funds for social welfare
- Ahon Pamilya – known as the "National Family Violence Prevention Program," this was a community-based plan of preparing family members to protect themselves against violence and manage resolution of disagreement within the context of family members
- Quick Reaction Team Pamilya – an assembly of individuals, professionals, volunteers and other socio-civic and religious organizations towards an effective response to the needs of sexually abused women and children
- Self- Employment Assistance Kaunlaran (SEA-K) – a community-based micro-financing project which built abilities of people's organizations to self-administer a socialized credit system
- Comprehensive and Integrated Delivery of Social Services (CIDSS) – a flagship program to fight poverty in fifth and sixth class municipalities nationwide, including urban communities
- Early Childhood Development Project (ECD) – service for child and family designed to build on and improve existing health, nutrition and early education services for disadvantaged children
Resignation from the cabinet
In October 2000, Arroyo resigned from her cabinet position amidst accusations of corruption and jueteng involvement against President Estrada. The accuser, former Ilocos Sur governor Luis Singson, also testified against President Estrada in his impeachment trial in the Senate. Thereafter, Arroyo joined students, businessmen, left-wing members, professionals, and ordinary citizens in calling for the resignation of President Estrada.
The last quarter of 2000 up to the first week of January 2001 was a period of political and economic uncertainty for the Philippines. On January 16, 2001, the Estrada impeachment trial also took a new direction. Private prosecutors walked out of the trial when pro-Estrada senators prevented the examination of evidence, a brown envelope, containing bank records allegedly owned by President Estrada. With the walkout, the impeachment trial was not completed, and Filipinos eventually took to the streets to continue the clamor for President Estrada's resignation.
From January 17 to 20, 2001, thousands of Filipinos gathered at Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA), the site of the People Power Revolution in 1986. The clamor for a change in the presidency gained momentum as various sectors of Philippine society—professionals, students, artists, politicians, leftist and rightist groups—joined what became known as EDSA II. Officials of the administration, the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), and the Philippine National Police (PNP) also withdrew their support for President Estrada.
First Arroyo presidential term, 2001-2004
On January 20, 2001, the Supreme Court declared the presidency vacant. Arroyo was sworn in on the same day as the 14th president of the Philippines by Supreme Court Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr. In her speech before the people at EDSA, Arroyo reiterated the following principles that her administration would pursue:
- To be bold in national ambition to win the fight against poverty
- To improve the moral standards of the government and society in order to provide a strong foundation for good governance
- To shift from patronage politics to new politics marked by dialogue with the people
- To promote leadership by example and solid traits such as a dignified lifestyle, matching action to rhetoric, and performing rather than grandstanding
- To pursue an economic philosophy of transparency and private enterprise and extend the opportunities to the rural countryside
The international community, through the individual embassies and consulates in the Philippines, recognized Arroyo as the new president. Philippine government officials and members of the armed forces and the national police also pledged allegiance to the new leadership. The business sector welcomed Arroyo's expertise in economics to give direction to the country's economy.
The support of civil society and the Supreme Court's favorable decision were crucial in solidifying Arroyo's ascendancy as president of the Philippines. She further gained support from the people when she appointed Senator Teofisto Guingona as vice president on February 6, 2001. The victory of her senatorial allies in the May 2001 national elections also guaranteed that her priority measures and bills would be supported in Congress. With the support of various sectors of society, Arroyo began the task of reforming the country's struggling economy and perceived corruption in government.
Arroyo's first term as president was characterized by the policies and programs that she pursued as reiterated in her State of the Nation Address (SONA) from 2001 to 2003. She presented her vision for the country through the slogan "Building a strong republic." Arroyo placed a high premium on reforming and strengthening the bureaucracy, lowering crime rate, increasing tax collection, improving economic growth, and intensifying efforts against terrorism.
Challenges to the presidency
The first term of her presidency saw Arroyo facing various challenges from those who questioned her legitimacy as president. She was also implicated in allegations of corruption and in the alleged involvement of First Gentleman Mike Arroyo in various government transactions, such as the botched NBN-ZTE deal.
- Estrada supporters and EDSA III
Days after leaving Malacañang, President Estrada's lawyers questioned the legitimacy of Arroyo's presidency before the Supreme Court. He reiterated that he did not resign as president and that at most, Arroyo was just serving in an acting capacity. The high court, however, voted unanimously in upholding the legitimacy of Arroyo's succession. As a consequence, Estrada no longer enjoyed immunity from charges being filed against him.
In the last week of April 2001, the Sandiganbayan ordered the arrest of Estrada and his son Senator Jinggoy Estrada for plunder charges. A few days later, Estrada supporters protested his arrest, gathered at the EDSA Shrine, and staged what they called EDSA III—comparing their actions to the People Power Revolution of 1986 and January 2001.
Thousands of protesters demanded the release of Estrada. Eventually, they also called for the ouster of Arroyo and the reinstatement of the former. On May 1, 2001, they marched towards Malacañang to force Arroyo to give in to their demands. Violence erupted when the protesters attempted to storm the presidential palace and the military and police were forced to use their arms to drive them back. Arroyo declared a state of rebellion because of the violence and prominent political personalities affiliated with Estrada were charged and arrested. The so-called EDSA III was the first serious political challenge to the Arroyo presidency.
- Oakwood Mutiny
On July 26, 2003, the Arroyo presidency faced another challenge when a group of junior military officers and their men occupied the Oakwood Premier Ayala Center in Makati City. The group called themselves Magdalo, whose leaders were Navy Lt. Antonio Trillanes IV, Capt. Gerardo Gambala, and Capt. Milo Maestrecampo. According to Trillanes, the group's spokesperson, they decided to act since they saw signs that Arroyo was going to declare martial law. He reiterated their call for the resignation of high-ranking military officials, the secretary of the Department of National Defense, and Arroyo herself.
Arroyo addressed the nation on television and warned of hostile action if the Magdalo soldiers did not surrender. Senator Rodolfo Biazon was also requested to talk to the rebel soldiers. They surrendered soon after it became apparent that they would be attacked by government forces.
The so-called Oakwood Mutiny was rumored to have been connected to Estrada and his supporters. Arroyo formed the Feliciano Commission to investigate the mutiny. The commission later found that the action of the Magdalo soldiers was planned and not spontaneous and was an attempt to bring down the Arroyo government. However, the connection to Estrada was never proven.
- Jose Pidal controversy
On August 18, 2003, Senator Panfilo Lacson accused First Gentleman Mike Arroyo of siphoning campaign funds into a bank account under the fictitious name Jose Pidal. Although the accusation was never legally substantiated, the effects weighed more on Arroyo's presidency as she was accused of tolerating her husband's interference in government.
Second Arroyo presidential term, 2004-2010
Article VII Section 4 of the 1987 Constitution explicitly states that a president of the Philippines can only serve for one term. However, the same provision also implicitly states that a president's successor who has not served for more than four years can still seek a full term for the presidency. Although Arroyo falls under this category, she initially announced on December 30, 2002 that she would not seek reelection. She emphasized that she would devote her remaining months in office to serving the people and improving the economy of the Philippines.
However, in October 2003, Arroyo announced that she would run in the May 2004 presidential elections. With her decision, criticisms were hurled against Arroyo on her supposed lack of word of honor.
Rivals for the presidency
Running against Arroyo for presidency were the following:
- Fernando Poe, Jr. – a popular actor and close friend of President Estrada
- Panfilo Lacson – a senator and former director general of the Philippine National Police
- Raul Roco – a former senator and secretary of the Department of Education (DepEd) under Arroyo
- Eddie Villanueva – an evangelist and leader of the Jesus is Lord (JIL) movement
Although it was a five-way presidential race, Arroyo and Poe were the main contenders. Poe was, like Estrada, an actor, and a close friend of the former president. Arroyo was the beneficiary of Estrada's ouster from the presidency. The May 2004 elections became an unofficial referendum on the legitimacy of the Arroyo administration and Estrada's imprisonment.
Arroyo's campaign platform centered on issues such as the shift to a parliamentary and federal form of government, job creation, and universal health insurance. She also pushed for tougher stance and action against illegal drugs and local and international terrorism.
Poe, on the other hand, enjoyed tremendous popularity because of his profession but was hounded early on by questions regarding his citizenship. He was also criticized severely for his perceived lack of platform for government, his refusal to participate in public forum and debate, and his animosity towards the press.
Early in the campaign, Poe enjoyed a significant lead in terms of popularity and awareness based on Social Weather Station (SWS) surveys. However, as the campaign period came to a close, Arroyo was able to surpass Poe. This was attributed to the efficiency of the Lakas-NUCD-UMDP-Kampi machinery during the campaign period as well as the inability of Poe to elaborate on his plans and programs.
As predicted by SWS exit polls, Arroyo won the election by a margin of over one million votes against Poe. However, the congressional canvassing was quite contentious as opposition lawmakers in the National Board of Canvassers argued that there were many discrepancies in the election returns and that insinuations of cheating were raised. On June 23, 2004, congress proclaimed Arroyo and Noli de Castro as president and vice president, respectively.
On June 30, 2004, in a break with tradition, Arroyo first delivered her inaugural speech at the Quirino Grandstand in Manila. She then departed for Cebu City for her oath taking, the first time that a Philippine president took the oath of office outside of Luzon.
Election rigging allegations
Allegations of cheating against Arroyo gained momentum one year after the May 2004 elections. In a press conference held on June 10, 2005, Samuel Ong, former deputy director of the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI), claimed to have audio recordings of wiretapped conversations between Arroyo and an official of the Commission on Elections (COMELEC). Virgilio Garcillano, a former COMELEC commissioner, would later be identified as the official talking to Arroyo. According to Ong, the recordings proved that Arroyo ordered the rigging of the national elections for her to win by about one million votes against Poe.
The recordings of Ong became known as the "Hello Garci" scandal and triggered massive protests against Arroyo. Key members of her cabinet resigned from their respective posts and urged Arroyo to do the same. On June 27, 2005, Arroyo admitted to inappropriately speaking to a COMELEC official, claiming it was a "lapse in judgement." She, however, denied influencing the outcome of the elections and declared that she won the elections fairly. Arroyo did not resign despite pressure coming from various sectors of society.
The Hello Garci controversy became the basis of the impeachment case filed against Arroyo in 2005.
Attempts to impeach Arroyo failed later that year. Another impeachment case was filed against Arroyo in 2006 but was also defeated in the House of representatives.
In October 2007, lawyer Alan Paguia filed an impeachment complaint against Arroyo in connection with the issue of bribery. Paguia's complaint was based on the revelation of Pampanga Gov. Ed Panlilio that various governors received half a million pesos from Malacañang.
Fertilizer Fund Scam
In the fertilizer fund scam controversy, it was alleged that funding from the Department of Agriculture (DA) that was allocated for the purchase of fertilizer for farmers was used to fund President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo’s election campaign.
On March 6, 2004, as reported by the Philippine Daily Inquirer, Senator Panfilo Lacson accused Arroyo of buying votes with the Php 729 million she approved for the purchase of fertilizers by local government officials. On August 25, 2005 an episode of ‘’The Probe Team’’ featured farmers who claimed that they had not received the fertilizer from the DA. The Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ) reported on September 28 and 29 that billions of pesos of farm funds were used by Arroyo to fund her presidential campaign. The Senate began investigating this matter on October 6. Jocelyn “Joc-Joc” Bolante, who was appointed Department of Agriculture undersecretary for finance at the beginning of Arroyo’s term, failed to appear at the hearings conducted by the Senate. On December 11, 2005, Bolante fled to the United States instead of going to a Senate hearing, claiming that there had been attempts on his life by the New People’s Army, which the NPA later denied. The Senate cited him for contempt two days later and ordered that he be arrested.
Issues from 2004 and beyond
An economist by training, Arroyo made the economy of the Philippines the focus of her presidency. From 2001 to 2005, the country's gross domestic product (GDP) averaged 4.6 percent. Inflation during her presidency had been the lowest since 1986, averaging 5.3 percent. Critics of the Arroyo administration, however, reiterated that the modest gains of the economy could also be attributed to the remittances of overseas Filipino workers (OFW).
- Foreign policy
Since 2001, the foreign policy of Arroyo had been closely related to efforts against terrorism, strengthening ties with allied countries, and pushing for stronger trade relations with trading partners through the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), and other similar international groups.
Arroyo's stance against terrorism was magnified after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States and the subsequent war on terror launched by US President George W. Bush. In 2003, Arroyo sent a small military contingent to Iraq to perform humanitarian work in the country. However, the contingent was pulled out in 2004, when Angelo de la Cruz, an OFW in Iraq, was abducted by the group of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. The group threatened to kill de la Cruz if the Philippines would not pull out from Iraq. Arroyo gave in to the demand, a decision hailed by Filipinos but critcized by the US, Australia, and other allied countries against terrorism.
- Charter Change
In her 2005 State of the Nation Address (SONA), Arroyo mentioned the need "to start the great debate on charter change" and implement changes in the system of government. She reiterated that there was a need to shift from a presidential-unitary form of government to a parliamentary-federal form of government.
The initiative of Arroyo was widely supported by the House of Representatives, and its members agreed to implement it through a constituent assembly. However, the call for charter change was largely ignored by the Senate. Members of civil society and the Catholic Church also reiterated their stance against any move that would amend or change the 1987 Constitution.
- EO 464 and CPR
Criticisms against Arroyo escalated following the Hello Garci controversy. To address the violence that resulted in protest rallies against the government, members of the PNP were given orders to implement the calibrated preemptive response (CPR). This directive emphasized that rallies without permits would be forcibly dispersed.
Arroyo also issued Executive Order No. 464 (EO 464) preventing executive department officials from appearing in congressional inquiries without her prior consent. EO 464 and the CPR were challenged before the Supreme Court. The high court ruled that some sections of EO 464 were unconstitutional but the executive order as a whole was not.
- State of Emergency
On February 24, 2006, a plot to take over the government by a group allegedly headed by General Danny Lim and other military personnel was uncovered by authorities. General Lim and some of his men were arrested. To face the threat, Arroyo issued Presidential Proclamation 1017 (PP 1017) and used it as a basis in declaring a state of emergency throughout the Philippines. According to Arroyo, this declaration was done to quell military rebellion, stop lawless violence, and promote peace and stability. PP 1017 also empowered the government to enforce warrantless arrests and take over strategic private utilities companies.
On February 25, 2006, the police raided the office of the Daily Tribune, a newspaper known to be a critic of the Arroyo administration. The government then issued journalism guidelines to address the threat posed by critics in the media. Presidential Management Staff chief Michael Defensor said that the guidelines were necessary in order for the government to cope with the emergency situation.
The state of emergency existed for about one week. The police and the military dispersed demonstrators and protesters, especially those along Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA). Aside from General Lim, prominent personalities were also arrested in connection with their alleged participation in the attempt to overthrow the government. Among those arrested were:
- Col. Ariel Querubin - the leader of a group of Philippine Marines who engaged the government in a political stand-off at Fort Bonifacio on February 25, 2005
- Randy David - a University of the Philippines professor who led a protest
- Crispin Beltran - a party-list representative of Anakpawis charged with inciting to sedition and rebellion
- Batasan Five - party-list representatives charged with rebellion and who were placed under the custody of the House of Representatives. They included Bayan Muna's Teodoro Casiño, Satur Ocampo, and Joel Virador; Gabriela's Liza Maza, and Anakpawis's Rafael Mariano
PP 1017 was lifted on March 3, 2006 but members of the opposition, private lawyers, and concerned citizens challenged its constitutionality before the Supreme Court. On May 4, the high court declared the proclamation constitutional. However, it also said that it was illegal for the government to implement warrantless arrests and seize private institutions and companies.
Election to the House of Representatives
In an unprecedented move, President Arroyo announced her bid to run for Congress. On 1 December 2009, she personally filed her certificate of candidacy (CoC) for congresswoman of the second district of Pampanga in the Commission on Elections (Comelec) office in San Fernando City, Pampanga. The move drew widespread criticism from different sectors of society, fearing that the president would use the position to continue pushing for charter change which might lead to her becoming the prime minister.
She was elected to Congress in May 2010 with a landslide victory. She declined to seek the position of speaker of the house despite being considered the strongest contender. On her first day as a lawmaker, she and her son Dato filed a resolution calling for a constitutional convention to propose amendments to the existing constitution.
Spinal surgery and house arrest
Arroyo was diagnosed with cervical spondylosis or cervical radiculopathy in June 2011. She underwent a five-hour spine surgery on June 29, 2011 and two more in August, which supposedly aggravated her hypoparathyroidism. Despite the Department of Justice (DOJ) holding a departure order, the House of Representatives issued a travel permit to have treatment in Germany.
She was arrested on November 19, 2011, a day after a warrant of arrest was issued by the Pasay City Regional Trial Court Branch 112, under the sala of judge Jesus Mupas. She was under hospital arrest in the Veterans Memorial Medical Center (VMMC) in Quezon City and faced charges of electoral fraud related to probable anomalies in the 2007 congressional elections to favor her allies. She was released from hospital arrest on bail on July 25, 2012. Three months later, she refused to enter any plea on charges she misused $8.8 million in state lottery funds during her term in office.
Reelection to the House of Representatives
While still confined at VMMC, Arroyo successfully bagged a second term as representative for Pampanga's second legislative district in 2013.
She underwent tests and treatment at St. Luke's Medical Center and returned for confinement at VMMC in May and June 2014. Her attorneys renewed their application for bail in June 2014.
Case dismissal and election as House speaker
After winning another reelection to Congress in May 2016, the Supreme Court dismissed the charges against Arroyo in July. The court cited insufficient evidence to bring a case against Arroyo relating to misuse of lottery funds during her administration. In 2018, Arroyo, an ally of President Rodrigo Duterte, was elected by 184 house members as the 21st speaker of the House of Representatives. She was the first woman to hold the leadership post.
In November 2020, she was appointed as Presidential Adviser on Clark Programs and Projects.
- Buensalido, Joy and Florendo, Abe. 100 Women of the Philippines (Celebrating Filipina Womanhood in the New Millenium). Buensalido and Associates, 1999.
- Lazaro, Isagani L. Mga Dakilang Lider na Pilipino, 5th edition. National Book Store, 2004.
- http://www.op.gov.ph/biography.asp Biography of Pres. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Office of the President of the Philippines Website. (Accessed on September 15, 2007)
- http://www.macapagal.com/gma/biography/index_bio.php Biography of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Official Website of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. (Accessed on September 15, 2007)
- http://www.i-site.ph/Databases/Executive/President/2004-2010/arroyo-personal.html Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo: Personal, Political, and other Related Information. I-Site Website. (Accessed on September 15, 2007)
- http://www.news.ops.gov.ph/pgma_10point-agenda.htm President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo's 10-Point Agenda Official Website of the Office of the Press Secretary. (Accessed on September 15, 2007)
- http://www.filipiniana.net/readbook_content.jsp?filename=C00000000002&keyword=1987%20Constitution%20of%20the%20%20Philippines&searchKey= 1987 Constitution. http://www.filipiniana.net/index.jsp Filipiniana.net (Accessed on September 15, 1987)
- Tan, Fidelis Angela. http://www.thepoc.net/breaking-news/breaking-stories/14146-warrant-out-for-arroyos-arrest.html Warrant out for Arroyo's arrest. The Philippine Online Chronicles. (Accessed on 5 March 2012)
- The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Gloria-Macapagal-Arroyo. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. (Accessed on 15 December 2020)
- https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/20/world/asia/philippines-gloria-arroyo-corruption-dismissed.html. Philippines Clears Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, Ex-President, of Graft Charges. The New York Times. (Accessed on 15 December 2020)
- Lalu, Gabriel Pabico, Patricia Ann V. Roxas, and Vince F. Nonato. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1013538/its-official-gloria-macapagal-arroyo-elected-as-house-speaker. Backed by 184 lawmakers, Gloria Arroyo takes oath as Speaker. Inquirer.net. (Accessed on 15 December 2020)
- Orejas, Tonette. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1365196/duterte-names-ex-president-macapagal-arroyo-adviser-for-clark. Duterte names ex-president Macapagal-Arroyo adviser for Clark. (Accessed on 15 December 2020)]
Original content from WikiPilipinas. under GNU Free Documentation License. See full disclaimer.
- Presidents of the Philippines
- Vice Presidents of the Philippines
- Senators of the Philippines
- Philippine Women
- Philippine Women by Profession
- Philippine Women in Government
- Ateneo de Manila University alumni
- Macapagal-Arroyo Clan
- Kapampangan people
- Macapagal family
- People from Pampanga
- Filipino Firsts
- Prominent Filipinos
- University of the Philippines
- Controversial UP Alumni
- UP 100