Filipino Americans

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The Filipino American (abbreviated Fil-Am) community is the second largest Asian American group in the United States, following the Chinese community and the largest Southeast Asian American group. Filipino Americans trace their ancestry back to the Philippines, an archipelagic nation in Southeast Asia that is south of Taiwan and east of the South China Sea. [2]

The United States 2000 Census counted 2.4 million Americans who identified as Filipino. This makes the Filipino American community account for about 22% of the Asian American population. In 2007, the population rose to 4 million. [1]

Filipino Americans are the largest subgroup of the Overseas Filipinos. More than half of the community are either naturalized or American-born, while the remainder are Filipino nationals or dual citizens of both the Philippines and the United States.

Most Filipino Americans reside in California, Hawaii, Washington, Guam, Chicago Metropolitan Area, and the New York City Metropolitan Area. They form the largest group of Asians in Alaska, California, Maine, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Virginia, Washington, Wyoming, and Guam. And in addition to they are the second largest group of Asians in Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Illinois, Maine, Mississippi, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia.

Congress has established two months in celebration of Filipino American culture in the United States. Asian Pacific American Heritage Month, which is celebrated in May. Upon becoming the largest Asian American group in California, Filipino American History Month was established in October. This is to commemorate the first landing of Filipinos on October 18, 1587 in Morro Bay, California and is widely celebrated by Fil-Ams in the United States. [3] [4]

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21st Century Issues

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Discrimination

Like most immigrants, Filipino Americans suffer from discrimination. In the early 20th century, Filipino Americans were barred from marrying White Americans, a group which included Hispanic Americans. This was because many Filipino men secretly married or cohabitated with White women in California and the South during the 1920s and 1930s. [19] Many were racially segregated into small settlements and were forbidden to travel. The situation became worse after events such as the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair and the Philippine-American War created many negative stereotypes.

However, after World War II attitudes towards Filipinos changed. Still, discrimination only subsided during the 1960s, when racial discrimination against minorities became illegal.

Today, Filipino Americans are working against racial discrimination in the work force. Despite the level of education and workplace productivity, the community continues to see discrepancies between their salaries and compared to the salaries of other ethnicities. There is also a lack of those or few who have actually reached the upper rungs of executive positions.

Recent race-based hate crimes against Filipino Americans have occurred, the most notably the 1999 murder of Joseph Ileto by white supremacist Aryan Nations member Buford Furrow and the March 16, 2007 assault of Marie Stefanie Martinez. [20] There have also been cases of unreasonable deportation and visa rejection against Filipino Americans, and greater scrutiny when re-entering the United States from Mexico and Canada, even for native-born US citizens. [21] Filipino Americans today are continuing to be active in the fight against racial discrimination against any race.

Post 9/11 Issues

After the attacks on 11 September 2001, the United States government led a crackdown on foreign visitors and workers, which included Filipinos who entered the United States on temporary education and work visas but often choose to stay after their visas expire. The United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization Service was dissolved and replaced with the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services in hopes of more aggressive prevention of visa fraud.

Also, due to the links of Philippine Islamist group Abu Sayyaf to Al-Qaeda, some Filipino Americans have been under suspicion, and have allegedly been mistreated based on the assumption that they are collaborators to extremists. [22]

World War II veteran benefits

During World War II, over 200,000 Filipinos fought with Americans against the Japanese. They were promised with all the benefits afforded to those serving in the Military of the United States. Unfortunately, in 1946, the American Congress passed the Rescission Act which stripped Filipinos of all the benefits promised. Of the sixty-six countries allied with the United States during the war, the Philippines is the only country that did not receive military benefits from the United States.

Since the passage of the Rescission Act, many Filipino veterans have traveled to the United States to lobby Congress for the benefits promised to them for their service and sacrifice. Over 30,000 of such veterans live in the United States today, with most being American citizens. Sociologists introduced the phrase "Second Class Veterans" to describe the plight of these Filipino Americans. Since 1993, numerous bills were introduced in Congress to return the benefits taken away from these veterans. However, the bills died in committee. but the struggle continues today. The current "full equity" bills are S. 146 in the Senate, and H.R. 4574 in the House of Representatives.

Holidays and Celebrations

Filipino Americans are fond of celebration. It is not unusual for a families (and extended families) to host at least a dozen occasions a year (i.e., baptisms, birthdays, funerals, holidays, showers, weddings). Celebrations are highlighted by large buffets of traditional Filipino food including but not limited to adobo (savory soy sauce and vinegar stewed beef, pork or chicken), lumpia (egg rolls), pansit (fried noodles), litson (pronounced leh-chon, whole roasted pig), and fresh grilled fish. In Ilocano celabrations, the food tends to be bitter such as pinapaitan (beef stewed in bile broth). Often such affairs can grow to become major neighborhood block parties.

Filipino American fondness for festivities has led to the establishment of community-wide festivals celebrating the Filipino culture. These usually take the form of fiestas, street fairs, and parades. Most festivals occur in May during Asian Pacific American Heritage Month, which includes Flores de Mayo, a Roman Catholic harvest feast in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Several events commemorating the Philippine Declaration of Independence occur mostly in June since it is the most imporatant event for the community. An example of these is the Philippine Independence Day Parade in New York City, the largest Filipino celebration of any kind in country.

Major Celebrations in the United States
Date Name Region
January (Third Sunday) Winter Sinulog Philadelphia, PA
April Easter Salubong Nationwide, USA
April PhilFest Tampa, FL
May

Asian Pacific American Heritage Month||Nationwide, USA

May Filipino Festival New Orleans, LA
May Filipino Fiesta and Parade Honolulu, HI
May Flores de Mayo Nationwide, USA
June (First Sunday) Philippine Independence Day Parade New York, NY
June (Second Sunday) Philippine Day Parade Passaic, NJ
June Pista Sa Nayon Vallejo, CA
June New York Filipino Film Festival at The ImaginAsian Theatre New York, NY
June Empire State Building commemorates Philippine Independence [23] New York, NY
June (Last Sunday) Philippine-American Friendship Day Parade Jersey City, NJ
June 12 Fiesta Filipina San Francisco, CA
June 12 Philippine Independence Day Nationwide, USA
June Pagdiriwang Seattle, WA
July Fil-Am Friendship Day Virginia Beach, VA
July Pista sa Nayon Seattle, WA
July Philippine Weekend [24] Delano, CA
August Annual Philippine Fiesta [25] Secaucus, NJ
August (Third Sunday) Summer Sinulog Philadelphia, PA
September 27 Festival of San Lorenzo Luis New Orleans, LA
September Festival of Philippine Arts and Culture (FPAC) Los Angeles, CA
October Filipino American History Month Nationwide, USA
December 16 to 24 Simbang Gabi Christmas Dawn Masses Nationwide, USA
December 25 Pasko Christmas Feast Nationwide, USA
December 30 Jose Rizal Day Nationwide, USA

Timeline

  • 1763, first permanent Filipino settlements established in North America near Barataria Bay in southern Louisiana
  • 1781, Antonio Miranda Rodriguez chosen a member of the first group of settlers to establish the City of Los Angeles, California
  • 1898, United States annexes the Philippines
  • 1903, first Pensionados, Filipinos invited to attend college in the United States on American government scholarships, arrive
  • 1906, first Filipino laborers migrate to the United States to work on the Hawaiian sugarcane and pineapple plantations, California and Washington asparagus farms, Washington lumber, Alaska salmon canneries
  • 1920s, Filipino labor leaders organize unions and strategic strikes to improve working and living conditions
  • 1933, California Civil Code, section 60, amended to prohibit marriages between between white persons and members of the Malay race (i.e. Filipinos). (Stats. 1933, p. 561.)
  • 1936, Philippines becomes self-governing. Commonwealth of the Philippines inaugurated
  • 1939, Washington Supreme Court rules unconstitutional the Anti-Alien Land Law of 1937 which banned Filipino Americans from owning land
  • 1955, Peter Aduja becomes first Filipino American elected to office becoming a member of the Hawai'i State House of Representatives
  • 1956, Bobby Balcena becomes first Filipino American to play Major League baseball, for the Cincinnati Reds
  • 1965, Delano grape strike begins when members of Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee, mostly Filipino farm workers in Delano, California walked off the farms of area table grape growers demanding wages on level with the federal minimum wage. Labor leader Philip Vera Cruz subsequently served as second vice president and on the managing board of the United Farm Workers.
  • 1981. Silme Domingo and Gene Viernes were both assassinated on June 1, 1981 inside a Seattle downtown union hall. The late Philippine Dictator Ferdinand Marcos hired gunmen to murder both ILWU Local 37 officers to silence the growing movement in the United States opposing the dictatorship in the Philippines.
  • 1987, Benjamin J. Cayetano becomes the first Filipino American and second Asian American elected Lt. Governor of a state of the Union
  • 1993, Mario R. Ramil appointed Associate Justice to the Hawai'i Supreme Court, the second Filipino American to reach the court
  • 1994, Benjamin J. Cayetano becomes the first Filipino American and second Asian American elected Governor of a state of the Union
  • 2003, Philippine Republic Act No. 9225, also known as the Citizenship Retention and Re-Acquisition Act of 2003 enacted, allowing natural-born Filipinos naturalized in the United States and their unmarried minor children to reclaim Filipino nationality and hold dual citizenship
  • 2006, Congress passes legislation that commemorates the 100 Years of Filipino Migration to the United States

Notable people

Template:Further

Further reading

  • Carl L. Bankston III, "Filipino Americans," in Pyong Gap Min (ed.), Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues ISBN 1-4129-0556-7
  • Bautista, Veltisezar. The Filipino Americans from 1763 to the Present: Their History, Culture, and Traditions , ISBN 0-931613-17-5
  • Crisostomom Isabelo T. Filipino Achievers in the U.S.A. & Canada: Profiles in Excellence, ISBN 0-931613-11-6
  • Isaac, Allan Punzalan. American Tropics: Articulating Filipino America, (University of Minnesota Press; 205 pages; 2007) Analyzes images of the Philippines in Hollywood cinema, Boy Scout adventure novels, Progressive Era literature, and other realms
  • A. Tiongson, E. Gutierrez, R. Gutierrez, eds. Positively No Filipinos Allowed, ISBN 1-59213-122-0
  • Filipino American Lives by Yen Le Espiritu, ISBN 1-56639-317-5
  • Filipinos in Chicago (Images of America)] by Estrella Ravelo Alamar, Willi Red Buhay ISBN 0-7385-1880-8

News

  • "Filipino Population in U.S. rivals Chinese-Americans", Honolulu Advertiser, 18 November 1996, Gannett News Service

Fiction

See also

References

  1. ^ a b US-Philippine relations. Retrieved on 2007- 05-17.
  2. ^ US demographic census. Retrieved on [2006]- 08-28.
  3. ^ Sulat sa Tanso. Retrieved on 2006- 08-28.
  4. ^ history. Retrieved on 2006- 08-28.
  5. ^ Statistical Abstrac of the United States: page 47: Table 47: Languages Spoken at Home by Language: 2003. Retrieved on 2006- 07-11.
  6. ^ Statistical Most spoken languages in Hawai'i. Retrieved on 2007- 01-20.
  7. ^ http://www.chapelofsanlorenzoruiz.org/Home.html
  8. ^ Filipino nurses preferred. Retrieved on 2006- 09-01.
  9. ^ More US States hire teachers from the Philippines. Retrieved on 2007- 01-21.
  10. ^ Green-card limbo. Retrieved on 2006- 12-15.
  11. ^ http://www.asian-nation.org/interracial.shtml
  12. ^ http://www.asian-nation.org/multiracial.shtml
  13. ^ Speaking Truth to Power!!. Retrieved on 2006- 08-28.
  14. ^ U.S. economics. Retrieved on 2006- 08-28.
  15. ^ economics. Retrieved on 2006- 08-28.
  16. ^ http://www.asianweek.com/2002_11_01/feature_model.html
  17. ^ Overseas Filipino Remittances. Retrieved on 2006- 11-21.
  18. ^ a b Filipino-Owned Firms 2002. Retrieved on 2006- 12-06.
  19. ^ http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Du-Ha/Filipino-Americans.html
  20. ^ http://www.nypost.com/seven/03182007/news/regionalnews/girls_bloody_beating_regionalnews_dan_mangan________and_leela_de_kretser.htm
  21. ^ http://policy.miis.edu/docs/sayyaf.pdf
  22. ^ http://policy.miis.edu/docs/sayyaf.pdf
  23. ^ Empire State lights up for Filipinos — again. Retrieved on 2006- 08-28.
  24. ^ Filipino weekend. Retrieved on 2006- 08-28.
  25. ^ Philippine Fiesta.. Retrieved on 2006- 08-28.

External links

Original Source

Template:Wikipedia source