Douglas MacArthur

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This article is about the American soldier; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar.

Douglas MacArthur (26 January 1880 - 5 April 1964), was an American general who played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II. He was poised to command the invasion of Japan in November 1945 but was instead instructed to accept their surrender on 2 September 1945. MacArthur oversaw the occupation of Japan from 1945 to 1951 and was credited for making far-ranging democratic changes in that country. He led United Nations forces defending South Korea in 1950-51 against North Korea's invasion. MacArthur was relieved of command by President Harry Truman in April 1951 for insubordination and failure to follow Presidential directives.

MacArthur fought in three major wars (World War I, World War II, Korean War) and rose to the rank of General of the Army; one of less than 10 people to ever do so. MacArthur remains one of the most controversial figures in American history. While some have greatly admired MacArthur for what they consider his strategic and tactical brilliance, others have criticized his actions in command, his military judgment, and his challenges to President Truman in 1951.

Early Life and Education

Douglas MacArthur was born in Little Rock, Arkansas to Lieutenant General Arthur MacArthur, Jr., a recipient of the Medal of Honor, and Mary Pinkney Hardy MacArthur of Norfolk, Virginia. Douglas MacArthur was the grandson of jurist and politician Arthur MacArthur, Sr. He was baptized at Christ Episcopal Church in Little Rock on 16 May 1880.

In his memoir Reminiscences, MacArthur wrote that his first memory was the sound of the bugle, and that he had learned to 'ride and shoot even before I could read or write--indeed, almost before I could walk and talk'.

MacArthur's father was posted to San Antonio, Texas in 1893. There, Douglas attended West Texas Military Academy (now known as T.M.I.: The Episcopal School of Texas), where he became an excellent student. MacArthur entered the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1898 (accompanied by his mother, who occupied a hotel suite overlooking the grounds of the Academy). An outstanding cadet, he graduated first in his 93-man class in 1903. For his prowess in sports, military training, and academic pursuit he was awarded the coveted title of the “First Captain Of The Corps Of Cadets”. Only two other students in the history of West Point have surpassed his achievements (Robert E. Lee being one). MacArthur became a Second Lieutenant in the United States Army Corps of Engineers . During his time in Milwaukee as an engineering officer he received a poor performance rating due to his dislike for his assigned duties. This changed when he was reassigned to serve as an aide-de-camp to his father, the appointed Governor General when the Philippines were a U.S. possession. From 1904 to 1914 MacArthur was assigned to engineering duties in the Philippines, Wisconsin, Kansas, Michigan, Texas, and Panama. During that time he attended the Engineer School of Application (1906-1907), receiving a degree in 1908, and worked in the Office of the Chief of Engineers.

The Pancho Villa Expedition

As a young officer in the Pancho Villa Expedition (also called the Punitive Expedition) in 1916-1917, MacArthur distinguished himself in several acts of personal bravery, including one railroad chase back to American lines for which he was highly decorated. For these achievements, he was reassigned duty to the Army General Staff and put in charge of dealing with the National Guard Bureau within the War Department. In early 1917, prior to US entry into World War I, MacArthur found himself elevated two grades in rank from major to (full) colonel and asked to mobilize the Guard Units for potential overseas combat.

World War I

During World War I MacArthur served in France, as chief of staff of the 42nd ("Rainbow") Division. Upon his promotion to Brigadier General he became the commander of the 84th Infantry Brigade. A few weeks before the war ended he became division commander. During the war, MacArthur received two Distinguished Service Crosses, seven Silver Stars, a Distinguished Service Medal, and two Purple Hearts. Douglas MacArthur made it his policy to 'lead... men from the front'. Because of this policy, and the fact that he usually refused to wear a gas mask while the rest of his men would, he had respiratory problems the rest of his life. Still, he was the most decorated officer of the war and General Menoher once said that he was the "greatest fighting man" in the army. However, because of his own personal risks, he was also taken to task at times by his superior officers, including General John "Black Jack" Pershing, the AEF Commander, who was very concerned about his best field commander. MacArthur, however, felt that he was being singled out because of his heroics and became hypersensitive to Pershing in later years because of his being "chewed out".

Inter-war years

As did many of the officers after the war, MacArthur had a difficult time finding a full-time position in the Army. This devastated him. However, he was permitted to retain his war-time rank unlike many others who reverted to their lesser permanent ranks. He used all of his father's connections as well as his own in his search for a suitable assignment. One offer included becoming military attache to the Bureau of Indian Affairs. He kept his star after the war primarily because of the support of General Peyton March, the new Army chief of staff. In 1919 MacArthur became superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, which had become out of date in many respects and was much in need of reform. MacArthur ordered drastic changes in the tactical, athletic and disciplinary systems; he modernized the curriculum, adding liberal arts, government and economics courses.

In 1921, General of the Armies John Pershing became Army Chief of Staff and MacArthur found that his career was going to take a turn as he was expected to perform overseas duty. From 1922 to 1930, MacArthur served two tours of duty in the Philippines, the second as commander of the Philippine Department (1928-1930); he also served two tours as commander of corps areas in the states. In 1925 he was promoted to major general, the youngest officer of that rank at the time, and served on the court-martial that convicted Brigadier General Billy Mitchell. In 1928 he headed the U.S. Olympic Committee for the 1928 Summer Olympics.

He married Henrietta Louise Cromwell Brooks, a wealthy heiress, on February 14, 1922. She was the stepdaughter of Edward T. Stotesbury, a partner at J.P. Morgan & Co. She had two children from a previous marriage. They were divorced in 1929.

President Herbert Hoover appointed MacArthur Army Chief of Staff in November 1930, with the temporary rank of (four-star General. He faced severe budget cuts, and at the same time a surge in enlistments because of unemployment. His most controversial actions came in 1932, when Hoover ordered him to disperse the 'Bonus Army' of veterans who were in the capital protesting against the government. MacArthur received negative publicity for using tear gas against the veterans as well as tanks, cavalry with sabers drawn, and infantry with fixed bayonets. According to MacArthur, the demonstration had been taken over by Communists and pacifists by the time of his action, with, he claimed, only 'one man in 10 being veterans'. Hundreds of veterans were injured including two killed, and veterans' families also numbered among the injured that included children as well.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt renewed his appointment as Chief of Staff during the hard times of the depression era. By the time MacArthur finished his tour as Chief of Staff in October 1935, the army ranked 16th in size among the world's armies, with 13,000 officers and 126,000 enlisted men. Despite bleak times, MacArthur's main programs included the development of new mobilization plans, the establishment of a mobile general headquarters air force, and a four-army reorganization which improved administrative efficiency. He supported the New Deal by enthusiastically operating the Civilian Conservation Corps (although, as an outspoken reactionary, he often had bitter disagreements with the New Dealers). He brought along many talented mid-career officers, including George C. Marshall, and Dwight D. Eisenhower. However, MacArthur made enemies with many members of the Roosevelt administration and clashed with FDR at times due to his controversial personality and his strong opinions. Following his retirement as Chief of Staff, he reverted to his permanent grade of major general and undertook an offer to head to the Philippines.

When the Commonwealth of the Philippines achieved semi-independent status in 1935, with its own army, the President of the Philippines Manuel L. Quezon asked MacArthur to supervise the creation of a Philippine Army. As a general, MacArthur elected not to retire and remained on the active list as a major general and with Roosevelt's approval MacArthur accepted the assignment. MacArthur had been friends with Quezon when his father was Governor General. MacArthur had two conditions for taking the job: his salary was to be the same as the President's, and his housing had to be equal to that of the President. He felt justified in this since the house that the President was using had been the one Douglas had known as a child, Malacanang Palace. The Palace has been the home of the Spanish Governor General, the American Governor General and all Philippine Presidents to present day. In addition, MacArthur was given the rank of "Field Marshal of the Philippine Army" (and was the seniormost officered list on the rolls of officers in the Philippine Army today--he was also the only American military officer to hold the rank of field marshal).

It was decided to house MacArthur in a suite at the world famous Manila Hotel. The hotel was owned by the Philippine Government. It was on Manila Bay across the park from the Army & Navy Club, MacArthur's favorite haunt. It was conveniently near the U.S. Embassy. Government accountants decided that the best way to handle the cost of the suite was to make MacArthur a hotel employee entitled to housing. MacArthur was given the honorary title of "General Manager". MacArthur ignored the honorary status and took control of hotel management while he lived there. The MacArthur Suite still exists in the hotel.

Despite the fact that Manila was one of the cities most devastated by Japanese bombs in WWII this hotel survived intact. Pictures show the city almost leveled except for the Manila Hotel. MacArthur's suite was occupied by the highest ranking military officer in the islands. MacArthur gave the same order to American pilots when the Philippines were retaken. Legend has it that his suite and personal possessions that were left behind were still intact. MacArthur had tremendous respect for the tradition of "honor among warriors."

MacArthur heavily invested in Philippine mining and industry. Before the Philippine National Bank in New York City closed when the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, MacArthur was able to sell all of his holdings and convert all of his pesos to dollars.

Among MacArthur's assistants as Military Advisor to the Commonwealth of the Philippines was Dwight D. Eisenhower.

On 30 April 1937, MacArthur married his second wife, Jean Faircloth; they had one son, and remained together until his death.

When MacArthur retired from the U.S. Army in 1937, his rank for retirement purposes again became that of a general and he was made a Field Marshal of the Philippine Army, by President Quezon. In July, 1941 Roosevelt recalled him to active duty in the U.S. Army as a major general and named him commander of United States Armed Forces in the Far East promoting him to a lieutenant general the following day. In December, he became a four star general yet again when the Japanese attacked across a wide front in the Pacific.

World War II

After the United States entered World War II, MacArthur became Allied commander in the Philippines. He "courted controversy" on several occasions, especially when he over-ruled his air commander, General Lewis H. Brereton, who had requested permission to launch air attacks by the US Far East Air Force (FEAF) against Japanese bases on nearby Taiwan, in keeping with a plan conceived prewar. MacArthur refused, contrary to his express orders,[1][2] and instead ordered the planes moved, to conserve them from Japanese raids; half were caught on the ground while refueling and destroyed,[3] the prelude to a Japanese invasion. Some discredit Brereton's account of these events, and Geoffrey Perret's biography, Old Soldiers Never Die, lays out the case for negligence on the part of mid-level officers who simply preferred the scenery at Clark Air Base. Others, such as biographer Alan Schom, claim that MacArthur secluded himself for several hours after being notified of the Pearl Harbor attack, and refused to meet with or authorize Brereton to disperse the U.S. planes.[4]

Despite MacArthur's defense of his decisions prior to the Japanese invasion of the Philippines and the public face put his retreat, criticism of MacArthur's actions would follow him throughout the war. For example, in 1945, U.S. President Harry S Truman, contemplating a final invasion of Japan, wrote:

Mr. Prima Donna, Brass Hat, Five Star MacArthur. He's worse than the Cabots and the Lodges—they at least talked with one another before they told God what to do. Mac tells God right off. It's a very great pity we have stuffed shirts like that in key positions. I don't see why in hell Roosevelt didn't order Wainwright home and let MacArthur be a martyr. We'd have had a real General and a fighting man if we had Wainwright and not a play actor and a bunco man such as we have now.[5]

MacArthur's headquarters during the Philippines campaign of 1941-42 was on the island fortress of Corregidor; his single trip to the front lines in Bataan led to the disparaging moniker and ditty, "Dugout Doug." Nevertheless, MacArthur's fortress was clearly marked, and was the target of Japanese air attacks, until Manuel Quezon cautioned MacArthur "not to subject himself to danger". In March 1942, as Japanese forces tightened their grip on the Philippines, MacArthur was ordered by President Roosevelt to relocate to Melbourne, Australia, after Quezon and his wife had already left. With his wife and four-year-old son, and a select group of advisers and subordinate military commanders, MacArthur at last fled the Philippines on PT 41 commanded by Lieutenant John D. Bulkeley, and successfully evaded an intense Japanese search for the escaping American general.

MacArthur reached Mindanao on 13 March and boarded a B-17 Flying Fortress bomber three days later; on 17 March, he arrived at Batchelor Airfield in Australia's Northern Territory, and took the Ghan railway through the Australian outback to Adelaide. His famous speech, in which he said "I came out of Bataan and I shall return", was made at Terowie, South Australia on 20 March. During this period, President Manuel L. Quezon decorated MacArthur with the Philippine Distinguished Conduct Star.

MacArthur was appointed Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in the Southwest Pacific Area (SWPA). To remove all ambiguity, the Australian Prime Minister, John Curtin put MacArthur in command of the Australian military, which — following the isolation of the Philippines — was numerically larger than MacArthur's American forces. The Allied forces under his command included a small number of personnel from the Netherlands East Indies and other countries. One of MacArthur's first tasks was to reassure Australians, who feared a Japanese invasion. The fighting at this time was predominantly in and around New Guinea and the Dutch East Indies. On 20 July 1942, SWPA headquarters was moved to Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, taking over the AMP Insurance Company building (later known as MacArthur Central).

Australian successes at the Battle of Milne Bay and the Kokoda Track campaign came in late 1942, the first victories by Allied land forces anywhere against the Japanese. When it was reported the 32nd Infantry Division, a National Guard unit, had proved incompetent in the Allied offensive against Buna and Gona, the major Japanese beachheads in north-east New Guinea, MacArthur told U.S. I Corps commander, Robert L. Eichelberger, to assume direct control of Allied operations:

Bob, I'm putting you in command at Buna. Relieve Edwin Harding|Harding ... I want you to remove all officers who won't fight. Relieve regimental and battalion commanders; if necessary, put sergeants in charge of battalions and corporals in charge of |companies ... Bob, I want you to take Buna, or not come back alive ... And that goes for your chief of staff, too.[1] [Emphasis added.]

In fact General Thomas Blamey refused the US Army's 41st Infantry Division (United States), then based in Brisbane, to reinforce the Gona assault, instead requesting the Australian 21st Brigade as "he knew they would fight".[6]

In March 1943, the Joint Chiefs of Staff approved MacArthur's grand strategy, known as Operation Cartwheel, which aimed to capture the major Japanese base at Rabaul by taking strategic points to use as forward bases. During 1944 this was modified to bypass Rabaul and let the forces there "wither on the vine", Initially, the majority of his land forces were Australian but increasing numbers of US Army forces arrived in the theater, including the U.S. Sixth Army (a.k.a. Alamo Force), and later the Eighth Army. In addition, he drew in significant numbers of submarines, deployed on so-called "guerrilla submarine" missions,[7] and away from attacks on Japanese convoys.[8]

MacArthur's use of air power during the New Guinea campaign is considered by many historians as the first harnessing of air power to influence land warfare. His advancement of land forces up the 1500 mile coast was sequenced specifically on terrain selected for its ability to be made into landing strips for the tactical support aircraft. By advancing in leaps always within the range of his fighter-bombers (typically P-38 Lightnings), he could maintain air superiority over his land operations, the first time a major military command had done so. This provided critical close air support (bombing of enemy positions) and also denied the enemy of sea and airborne resupply, effectively cutting the Japanese forces off as they were under attack. Modern land warfare is based on this concept, first perfected by MacArthur's chief of air forces, USAF Gen George Kenney. (ref: 1. Old Soldiers Never Die: The Life of Douglas MacArthur by Geoffrey Perret and 2. American Caesar: Douglas MacArthur, 1880-1964 - William Manchester)

Allied forces under MacArthur's command landed at Leyte Island , on 20 October 1944, fulfilling MacArthur's vow to return to the Philippines. They consolidated their hold on the archipelago in the Battle of Luzon after heavy fighting, and despite a massive Japanese naval counterattack in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. With the reconquest of the islands, MacArthur moved his headquarters to Manila, to plan the invasion of Japan in late 1945. The invasion was preempted by the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and in September 1945 MacArthur received the Japanese Instrument of Surrender which ended World War II.

MacArthur was awarded and received the Medal of Honor, which was the higest military award, for his leadership in the Southwest Pacific Theater. Philippine President Sergio Osmeña also decorated him with the Philippines' highest military award, the Medal of Valor.

Post-World War II Japan

MacArthur was ordered by Washington on 29 August to exercise authority through the Japanese government machinery, including the Emperor.[9] Some believe MacArthur may have made his greatest contribution to history in the next five and a half years, as Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers in Japan.

However, many historians criticize his work to exonerate Emperor Showa and all members of the imperial family implicated in the war such as prince Chichibu, prince Asaka, prince Takeda Tsuneyoshi, and prince Higashikuni from criminal prosecutions.[10] MacArthur not only exonerated Hirohito but he ignored the advice of many members of the imperial family and Japanese intellectuals who publicly asked for the abdication of the Emperor and the implementation of a regency. For example, prince Mikasa (Takahito), Hirohito's youngest brother, even stood up in a meeting of the private council, in February 1946, and urged his brother to take responsibility for defeat while the well-known poet Tatsuji Miyoshi wrote an essay in the magazine Shinchô titled "The Emperor should abdicate quickly".[11]

According to historian Herbert Bix, "MacArthur and Bonner Fellers had worked out their own approach to occupying and reforming Japan."[12] "MacArthur, in short, formulated no new policy toward the Emperor; he merely continued the one in effect during the last year of the Pacific war, then frew out its implications as circumstances changed."[13] The plan, code-named "operation Blacklist", turned on separating Hirohito from the militarists, retaining him as a figurehead and using his image to bring about a transformation of the Japanese people.[14]

According to Bix, "Mac Arthur's truly extraordinary measures to save Hirohito from trial as a war criminal had a lasting and profoundly distorting impact on Japanese understanding of the lost war" and "months before the Tokyo tribunal commenced, Mac Arthur's highest subordinates were working to attribute ultimate responsibility for Pearl Harbor to Hideki Tojo"[15] Citing the debates between Truman, Eisenhower and Mac Arthur, Bix argues that "immediately on landing in Japan, Bonner Fellers went to work to protect Hirohito from the role he had played during and at the end of the war." and "allowed the major war criminal suspects to coordinate their stories so that the Emperor would be spared from indictment"[16]

According to John Dower, "This successful campaign to absolve the Emperor of war responsibility knew no bounds. Hirohito was not merely presented as being innocent of any formal acts that might make him culpable to indictment as a war criminal. He was turned into an almost saintly figure who did not even bear moral responsibility for the war.[17]

For his admirers, MacArthur's deeper feelings toward defeated Japan can be readily seen in the photos of the surrender ceremony itself where the flag of Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry (1794-1858) was prominently displayed. A descendant of the Massachusetts Perry family and a cousin of the commodore, MacArthur must have seen himself as a second "opener" of Japan rather than the nation's conqueror. MacArthur and his GHQ staff helped a devastated Japan rebuild itself, institute a democratic government, and chart a course that made Japan one of the world's leading industrial powers. The U.S. during his time was firmly in control of Japan to oversee its reconstruction, and MacArthur was effectively the interim leader of Japan from 1945 until 1948. In 1946, MacArthur's staff drafted a new Constitution of Japan that renounced war and reduced the Emperor of Japan to a figurehead; this Constitution remains in use in Japan to this day. He also pushed the Japanese Diet into adopting a decentralization plan to break apart the large Japanese companies (zaibatsu) and foster the first Japanese labor unions.

These reconstruction plans alarmed many in the U.S. Defense and State Departments, believing they conflicted with the prospect of Japan (and its industrial capacity) as a bulwark against the spread of Communism in Asia.[18] Some of MacArthur's reforms, such as his labor laws, were rescinded in 1948 when his unilateral control of Japan was ended by the increased involvement of the State Department. MacArthur handed over power to the newly-formed Japanese government in 1949, and remained in Japan until relieved by President Truman on 11 April 1951. Truman replaced SCAP leader MacArthur with General Matthew Ridgway of the U.S. Army. By 1952, Japan was a sovereign nation under the democratic constitution MacArthur had pushed for, which had been in effect since 1947.

In late 1945, Allied military commissions tried 4,000 Japanese officers for war crimes. About 3,000 were given prison terms and 920 executed; the charges included the Rape of Nanking, the Bataan Death March, and the sack of Manila. Critics claim that General Yamashita Tomoyuki, Japanese commander in the Philippines, had lost control of his soldiers and should not have been executed. Ultimately, because he failed to resign his post, his command responsibility was found to comprise liability for the actions of Japanese troops; this case has become a precedent and is known as the Yamashita Standard. PBS once called the trials "hasty".[19]

At the end of the war MacArthur secretly granted immunity to the physicians of Unit 731 in exchange for providing America with their research on biological weapons. As a result, only one reference to Japanese experiments with "poisonous serums" on Chinese civilians was heard by the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal in August of 1946. This was actioned by David Sutton, assistant to the Chinese prosecutor.

Korean War

In 1945, as part of the surrender of Japan, the United States agreed with the Soviet Union to divide the Korean peninsula along the 38th parallel. This resulted in the creation of two states: the western-aligned Republic of Korea (ROK) (often referred to as 'South Korea'), and the Soviet-aligned and Communist Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) (generally referred to as 'North Korea'). After the surprise attack by the DPRK military on 25 June 1950 started the Korean War, the United Nations General Assembly authorized a United Nations (UN) force to help South Korea. MacArthur led the UN coalition defense and later counteroffensive, noted for a daring and overwhelmingly successful amphibious vehicle landing behind North Korean lines in the Battle of Inchon. The maneuver successfully out-flanked the North Korean army, forcing it to retreat northward in disarray. United Nations forces pursued the DPRK forces, eventually approaching the Yalu river border with the People's Republic of China.

For months leading up to the UN forces' approach to the border between Korea and China, the Chinese had warned that they would become involved, rather than watch the North Koreans be defeated and have an enemy military on their border. During his trip to Wake Island to meet with President Harry S. Truman, MacArthur was specifically asked by President Truman about Chinese involvement in the war. MacArthur did not believe that the Chinese would invade.

On 19 November 1950, with the DPRK forces largely destroyed, Chinese military forces crossed the Yalu River, routing the UN forces and forcing them on a long retreat. Calling the Chinese intervention the beginning of "an entirely new war", MacArthur repeatedly requested authorization to strike supplies, troops, and airplanes in Manchuria with conventional weapons and also requested permission to deploy nuclear weapons in Korea. The Truman administration feared that such an action would greatly escalate the war into full-scale conflict with China and possibly draw China's ally, the Soviet Union, into the conflict. Angered by Truman's desire to maintain a "limited war," MacArthur began issuing important statements to the press, warning them of a crushing defeat. This violated the United States Army's tradition of civilian control of the military and foreign policy, not to mention the constitutional designation of the president as the commander-in-chief, and was considered an act of insubordination.

In March of 1951, after a UN counterattack commanded by Matthew B. Ridgway again turned the tide of the war in the UN's favor, Truman alerted MacArthur of his intention to initiate 'cease-fire' talks. Such news ended any hopes the general had retained of leading a full-scale war against China, and MacArthur quickly issued his own ultimatum to China. MacArthur's declaration threatened the expansion of the war, and was, by his own aide's later admission, 'designed to undercut' Truman's negotiating position. Such an act unquestionably qualified as rank insubordination, and General Omar Bradley later speculated that MacArthur's disappointment over his inability to wage war on China had "snapped his brilliant but brittle mind." Biographers such as Geoffrey Perret, however, place importance on MacArthur's well known intelligence and strategic skill. MacArthur knew that he would either be relieved of duty or he would get his way and the war would be expanded. In his view, he gambled his career to obtain a favorable war policy that would reunify all of Korea.

President Truman, furious at MacArthur's insubordination and at his failure at the Yalu River, privately wanted to demote MacArthur to four star (full) general rank as a consequence of his performance in the Far East, but was afraid of the strong public opinion that favored the popular general. Instead, on April 11, 1951 President Truman relieved General MacArthur of his military command, leading to a storm of controversy. General Matthew B. Ridgway replaced MacArthur. The war continued at a stalemate for two additional years with thousands of casualties near the 38th parallel north.

Return to America

MacArthur returned to Washington, D.C. (his first time in the continental U.S. in 11 years), where he made his last public appearance in a farewell address to the U.S. Congress, interrupted by thirty ovations. (Text and audio.) In his closing speech, he recalled: "Old soldiers never die, they just fade away." 'And like the old soldier of that ballad, I now close my military career and just fade away - an old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave him the light to see that duty. Good-bye.'

On his return from Korea, after his relief by Truman, MacArthur encountered massive public adulation, which aroused expectations that he would run for the Presidency as a Republican in the U.S. presidential election, 1952. However, a U.S. Senate Committee investigation of his removal, chaired by Richard Brevard Russell, Jr., contributed to a marked cooling of the public mood and MacArthur's presidential hopes died away. (MacArthur, in Reminiscences, repeatedly stated he had no political aspirations.)

1952 to death

In the 1952 Republican presidential nomination contest, MacArthur was not a candidate and instead endorsed Senator Robert Taft of Ohio.[20]; rumors were rife Taft offered the vice presidential nomination to MacArthur. Taft did persuade MacArthur to be the keynote speaker at the convention. The speech was not well received.[21] Taft lost the nomination to Dwight Eisenhower; MacArthur was silent during the campaign, which Eisenhower won by a landslide. Once elected, Eisenhower consulted with MacArthur and adopted his suggestion of threatening the use of nuclear weapons to end the war.[22]

In 1956, U.S. Senator Joseph Martin introduced a proposal to elevate MacArthur to six star rank; however, this caused issues with President Dwight D. Eisenhower (who was formerly a peer of MacArthur's prior to becoming President) and the issue died within the US Senate.

MacArthur became head of Remington Rand Corporation and spent the remainder of his life quietly in New York. He made a spectacular "sentimental journey" to the Philippines in 1961, when he was decorated by President Carlos P. Garcia with the Philippine Legion of Honor, rank of Chief Commander.

President John F. Kennedy solicited MacArthur's counsel in 1961. The first of two meetings was shortly after the Bay of Pigs Invasion fiasco. MacArthur was extremely critical of the Pentagon and its military advice to Kennedy. MacArthur also cautioned the young President to avoid a U.S. military build-up in Vietnam, pointing out domestic problems should be given a much greater priority.

Death and legacy

MacArthur and his second wife, Jean Faircloth, spent the last years of their life together in the penthouse of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. After his death, Jean continued to live in the penthouse until her death. The couple are entombed together in downtown Norfolk, Virginia; their burial site is in the rotunda of a memorial building/museum (formerly the Norfolk City Hall) dedicated to his memory, and there is a major shopping mall (MacArthur Center) named for him across the street from the memorial. According to the museum, General MacArthur chose to be buried in Norfolk because of his mother's ancestral ties to the city.

It is important to note that MacArthur is remembered with significant disdain and disrespect in Australia due to his poor performance in the Papua New Guinea Campaign and his disrespect for Australian troops at the time. In addition his self promotion and his false claims of commanding from the "front" when he spent only a few days in Port Moresby late in the battle has not been forgotten. From May 1942 MacArthur's communiques to the press often stated "American" soldiers were doing the fighting when, in fact, no American soldier fought in New Guinea until November that year.[23]

The couple's son, born Arthur MacArthur IV, changed his surname and now lives anonymously as a saxophonist and artist in the New York area.

MacArthur wanted his family to remember him for more than being a soldier. He said, "By profession I am a soldier and take pride in that fact. But I am prouder--infinitely prouder--to be a father. A soldier destroys in order to build; the father only builds, never destroys. The one has the potentiality of death; the other embodies creation and life. And while the hordes of death are mighty, the battalions of life are mightier still. It is my hope that my son, when I am gone, will remember me not from the battle but in the home repeating with him our simple daily prayer, 'Our Father who art in heaven."[24]

MacArthur's nephew, Douglas MacArthur II (a son of his brother Arthur) served as a diplomat for several years, including the post of Ambassador to Japan and several other countries.

MacArthur Boulevard in Maryland and Washington, D.C. is named in his honor. It runs from Great Falls Park in Potomac, Maryland into the Georgetown neighborhood of D.C.

Summary of service

West Point

  • 13 June 1899 – appointed as a Cadet at the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York
  • 1900: Was a victim of hazing and becomes involved in a serious scandal where one Cadet is left dead by upperclassman abuse. During the investigation he implicates only cadets who were already expelled from West Point or had previously confessed
  • June 1903 – Graduated first in his class, commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers

Early career

  • June 1903: Served with the 3rd Battalion of Engineers in the Philippine Islands.
  • 1904: Assigned to the California Debris Commission.
  • April 1904: Promoted to First Lieutenant, becomes acting Chief Engineering Officer for the Army Pacific Division based in San Francisco, California
  • October 1904: Reported to Tokyo, Japan to serve as an aide to his father (Major General Arthur MacArthur, Jr.) in the Far East
  • December 1906: Served as aide-de-camp to President Theodore Roosevelt
  • August 1907: Attended the "Engineering School of Application" in Washington, DC
  • February 1908: Assigned as the Officer-in-Charge (OIC), Improvements Commission, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  • April 1908: Appointed as Commanding Officer, Company K, 3rd Battalion of Engineers. Later that year became an instructor at the Mounted Service School, Fort Riley, Kansas
  • April 1909: Became Quartermaster for the 3rd Battalion of Engineers
  • February 1911: Promoted to Captain and serves as the Officer-in-Charge of the Engineering Depot at Fort LeavenwortH, Kansas
  • November 1912: Assigned to the General Staff Corps, for duty as a Member and Recorder of the Board of Engineering Troops
  • April 1913: Appointed as Superintendent of State, War, and Navy Buildings as a member of the General Staff
  • April 1914: Became the Assistant Engineering Officer of the military expedition to Veracruz, Mexico
  • December 1915: Promoted to Major, serves as an Engineering Officer on the Army General Staff
  • August 1917: Advanced to the temporary rank of Colonel in the National Army. Reports to Camp Mill, Long Island, New York to begin forming the 42nd Infantry Division.

World War I

  • 1917 - 1918: Became Chief of Staff of the 42nd Infantry Division and was credited with naming it the "Rainbow Division". Joined the American Expeditionary Force bound for France
  • June 1918: Appointed a Brigadier General in the National Army and in August was appointed as Commander of the 84th Infantry Brigade.
  • 1918 - 1919: Cited for extreme battlefield bravery and also is wounded in combat and gassed by the enemy. Was known for personally leading troops into battle, often without a weapon of his own. Began to develop a negative relationship with General of the Armies John Pershing, after feeling that Pershing was wasting the lives of his troops with bad military tactics.
  • May 1919: Returned to the United States a hero, but is distraught over the lack of recognition his Rainbow Division receives for actions in France.

Inter-war years

  • June 1919: Became the Superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy, West Point
  • February 1920: Reverted to peacetime rank, but is one of the few officers who does not lose his World War I position. Became a brigadier general in the Regular Army. Received a negative evaluation report from Pershing, now Chief of Staff, who ranked Macarthur 38 out of 45 generals and states that MacArthur has an "exalted view of himself and should remain in his present grade for several years".
  • October 1922: Became Commanding General, District of Manila, in the Philippines
  • July 1923: While still serving as District of Manila Commander, also became Commander of the 23rd Infantry Brigade
  • January 1925: Promoted to Major General, became the youngest two-star general in the U.S. Army. Returned to the United States to become a Corps Commander
  • May 1925: Assigned as IVth Area Corps Commander, U.S. Army, encompassing areas of Atlanta and Georgia
  • 1926 - 1927: Served as 3rd Corps Commander, based in Baltimore, Maryland
  • 1928: Led the US Olympic Team to Amsterdam and is then assigned as the Commanding General, Philippine Department, based in Manila.
  • October 1930: Became the commander of the Ninth Corps Area based in San Francisco, California
  • 21 November 1930: Appointed as a full General and became Chief of Staff of the United States Army
  • June 1932: Presided over the destruction of the "Bonus Army", deemed a low point of his tenure as Army Chief of Staff
  • October 1935: Completed his tour as Chief of Staff and declined retirement from the Army. Per Army regulations, reverted to his permanent rank of Major General and became the Chief Military Advisor to the Commonwealth Government of the Philippines
  • 31 December 1937: Decided to retire from the United States Army. Was advanced back to the rank of General for listing on the U.S. Army retired rolls
  • 1937 - 1941: Civilian adviser to the Philippine Government on military matters. Was appointed a Field Marshal in the Philippine Army, the only American officer in history accorded with that rank. Begins wearing the cap which is so often associated with him, that being a Field Marshal cover with U.S. Army crest
  • April 1937 - married Jean Faircloth
  • 21 February 1938- Arthur MacArthur IV is born

World War II

  • 26 July 1941: Recalled to active service in the United States Army as a Major General
  • 27 July 1941: Appointed Lieutenant General in the Army of the United States and becomes Commanding General of USAFFE (United States Army Forces in the Far East)
  • December 1941: Japanese invaded the Philippines
  • December 1941: promoted to General in the Army of the United States
  • December 1941-May 1942; Allied forces retreat to Bataan and Corregidor
  • February-March 1942: Roosevelt ordered MacArthur to leave the Philippines and base in himself in Australia; on 20 March in Terowie, South Australia, MacArthur promised, "I came out of Bataan and I shall return."
  • 1942: MacArthur was appointed Supreme Allied Commander, South West Pacific Area. Australian Prime Minister John Curtin gave MacArthur control of the Australian military, which commenced the New Guinea campaign.
  • 1943: MacArthur implemented Operation Cartwheel, the Joint Chiefs of Staff plan to isolate the major Japanese base at Rabaul.
  • 1943 - 1944: argued with the Joint Chiefs of Staff regarding reconquest of the Philippine Islands. Chiefs proposed bypass; MacArthur appealed to President Roosevelt.
  • October 1944: U.S forces land at Leyte and began reconquest of Philippines
  • December 1944: Promoted to the newly created rank of five star General of the Army and became second highest ranking active duty officer of the U.S. Army, second only to George Marshall
  • 1944 - 1945: Due to logistics issues the Joint Chiefs decided to invade the Philippine Islands. MacArthur again must fight to convince his superiors to invade the entire Philippine Islands, whereas initial plans call for only an invasion of the south. The Joint Chiefs at last agreed that MacArthur was to invade the Philippine Islands at Leyte Gulf and strike toward Manila.
  • 5 February 1945: MacArthur fulfilled his promise to return and liberated Manila
  • Summer 1945: in Manila to plan invasions of Japan in October 1945. Was stunned when the atomic bomb ended the war abruptly, quoted that "this apparatus will make men like me obsolete".
  • September 1945: Presided over the Japanese surrender ceremony and was appointed military governor of Japanese home islands. Threatened the Soviet Union with armed conflict should Red Army soldiers attempt to occupy any part of Japan.

Occupation of Japan

  • 15 December 1945 - Ordered the end of Shinto as the state religion of Japan
  • 1945 - 1948: Began sweeping reforms, drafted a new constitution for Japan, and put an end to centuries of Emperor god-worship.

Korean War

  • 8 July 1950: Following the invasion of North Korea into South Korea, MacArthur was named Commander of all United Nations forces in Korea.
  • 31 July 1950: Traveled to Taiwan and conducted diplomacy with Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek
  • 15 September 1950: Led UN forces at the Battle of Inchon, seen as one of the greatest military maneuvers in history
  • 15 October 1950: Met with President Truman on Wake Island after heavy disagreements develop regarding the conduct of the Korean War. When meeting Truman, it was very noticeable that MacArthur did not salute his Commander-in-Chief but rather offered a handshake
  • November - December 1950: With China committed to all-out war against the US on the Korean peninsula, MacArthur advocated for the same in return against China but was prohibited. He was outraged when military leaders in Washington restricted the war to only the Korean theater, meaning that he cannot bomb even the bridges of the Yalu river over which Chinese troops, supplies, and material were streaming across. He was further restricted from bombing their bases in Manchuria. MacArthur expressed his outrage later, saying that "The order not to bomb the Yalu bridges was the most indefensible and ill-conceived decision ever forced on a field commander in our nation's history."
  • 11 April 1951: After several public criticisms of White House policy in Korea, which were seen as undercutting the Commander-in-Chief's position, Harry Truman removed MacArthur from command and ordered him to return to the United States. Some suggested Truman may have exchanged MacArthur for a sound nuclear policy in Korea since he did not trust "Brass Hat MacArthur" with nuclear weapons. Some disagreed with this, however, since (as David Horowitz noted in The Free World Colossus) MacArthur later came out against Truman's use of the bomb against Japan and there seemed to be no concrete evidence of a major change in his views.
  • 19 April 1951: At a farewell address before Congress, MacArthur gave his famous "Old Soldiers Never Die" speech [2]
  • May 1951: Retired a second time from the U.S. Army, but was listed as permanently on active duty due to the regulations regarding those who hold Five Star General rank. For administrative reasons, he was assigned in absentee to the Office of the Army Chief of Staff

Later life

  • 1952: Allowed name to be placed on primary ballots for United States Republican Party nomination, but did not campaign or announce as a candidate. Senator Robert Taft promised supporters to name MacArthur as candidate for Vice President, but Taft lost nomination to Eisenhower.
  • 1955: Was considered for promotion to General of the Armies. The promotion was declined by MacArthur due to logistics involving retirement pay benefits and seniority listings within the Army.
  • 12 May 1962 - Gave famous Duty, Honor, Country valedictory speech at West Point
  • Was active in U.S. Olympic affairs
  • 5 April 5 1964: Douglas MacArthur died at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, DC.

Dates of rank

  • Second Lieutenant, United States Army: 11 June 11 1903
  • First Lieutenant, United States Army: 23 April 1904
  • Captain, United States Army: 27 February 1911
  • Major, United States Army: 11 December 1915
  • Colonel, National Army (USA): 5 August 1917
  • Brigadier General, National Army: 26 June 1918
  • Brigadier General rank made permanent in the Regular Army: 20 January 20 1920
  • Major General, Regular Army: 17 January 1925
  • General for temporary service as Army Chief of Staff: 21 November 1930
  • Reverted to permanent rank of Major General, Regular Army: 1 October 1935
  • Retired in grade as a General on Regular Army rolls: 31 December 1937
  • Recalled to active service as a Major General in the Regular Army: 26 July 1941
  • Lieutenant General in the Army of the United States: 27 July 1941
  • General, Army of the United States: 18 December 1941
  • General of the Army, Army of the United States: 18 December 1944
  • General of the Army rank made permanent in the Regular Army: 23 March 1946

In 1955, a bill passed by the United States Congress authorized the President of the United States to promote Douglas MacArthur to the rank of General of the Armies (a similar measure had also been proposed unsuccessfully in 1945). However, due to regulations involving retirement pay and benefits, as well as MacArthur being junior to George C. Marshall (who had not been recommended for the same promotion), MacArthur declined promotion to what may have been seen as a Six Star General.

Awards and decorations

During his military career, General MacArthur was awarded the following decorations from both the United States and other allied nations. The awards listed below are those which would have been worn on a military uniform and do not include commemorative medals, unofficial decorations, and non-portable awards.


  • Medal of Honor
  • Distinguished Service Cross with two oak leaf clusters
  • Distinguished Service Medal (Army) with four oak leaf clusters
  • Navy Distinguished Service Medal
  • Distinguished Flying Cross
  • Silver Star six oak leaf clusters, represented by one silver and one bronze oak leaf cluster
  • Bronze Star Medal with Valor device
  • Purple Heart with one oak leaf cluster
  • Presidential Unit Citation six oak leaf clusters, represented by one silver and one bronze oak leaf cluster
  • Air Medal
  • Philippine Campaign Medal
  • Mexican Service Medal
  • World War I Victory Medal with five battle clasps (Aisne-Marne, Champagne-Marne, St. Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne and Defensive Sector)
  • Army of Occupation of Germany Medal
  • American Defense Service Medal with “Foreign Service” clasp
  • Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with two silver service stars and arrowhead device
  • World War II Victory Medal
  • Army of Occupation Medal with “Japan” clasp
  • National Defense Service Medal
  • Korean Service Medal with three bronze service stars and arrowhead device
  • United Nations Service Medal
  • United States Aviator Badge
  • Army General Staff Identification Badge
  • Fourteen Overseas Service Bars
  • Expert Badge with Rifle and Pistol bars

Foreign awards

  • Knight Grand Cross of the Military Division of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath
  • French Légion d'honneur
  • French Croix de Guerre
  • French Medaille Militaire
  • Australian Pacific Star
  • Philippine Medal of Valor
  • Philippine Distinguished Service Star
  • Philippine Legion of Honor, Degree of Chief Commander
  • Philippine Defense Medal with one service star
  • Philippine Liberation Medal with four service stars
  • Republic of the Philippines Presidential Unit Citation
  • Philippine Independence Medal
  • Order of the Belgium Crown
  • Belgian Croix de Guerre
  • Belgian Order of the Cross
  • Czechoslovakian Order of the White Lion
  • Polish Virtuti Militari
  • Polish Grand Cross of Polonia Restituta
  • Grand Cross Netherlands Order of Orange-Nassau
  • Yugoslavian Order of the White Eagle
  • Japanese Order of the Rising Sun
  • Republic of Korean Presidential Unit Citation
  • Korean Grand Cross of the Order of Military Valour and Merit
  • Italian Grand Cross of the Military Order
  • Italian War Cross
  • Cuban Grand Cross of Military Merit
  • Ecuadorian Grand Cross Order of Abdon Calderon
  • Chinese Cordon of Pau Ting
  • Greek Medal of Honor
  • Guatemalan Cross of Military Merit
  • Hungarian Grand Cross of Military Merit
  • Order of Mexican Military Merit
  • Grand Cross Order of Romanian Military Merit


  • MacArthur had no middle name, though some Internet sources variously ascribe him a middle initial of "A", "B", "C", "D", "M", or "S". An archivist at the MacArthur Memorial asserts that MacArthur did wear a monogrammed handkerchief with a middle initial of "A", possibly chosen to indicate his father, but the general had no official middle name.
  • Arthur and Douglas MacArthur were the first father and son to each be awarded a Medal of Honor. They remained the only pair until 2001 when Theodore Roosevelt was awarded a posthumous Medal of Honor for his service during the Spanish American War. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. had won one for his service during World War II.
  • There are two bridges and one road named after MacArthur in Taiwan, becoming one of the only three foreigners (to Taiwan) who have had a landmark named after them, the other two being Franklin Roosevelt and George Leslie Mackay. The road is located in Taipei, although it is renamed now. The other two bridges remain fully functional to this day.
  • MacArthur's first set of 5-star General of the Army insignia was made in December 1944 by a Filipino jeweler from melted-down silver coins from the US, Philippines, UK, Australia and the Netherlands, the countries that had troops under his command at the time.
  • In 1945, MacArthur gave his treasured Gold Castles insignia, a personal possession, to his chief engineer, Major General Leif J. Sverdrup. They are currently worn by the Chief of Engineers as a tradition.
  • The large MacArthur Central plaza in downtown Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, was named after Douglas MacArthur and has as its logo the five stars of his rank. His HQ was located on the site during WWII. The MacArthur Museum [3], which was opened to the public in 2004, is located within the MacArthur Central building .
  • Arthur MacArthur, Jr., who fought Geronimo, was relieved of his command in 1901 by William Howard Taft (the future president) for insubordination over U.S. Policy toward the Philippines after the Philippine-American War. Douglas MacArthur, who fought the Japanese, was dismissed of his command in 1951 by President Truman in dispute over U.S. policy toward China during the Korean War.
  • MacArthur's height was 5'11".
  • MacArthur had a particular attachment to the Philippines. This began with his father's tenure as the military governor of the nation and later his own. His "I shall return" declaration as Allied troops left it to the conquering Japanese is famous. MacArthur appeared to have a genuine affection for the nation, having spent a good deal of his life there; his mother had died there. It was the only country he visited after his dismissal. Two towns were named after him namely MacArthur, Leyte and General MacArthur, Eastern Samar.
  • MacArthur Park located in western Los Angeles, California was named after General MacArthur. The park was also the basis of the song of the same name written by Jimmy Webb.
  • A street, MacArthur Boulevard, and a section of Interstate 580 in Oakland, California, was named after him. A local BART rapid transit station in Oakland was named after its location atop the street and in the freeway median. The tunnel south of the Golden Gate Bridge on Highway 1 in San Francisco was named after him.
  • A statue of MacArthur built at Inchon Harbor in South Korea in 1957 has become a site of contention between South Korean groups who consider him a war criminal whose statue should be removed, and older veterans groups who consider him a hero and symbol of all Korean and UN forces who died. Skirmishes between the two groups have forced the Korean government to protect the statue with troops of late. In November 2006, a MacArthur Statue protest leader was arrested. ( )
  • MacArthur's proposed strategy for winning the Cold War was to adopt a "Fortress America" defense strategy focused on protecting the Western Hemisphere similar to the policies advocated by isolationists such as Robert Taft, combined with a policy of foreign aid to all countries resisting Communism (in Asia as well as Europe). Like Senator Taft, Gen. MacArthur strongly opposed NATO.
  • He was also a close friend of America First Committee founder Robert E. Wood, and supportively allowed Charles Lindbergh to unofficially fly combat missions under his command and make important improvements of the use of the P-38 Lightning fighters even after FDR refused to restore the controversial aviator's commission.
  • The highway that spans from Kalookan, Metro Manila to as far as La Union in the Philippines is named after MacArthur. It is now aptly called "MacArthur Highway."
  • There is a national guard base and section of highway named for MacArthur in North Little Rock, AR, as well as a park in Little Rock, Arkansas.
  • Douglas MacArthur High School in Levittown, New York was named after the general.

References and notes


  1. William M. Leary (2001). MacArthur and the American Century: A Reader. University of Nebraska Press.
  2. Costello, Days of Infamy
  3. Manchester, American Caesar
  4. Caidin, Ragged, Rugged Warriors
  5. Alan Schom, "The Eagle and the Rising Sun: The Japanese-American War 1941-1943.
  6. Michael Schaller, The American Occupation of Japan (Oxford, 1985)
  7. Ham, "Kokoda" and Brune, "A Bastard of a Place"
  8. Adamson and Dissette, Guerrilla Submarines
  9. Blair, Silent Victory
  10. James 2:783
  11. John Dower, Embracing defeat, 1999, Herbert Bix, Hirohito and the making of modern Japan, 2000
  12. Dower, ibid. p.321, 322.
  13. Herbert Bix,Hirohito and the making of modern Japan,p. 544
  14. Ibid., p. 545
  15. Bix p. 545
  16. Bix, ibid., p.585
  17. ibid., p.583
  18. Dower, ibid. p. 326.
  19. Michael Schaller, The American Occupation of Japan (Oxford, 1985)
  20. Philip R. Piccigallo, The Japanese on Trial: Allied War Crimes Operations in the East, 1945-1951 U Texas Press; The Tokyo War Crimes Trials (1946-1948), PBS (accessed April 21, 2006)
  21. James 3: 648-52
  22. James 3:650-1. Taft died in July 1953; if he had been elected his vice president would then become president.
  23. James 3:653-55.
  24. Ham, "Kokoda"; Paull, "Retreat from Kokoda"; Brune, Bastard of a Place"; Fitzsimmons "Kokoda"
  25. In Emerson Roy West, Vital Quotations (1968) p.118


  • United States Army service record of Douglas MacArthur, National Personnel Records Center, St. Louis, Missouri
  • James, D. Clayton. The Years of MacArthur Volume I, 1880-1941 (1970) (ISBN 0-395-10948-5); The Years of MacArthur: vol. 2 1941-45 (1975); (ISBN 0-395-20446-1); The Years of Macarthur: Volume 3: Triumph and Disaster 1945-1964 (1985)(ISBN 0-395-36004-8); Houghton, Mifflin. the stanadard biography
  • Leary, William M. MacArthur and the American Century: A Reader. University of Nebraska Press: 2001. ISBN 0-8032-2930-5. essays by historians
  • Leary, William M. We Shall Return!: Macarthur's Commanders and the Defeat of Japan, 1942-1945 (1988)
  • Long, Gavin Merrick; MacArthur as Military Commander (1969)
  • Richard Lowitt; The Truman-MacArthur Controversy (1967)
  • David W. Lutz; "The Exercise Of Military Judgment: A Philosophical Investigation Of The Virtues And Vices Of General Douglas Macarthur." Journal Of Power And Ethics Vol 1, Issue: 1. 2000. pp 68+
  • Manchester, William. American Caesar: Douglas MacArthur 1880–1964. Laurel: 1983. ISBN 0-440-30424-5.
  • Perret, Geoffrey. Old Soldiers Never Die: The Life and Legend of Douglas MacArthur. Random House: 1996. ISBN 0-679-42882-8.
  • Nathan Prefer; Macarthur's New Guinea Campaign (1995)
  • Eugene L. Rasor; General Douglas MacArthur, 1880-1964: Historiography and Annotated Bibliography Greenwood Press, 1994
  • Schaller, Michael. Douglas MacArthur: The Far Eastern General. Replica Books: 2001. ISBN 0-7351-0354-2.
  • Howard B. Schonberger; Aftermath of War: Americans and the Remaking of Japan, 1945-1952 Kent State University Press. 1989.
  • Taaffe, Stephen. Macarthur's Jungle War: The 1944 New Guinea Campaign. University Press of Kansas: 1998. ISBN 0-7006-0870-2.
  • Valley, David J. Gaijin Shogun: General Douglas MacArthur, Stepfather of Postwar Japan. Sektor Company: 2000. ISBN 0-9678175-2-8.
  • Dennis D. Wainstock; Truman, MacArthur, and the Korean War Greenwood Press, 1999
  • Weintraub, Stanley. MacArthur's War: Korea and the Undoing of an American Hero. Free Press: 2000. ISBN 0-684-83419-7.
  • Robert Wolfe; Americans as Proconsuls: United States Military Government in Germany and Japan, 1944-1952 Southern Illinois University Press, (1984)

Primary sources

  • MacArthur, Douglas. Reminiscences. United States Naval Institute: 2001. ISBN 1-55750-483-0.
  • General MacArthur: Letters from the Japanese During the American Occupation. Rowman & Littlefield: 2001. ISBN 0-7425-1115-4.
  • Paul P. Rogers; The Good Years: MacArthur and Sutherland Greenwood Press. 1990, vol 1; vol 2: The Bitter Years: MacArthur and Sutherland (1991). Sutherland was MacArthur's chief of staff, and Rogers was a junior staffer

External links



Original content from WikiPilipinas. under GNU Free Documentation License. See full disclaimer.

  1. Costello, Days of Infamy
  2. Manchester, American Caesar
  3. Caidin, Ragged, Rugged Warriors
  4. Alan Schom, "The Eagle and the Rising Sun: The Japanese-American War 1941-1943.
  5. Michael Schaller, The American Occupation of Japan (Oxford, 1985)
  6. Ham, "Kokoda" and Brune, "A Bastard of a Place"
  7. Adamson and Dissette, Guerrilla Submarines
  8. Blair, Silent Victory
  9. James 2:783
  10. John Dower, Embracing defeat, 1999, Herbert Bix, Hirohito and the making of modern Japan, 2000
  11. Dower, ibid. p.321, 322.
  12. Herbert Bix,Hirohito and the making of modern Japan,p. 544
  13. Ibid., p. 545
  14. Bix p. 545
  15. Bix, ibid., p.585
  16. ibid., p.583
  17. Dower, ibid. p. 326.
  18. Michael Schaller, The American Occupation of Japan (Oxford, 1985)
  19. Philip R. Piccigallo, The Japanese on Trial: Allied War Crimes Operations in the East, 1945-1951 U Texas Press; The Tokyo War Crimes Trials (1946-1948), PBS (accessed April 21, 2006)
  20. James 3: 648-52
  21. James 3:650-1. Taft died in July 1953; if he had been elected his vice president would then become president.
  22. James 3:653-55.
  23. Ham, "Kokoda"; Paull, "Retreat from Kokoda"; Brune, Bastard of a Place"; Fitzsimmons "Kokoda"
  24. In Emerson Roy West, Vital Quotations (1968) p.118