Department of National Defense
The Department of National Defense (DND; Filipino: Kagawaran ng Tanggulang Pambansa) is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for national security. Its main functions are to defend the state against internal and external threats and maintain law and order. Philippine Army veteran Delfin Lorenzana is the current secretary of the department.
The Katipunan is considered to be the first military government in the country and a predecessor to the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Andres Bonifacio, founder of the secret society, appointed Teodoro Plata as the secretary of war, and later on he was replaced by Emilio Riego de Dios as the director of war when Emilio Aguinaldo usurped the presidency on 22 March 1897 during the Tejeros Convention.
The revolutionary government of Aguinaldo demonstrated Filipinos’ capability to organize an army to fight colonial masters until the arrival of the United States forces.
The Philippine Commission adopted Act No. 175 on 4 July 1901, creating an insular police force in charge of maintaining peace and order. The next month, the Philippine Constabulary was officially constituted. Its main function was to track down the guerilla leaders and other remnants of the Revolutionary Army.
During his presidency, Manuel L. Quezon presented the National Defense Act formulated by General Douglas MacArthur to the National Assembly of the new Commonwealth government. The land defense at that time consisted only of a professional Philippine regular army of some 350 officers and 5,000 men. On 11 January 1936, President Quezon appointed Brig. Gen. Jose delos Reyes as acting chief of staff of the Philippine Army by virtue of Executive Order No. 11. This also paved the way for the inclusion of the Philippine Constabulary in the regular Army of the Philippines, only to be withdrawn again in 1938.
The Department of National Defense was formally created on 1 November 1939 via Executive Order No. 230, limiting Gen. MacArthur's powers in ordering munitions, enrolling trainees and entering into contracts for the construction of military facilities without the approval of President Quezon and National Defense Secretary Teofilo Sison.
World War II and the Japanese Occupation
In January of 1941, the intelligence officer (G-2) of the Philippine Department, the US Army organization tasked to defend the Philippines during World War II and train the Philippine Army, had recommended to his superior in Washington D.C. that a Far Eastern Command be created, with the commander of the Philippine Department as the designated commander. It does not appear that this idea was seriously considered until Douglas MacArthur suggested to the Army Chief of Staff that such a command be created with himself as the Far Eastern Commander.
The United States Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) was a military command formed by the United States in the Philippines during World War II to counter the threat posed by the Imperial Japanese Army. Major General MacArthur served as its commander. Its headquarters was established on 26 July 1941, the same time as the Presidential Order (6 Fed. Reg. 3825) was issued by the President Franklin D. Roosevelt. This called the Philippine Commonwealth Army into the service of the Armed Forces of the United States.
During World War II, Several Filipino and American soldiers suffered in the Death March. On 5 July 1945, Gen. MacArthur came back to the Philippines and liberated the country, declaring the end of war in the Philippines.
Gen. MacArthur turned over the powers and functions of the government to President Sergio Osmeña Sr. after the war. Osmeña began investigations on collaboration charges with the help of Tomas Confessor, wartime civil governor of Iloilo and a guerilla leader of Panay, who had become his interim secretary of defense. Eventually, all the accused were granted amnesty.
Post World War 2 to Present
On August 31, 1950, President Elpidio Quirino appointed Ramon Magsaysay as the new Secretary of Defense. His strategy in making the Hukbong Bayan Laban sa Hapon (HUKBALAHAP ) made him so popular that Magsaysay won the Presidential elections in 1953.
The 1987 constitution mandates civilian control of the military and establishes the president as commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. The president also heads the National Security Council, the policy-making and advisory body for matters connected with national defense.
Functions and Responsibilities
The main functions of the Department of National Defense are to defend the state against internal and external threats and maintain law and order. The department's primary bureau, the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), is mandated to uphold the sovereignty, support the Constitution and defend the territory of the Republic of the Philippines against all enemies, foreign and domestic; promote and advance the national aims, interests and policies; and plan, organize, maintain, develop and deploy its regular and citizen reserve forces for national security.
DND is also tasked with the responsibility of providing the necessary protection of the State against external and internal threats; directing, planning and supervising the National Defense Program; maintaining law and order throughout the country; and performing other functions as may be provided for by the law.
In 1999, the Department of National Defense had begun conceptualizing the Philippine Defense Reform Program (PDR) as recommended by the Joint Defense Assessment (JDA). In December 2008, a new PDR Management and Execution System was instituted. The performance objectives and timelines of the 11 programs (which later became 12 with the inclusion of the integration of the Defense System of Management) as well as three high priority projects were approved.
Secretary of National Defense Voltaire Gazmin took a direct hand in implementing systemic reforms in the defense establishment by taking charge of the PDR. He called on defense senior leaders and PDR Program Managers to complete the development of all reform projects within the year and to proceed as soon as possible to their full implementation and institutionalization in the whole defense establishment. Among the secretary's reform priorities was the institutionalization of DND’s integrated, multi-year defense planning system called Defense System of Management (DSOM).
- Armed Forces of the Philippines
- Government Arsenal
- National Defense College of the Philippines
- National Security Council
- Office of Civil Defense
- Philippine Aerospace Development Corporation
- Philippine Veterans Affairs Office
List of secretaries of national defense
|Name||Term Began||Term Ended|
|Director of War|
|Emiliano Riego de Dios||March 22, 1897||December 15, 1897|
|Minister of War and Public Works|
|Baldomero Aguinaldo||July 15, 1898||January 2, 1899|
|Secretary of War and Public Works|
|Baldomero Aguinaldo||January 2, 1899||May 6, 1899|
|Mariano Trías||May 7, 1899||March 23, 1901|
|#||Name||Term Began||Term Ended||President|
|Secretaries of National Defense|
|1||Teofilo L. Sison||November 1, 1939||July 15, 1941||Manuel L. Quezon|
|*||Manuel L. Quezon||July 16, 1941||December 10, 1941|
|2||Jorge B. Vargas||December 11, 1941||December 22, 1941|
|Secretary of National Defense, Public Works, Communications and Labor|
|3||Basilio J. Valdes||December 23, 1941||August 1, 1944||Manuel L. Quezon|
|Secretaries of National Defense and Communications|
|Basilio J. Valdes||August 1, 1944||February 6, 1945|
|Sergio Osmeña Sr.|
|4||Tomas L. Cabili||February 27, 1945||July 11, 1945|
|Secretary of National Defense and the Interior|
|5||Alfredo Montelibano,Sr.||July 12, 1945||May 27, 1946||Sergio Osmeña|
|Secretaries of National Defense|
|6||Ruperto Kangleon||May 28, 1946||August 31, 1950||Manuel Roxas|
|7||Ramon Magsaysay||September 1, 1950||February 28, 1953|
|8||Oscar Castelo||March 1, 1953||December 19, 1953|
|*||Ramon Magsaysay||January 1, 1954||May 14, 1954||Ramon Magsaysay|
|9||Sotero B. Cabahug||May 14, 1954||January 2, 1956|
|10||Eulogio Balao||January 3, 1956||March 17, 1957|
|March 18, 1957||August 28, 1957||Carlos P. Garcia|
|11||Jesus M. Vargas||August 28, 1957||May 18, 1959|
|12||Alejo S. Santos||June 11, 1959||December 3, 1961|
|13||Macario Peralta, Jr.||January 1, 1962||December 30, 1965||Diosdado Macapagal|
|*||Ferdinand E. Marcos||December 31, 1965||January 20, 1967||Ferdinand Marcos|
|14||Ernesto S. Mata||January 21, 1967||February 3, 1970|
|15||Juan Ponce Enrile||February 9, 1970||August 27, 1971|
|*||Ferdinand Marcos||August 28, 1971||January 3, 1972|
|Juan Ponce Enrile||January 4, 1972||June 30, 1978|
|Minister of National Defense|
|Juan Ponce Enrile||June 30, 1978||February 25, 1986||Ferdinand Marcos|
|February 25, 1986||March 25, 1986||Corazon C. Aquino|
|Secretaries of National Defense|
|Juan Ponce Enrile||March 25, 1986||November 23, 1986||Corazon Aquino|
|16||Rafael M. Ileto||November 23, 1986||January 21, 1988|
|17||Fidel V. Ramos||January 22, 1988||July 18, 1991|
|18||Renato S. De Villa||July 20, 1991||June 30, 1992|
|June 30, 1992||September 15, 1997||Fidel V. Ramos|
|19||Fortunato U. Abat||September 16, 1997||June 30, 1998|
|20||Orlando S. Mercado||June 30, 1998||January 20, 2001||Joseph Estrada|
|January 20, 2001||January 25, 2001||Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo|
|*||Eduardo Ermita||January 25, 2001||March 19, 2001|
|21||Angelo T. Reyes||March 19, 2001||August 29, 2003|
|*||Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo||September 1, 2003||October 2, 2003|
|22||Eduardo Ermita||October 3, 2003||August 24, 2004|
|23||Avelino J. Cruz, Jr.||August 25, 2004||November 5, 2006|
|*||November 30, 2006||February 1, 2007|
|24||Hermogenes E. Ebdane, Jr.||February 1, 2007||July 2, 2007|
|*||Norberto Gonzales||July 2, 2007||August 7, 2007|
|25||Gilberto C. Teodoro, Jr.||August 7, 2007||November 15, 2009|
|*||Norberto Gonzales||November 15, 2009||June 30, 2010|
|26||Voltaire T. Gazmin||June 30, 2010||June 30, 2016||Benigno Simeon Aquino III|
|27||Delfin Lorenzana||June 30, 2016||Incumbent||Rodrigo Duterte|