Demographic History of the Philippines
Demography of the Philippines records the human population, including its population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects. The Philippines annualized population growth rate between the years 2010–2015 was 1.72%. According to the 2015 census, the population of the Philippines is 100,981,437. The first census in the Philippines was held in the year 1591 which counted 667,612 persons.
The majority of Filipinos are lowland Austronesians, while the Aetas (Negritos), as well as other highland groups form a minority. The indigenous population is related to the indigenous populations of the Malay Archipelago. Some ethnic groups that have been in the Philippines for centuries before Spanish and American colonial rule have assimilated or intermixed. 600,000 people from the United States live in the Philippines. They represent 0.56% of the total population. The ethnic groups include Arabs, Japanese, Han Chinese and Indians which form parts of the population.
The most commonly spoken indigenous languages are Tagalog and Cebuano, with 23.8 million (45 million speakers as Filipino) and 16 million speakers, respectively. Another 11 indigenous languages have at least one million native speakers: Ilokano, Hiligaynon, Waray, northern, central and southern Bikol languages, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Maranao, Maguindanao, Kinaray-a, Zamboangueño and Tausug. One or more of these are spoken as a mother tongue by more than 93% of the population. Filipino and English are the official languages but there are between 120 and 170 distinct indigenous Philippine languages (depending on expert classifications).
The first census in the Philippines was founded in 1591, based on tributes collected. The tributes count the total founding population of Spanish-Philippines as 667,612 people, of which: 20,000 were Chinese migrant traders, at different times: around 15,600 individuals were Latino soldier-colonists who were cumulatively sent from Peru and Mexico and they were shipped to the Philippines annually, 3,000 were Japanese residents, and 600 were pure Spaniards from Europe, there was also a large but unknown number of Indian Filipinos, the rest of the population were Malays and Negritos. Thus, with merely 667,612 people, during this era, the Philippines was among the most sparsely populated lands in Asia. In contrast, Japan during that era (the 1500s) already had a population of 8 Million or Mexico had a population of 4 million, which was huge compared to the Philippine's mere 600,000. In 1600, the method of population counting was revamped by the Spanish officials, who then based the counting of the population through church records. In 1798, the population of Luzon or Luconia was estimated to be around 600,000 with the other islands, unknown. 200,000 of the 600,000 population were of mixed-raced descent of either Spanish, Chinese or Latin-American admixture. 5,000 enlisted soldiers on that year, were of South American descent, while 2,500 were pure Spanish officers. There were also 20,000 new Chinese migrants. In 1799, Friar Manuel Buzeta estimated the population count of all Philippine islands as 1,502,574. However, the first official census was conducted only in 1878, when the population as of midnight on December 31, 1877 was counted. This was followed by two more censuses, namely, the 1887 census, and the 1898 census. The 1887 census yielded a count of 6,984,727, while that of 1898 yielded 7,832,719 inhabitants.
In 1903 the population of the Philippines was recounted by American authorities to fulfill Act 467. The survey yielded 7,635,426 people, including 56,138 who were foreign-born.
According to the 1920 United States Census, there were 10,314,310 people in the Philippines. 99 percent were Filipino; 51,751 were either Chinese or Japanese; 34,563 were of mixed race; 12,577 were Caucasian; and 7,523 were African.
By then, some 27% of the population could speak English as a second language, while the number of Spanish speakers as first language had further fallen to 3% from 10–14% at the beginning of the century. In 1936, Tagalog was selected to be the basis for a national language. In 1987, the Filipino language, a standard language based on Tagalog, was imposed as the national language and as one of the two official languages alongside English.
Philippine census surveys
See also: Philippines census
In 1960, the government of the Philippines conducted a survey on both population, and housing. The population was pegged at 27,087,685. Successive surveys were again conducted in 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1990, which gave the population as 36,684,948, 42,070,660, 48,098,460, and 60,703,206 respectively. In 1995, the POPCEN was launched, undertaken at the month of September, The data provided the bases for the Internal Revenue Allocation to local government units, and for the creation of new legislative areas. The count was made official by then President Fidel Ramos by Proclamation No, 849 on August 14, 1995, The population was 68,616,536.
Census January 1, 2010
|65–69||680 227||817 330||1,497,557||1.62|
|70–74||492 152||650 410||1,142,562||1.24|
|75–79||286 079||421 036||707 115||0.77|
|80–84||145 937||248 251||394 188||0.43|
|85–89||64 125||124 386||188 511||0.20|
|90–94||19 598||40 504||60 102||0.07|
|95–99||5 684||12 415||18 099||0.02|
|100+||1 831||2 962||4 793||0.01|
|Period||Live births per year||Deaths per year||Natural change per year||CBR1||CDR1||NC1||TFR1||IMR1|
|1950–1955||981 000||269 000||712 000||48.6||13.3||35.3||7.42||96.8|
|1955–1960||1,095,000||285 000||810 000||45.7||11.9||33.8||7.27||86.5|
|1960–1965||1,218,000||299 000||919 000||43.0||10.6||32.5||6.98||77.4|
|1CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births|
Fertility and births
Total fertility rate (TFR) (wanted fertility rate) and crude birth rate (CBR):
|Year||CBR (total)||TFR (total)||CBR (urban)||TFR (urban)||CBR (rural)||TFR (rural)|
|1993||29.7||4.09 (2.9)||28.5||3.53 (2.6)||30.9||4.82 (3.3)|
|1998||28.0||3.73 (2.7)||25.8||3.01 (2.3)||30.1||4.67 (3.3)|
|2003||25.6||3.5 (2.5)||24.7||3.0 (2.2)||26.7||4.3 (3.0)|
|2008||23.4||3.3 (2.4)||21.6||2.8 (2.1)||24.6||3.8 (2.7)|
|2013||22.1||3.0 (2.2)||21.5||2.6 (1.9)||22.6||3.5 (2.5)|
|2017||18.6||2.7 (2.0)||18.4||2.4 (1.8)||18.7||2.9 (2.2)|
Single mother phenomenon and illegitimate birth rate
More than half of the children born every year in the Philippines are illegitimate, and the percentage of illegitimate children is rising by 2% per year. First time single mothers normally consist of girls in the 17 to 19 years old age bracket. Some females become prostitutes in the Philippines after they become unwed single mothers from teenage pregnancy. More than half of women do not want anymore children but the access to contraceptive methods have declined, and especially in case of Philippines the people are hesitant to use modern scientific contraceptives due to opposition by the Catholic Church. The reasons for the high illegitimate birthrate and single motherhood include the unpopularity of artificial contraception in the PhilippinesTemplate:Failed verification inadequate sex education, delays in implementing birth control legislation and a machismo attitude among many Filipino males. There are three million household heads without a spouse, two million of whom were female (2015 PSA estimates).
Between 2010 and 2014, in Philippines 54% of all pregnancies (1.9 million pregnancies) were unintended. Consequently, 9% of women 15 to 19 years of age have begun childbearing and every year there are 610 000 unsafe abortions. In 2017, modern contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) in "the Philippines was 40% among married women of reproductive age and 17% among unmarried sexually active women" and "Forty-six percent of married women used no contraceptive method in 2017 and 14% a traditional method." The "unmet need for family planning' which is the lack of access of contraceptives to women do not want to have more children or wish to delay having children was 17% among married women and 49% among unmarried and among unmarried only 22% women were able to access modern contraceptive methods. "As a consequence of the low contraceptive met need, 68% of unintended pregnancies occur in women not using any method and 24% in those using traditional methods" and the rest had to resort to unsafe traditional methods.
Catholic Church in Philippines preaches against sex before or outside marriage, resists the use of modern contraceptive and passing of laws allowing divorce. It continues to mix religion with politics since the time of Spanish friar, while Catholic priests continue to have scandals by having affairs and by fathering offsprings with women amidst of allegation of child sexual abuse by the Catholic Church clergy. Aries Rufo's highlighted many such scandals in his 2013 book the "Altar of Secrets: Sex, Politics, and Money in the Philippine Catholic Church", which was also distributed by President Rodrigo Duterte when he attacked Catholic Church for hypocrisy and mixing religion with law making (violation of separation of church and state). Filipinos [who practice a liberal native culture which still embodies aspects of relatively more liberal pre-Spanish pre-Catholic native faith called Bathala] also follow a version of Catholicism which was enforced in Philippines by Spanish colonial era Catholic Friars through a process of enculturation. Hence, there is a gap between the present [Bathala based liberal] Filipino culture and [relatively more orthodox] scriptural Catholic religion. 84% Filipinos are Catholic, and what Filipinos actually do in practice is different from what they believe in, i.e. Filipinos practice a liberal cultural attitude towards sexual relationships while also contrastingly practicing orthodox Catholic religious belief which opposes the modern scientific contraceptives and laws based on the modern values, resulting in lack of access to family planning methods, stigmatization of medical abortions, a high number of unwanted pregnancies, lack of access to safe modern medical abortions, high and still rising trend of illegitimate newborn birth rate. Law in the Philippines continues to differentiate and discriminate between filiation (recognition of the biological relationship between father and child) and legitimacy (legally considered a legitimate child), national law still continues to label the "nonmarital births" as "illegitimate", which has been criticized by the social and legal activists for the constitutional stigmatization and denial of equal legal rights.
|Nationwide % of illegitimate children born every year||Nationwide % increase in illegitimate children compared to previous year||% of illegitimate children born in NCR every year||% of illegitimate children born in ARMM every year||PSA sources|
|Period||Life expectancy in years||Period||Life expectancy in years|
Source: UN World Population Prospects
Year by year
|Average population||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1000)||Crude death rate (per 1000)||Natural change (per 1000)||Total fertility rate||Infant mortality rate (per 1000 births)|
|Region||Total fertility rate||Percentage of women age 15–49 currently pregnant||Mean number of children ever born to women age 40–49|
|National Capital Region||2.3||3.0||3.0|
|Cordillera Administrative Region||2.9||4.8||4.0|
Ethnic groups and modern immigrants in the Philippines
The majority of the people in the Philippines are related to Malay people, or more broadly the Austronesian peoples. The largest of these groups are the Visayans, Tagalogs, Ilocanos, Bicolanos, Moros, Kapampangans, Pangasinenses, and the Zamboangueños. The indigenous peoples of the Philippines form a minority of the population. Other large ethnic groups include Filipinos of Chinese, Spanish, Latino and American descent. There are more than 175 ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines, its own culture, identity, literature, tradition, music, dances, foods, beliefs, and history, which are all part of Filipino culture. The latest censuses did not take account of ethnicity, and the only census that included questions on ethnicity is of the 2000 census. Nevertheless a 2019 Anthropology Study by Matthew Go, published in the Journal of Human Biology, using physical anthropology, estimated that, 72.7% of Filipinos are Asian, 12.7% of Filipinos can be classified as Hispanic (Latin-American Mestizos or Malay-Spanish Mestizos), 7.3% as Indigenous American, African at 4.5% and European at 2.7%.
- United States of America 29,972
- China 28,705
- Japan 11,584
- India 9,007
- Korea, South 5,822
- Korea, North 4,846
- Canada 4,700
- United Kingdom of Great Britain And Northern Ireland 3,474
- Australia 3,360
- Germany 3,184
- Indonesia 2,781
- Taiwan 1,538
- Italy 1,460
- Afghanistan 1,019
- France 1,014
- Spain 1,009
- Switzerland 872
- Turkey 739
- Singapore 691
- South Africa 681
- Malaysia 673
- Saudi Arabia 621
- Norway 550
- Israel 514
- Sweden 513
- Iran 498
- Tunisia 479
- Belgium 445
- Congo 444
- Austria 424
- Pakistan 421
- Netherlands 407
- Algeria 389
- Ecuador 387
- Denmark 374
- United Arab Emirates 368
- Ireland 362
- Myanmar 355
- Vietnam 351
- Oman 342
- New Zealand 325
- Thailand 286
- Hungary 206
- Nigeria 162
- Jordan 150
- Sri Lanka 146
- Kuwait 144
- Egypt 135
- Brazil 134
- Bangladesh 133
- Greece 129
- Argentina 125
- Mexico 123
- East Timor 119
- Armenia 115
- Lebanon 110
- Cape Verde 109
- Colombia 106
- Suriname 106
- Qatar 102
- Others 1,617
See also: Philippine languages According to the Komisyon ng Wikang Filipino, there are 135 ethnic languages in the Philippine archipelago, each spoken by the respective ethno-linguistic group, except for the national Filipino language which is spoken by all 134 ethno-linguistic groups in the country. Most of the languages have several varieties (dialects), totaling over 300 across the archipelago. In the 1930s in an act of cultural hegemony, the government imposed the use of the Tagalog language as the national language, and called the new Tagalog-based language as the national Filipino language, becoming the 135th ethnic language of the country. Visayan languages (also called Bisaya or Binisaya) are widely spoken throughout the Visayas and in most parts of Mindanao. Ilokano is the lingua franca of Northern Luzon excluding Pangasinan. Zamboangueño Chavacano is the official language of Zamboanga City and lingua franca of Basilan.
Filipino and English are the official languages of the country for purposes of communication and instruction. Consequently, English is widely spoken and understood, although fluency has decreased as the prevalence of Tagalog in primary and secondary educational institutions has increased.
See also: Religion in the Philippines
The Philippine Statistics Authority in October 2015 reported that Template:Rnd% of the total Filipino population were Roman Catholics, 10.8% were Protestant and Template:Rnd% were Islamic. Although the 2012 International Religious Freedom (IRF) reports that an estimate by the National Commission on Muslim Filipinos (NCMF) in 2011 stated that there were then 10.3 million Muslims, or about 10 percent of the total population however this is yet to be proven officially. In 2000, according to the "World Values Survey", 1.8% were Protestant Christians and 10.9% were then irreligious.Template:Dubious Other Christian denominations include the Iglesia ni Cristo (one of a number of separate Churches of Christ generally not affiliated with one another), Aglipayan Church, Members Church of God International, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). Minority religions include Buddhism, Hinduism, and Judaism. Roman Catholics and Protestants were converted during the four centuries of Western influence by Spain, and the United States. Under Spanish rule, much of the population was converted to Christianity.
Orthodox Christians also live in Philippines. The Orthodoxy was brought over by Russian and Greek immigrants to the Philippines Russian settlement in the Philippines Greek settlement in the Philippines Protestant Christianity arrived in the Philippines during the 20th century, introduced by American missionaries.
Education in the Philippines has been influenced by foreign models, particularly the United States, and Spain. Philippine students enter public school at about age four, starting from nursery school up to kindergarten. At about seven years of age, students enter elementary school (6 to 7 years). This is followed by junior high school (4 years) and senior high school (2 years). Students then take the college entrance examinations (CEE), after which they enter university (3 to 5 years). Other types of schools include private school, preparatory school, international school, laboratory high school, and science high school. School year in the Philippines starts from June, and ends in March with a two-month summer break from April to May, one week of semestral break in October, and a week or two during Christmas and New Year holidays.
Starting in SY 2011–2012 there has been a phased implementation of a new program. The K to 12 Program covers kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of junior high school, and two years of senior high school [SHS]).
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[Page 1] ABSTRACT: Filipinos represent a significant contemporary demographic group globally, yet they are underrepresented in the forensic anthropological literature. Given the complex population history of the Philippines, it is important to ensure that traditional methods for assessing the biological profile are appropriate when applied to these peoples. Here we analyze the classification trends of a modern Filipino sample (n = 110) when using the Fordisc 3.1 (FD3) software. We hypothesize that Filipinos represent an admixed population drawn largely from Asian and marginally from European parental gene pools, such that FD3 will classify these individuals morphometrically into reference samples that reflect a range of European admixture, in quantities from small to large. Our results show the greatest classification into Asian reference groups (72.7%), followed by Hispanic (12.7%), Indigenous American (7.3%), African (4.5%), and European (2.7%) groups included in FD3. This general pattern did not change between males and females. Moreover, replacing the raw craniometric values with their shape variables did not significantly alter the trends already observed. These classification trends for Filipino crania provide useful information for casework interpretation in forensic laboratory practice. Our findings can help biological anthropologists to better understand the evolutionary, population historical, and statistical reasons for FD3-generated classifications. The results of our studyindicate that ancestry estimation in forensic anthropology would benefit from population-focused research that gives consideration to histories of colonialism and periods of admixture.
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