Demographic History of the Philippines

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Demography of the Philippines records the human population, including its population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects. The Philippines annualized population growth rate between the years 2010–2015 was 1.72%.[1] According to the 2015 census, the population of the Philippines is 100,981,437.[2] The first census in the Philippines was held in the year 1591 which counted 667,612 persons.[3]

The majority of Filipinos are lowland Austronesians,[4] while the Aetas (Negritos), as well as other highland groups form a minority. The indigenous population is related to the indigenous populations of the Malay Archipelago. Some ethnic groups that have been in the Philippines for centuries before Spanish and American colonial rule have assimilated or intermixed. 600,000 people from the United States live in the Philippines.[5] They represent 0.56% of the total population. The ethnic groups include Arabs, Japanese, Han Chinese and Indians which form parts of the population.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

The most commonly spoken indigenous languages are Tagalog and Cebuano, with 23.8 million (45 million speakers as Filipino) and 16 million speakers, respectively. Another 11 indigenous languages have at least one million native speakers: Ilokano, Hiligaynon, Waray, northern, central and southern Bikol languages, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Maranao, Maguindanao, Kinaray-a, Zamboangueño and Tausug. One or more of these are spoken as a mother tongue by more than 93% of the population. Filipino and English are the official languages but there are between 120 and 170 distinct indigenous Philippine languages (depending on expert classifications).

Population history

Philippines population density Map per province as of 2009 per square

The first census in the Philippines was founded in 1591, based on tributes collected. The tributes count the total founding population of Spanish-Philippines as 667,612 people,[13] of which: 20,000 were Chinese migrant traders,[14] at different times: around 15,600 individuals were Latino soldier-colonists who were cumulatively sent from Peru and Mexico and they were shipped to the Philippines annually,[15] 3,000 were Japanese residents,[16] and 600 were pure Spaniards from Europe,[17] there was also a large but unknown number of Indian Filipinos, the rest of the population were Malays and Negritos. Thus, with merely 667,612 people, during this era, the Philippines was among the most sparsely populated lands in Asia. In contrast, Japan during that era (the 1500s) already had a population of 8 Million or Mexico had a population of 4 million, which was huge compared to the Philippine's mere 600,000. In 1600, the method of population counting was revamped by the Spanish officials, who then based the counting of the population through church records. In 1798, the population of Luzon or Luconia was estimated to be around 600,000 with the other islands, unknown. 200,000 of the 600,000 population were of mixed-raced descent of either Spanish, Chinese or Latin-American admixture. 5,000 enlisted soldiers on that year, were of South American descent, while 2,500 were pure Spanish officers. There were also 20,000 new Chinese migrants.[18] In 1799, Friar Manuel Buzeta estimated the population count of all Philippine islands as 1,502,574. However, the first official census was conducted only in 1878, when the population as of midnight on December 31, 1877 was counted. This was followed by two more censuses, namely, the 1887 census, and the 1898 census. The 1887 census yielded a count of 6,984,727,[19] while that of 1898 yielded 7,832,719 inhabitants.[20]

1903 census

In 1903 the population of the Philippines was recounted by American authorities to fulfill Act 467. The survey yielded 7,635,426 people, including 56,138 who were foreign-born.[21]

1920 census

According to the 1920 United States Census, there were 10,314,310 people in the Philippines.[22] 99 percent were Filipino; 51,751 were either Chinese or Japanese; 34,563 were of mixed race; 12,577 were Caucasian; and 7,523 were African.[22]

1939

The 1939 census was undertaken in conformity with Section 1 of Commonwealth Act 170.[23] The Philippine population figure was 16,000,303.[24]

1941

In 1941 the estimated population of the Philippines reached 17,000,000.[25] Manila's population was 684,000.[26]

By then, some 27% of the population could speak English as a second language, while the number of Spanish speakers as first language had further fallen to 3% from 10–14% at the beginning of the century. In 1936, Tagalog was selected to be the basis for a national language.[27] In 1987, the Filipino language, a standard language based on Tagalog, was imposed as the national language and as one of the two official languages alongside English.[28]

Philippine census surveys

See also: Philippines census

Census Population 1960–2015[29]
1960 1970 1975 1980 1990 1995 2000 2007 2010 2015
27,087,685 36,684,486 42,070,660 48,098,460 60,703,206 68,616,536 76,506,928 88,566,732 92,337,852 100,981,437

In 1960, the government of the Philippines conducted a survey on both population, and housing. The population was pegged at 27,087,685. Successive surveys were again conducted in 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1990, which gave the population as 36,684,948, 42,070,660, 48,098,460, and 60,703,206 respectively. In 1995, the POPCEN was launched, undertaken at the month of September, The data provided the bases for the Internal Revenue Allocation to local government units, and for the creation of new legislative areas. The count was made official by then President Fidel Ramos by Proclamation No, 849 on August 14, 1995, The population was 68,616,536.

Population pyramid

Census January 1, 2010

Population pyramid 2016
Age group[30] Male Female Total %
Total 46,634,257 45,700,856 92,335,113 100
0–4 5,293,211 4,940,573 10,233,784 11.08
5–9 5,332,287 4,989,256 10,321,543 11.18
10–14 5,237,006 4,942,604 10,179,610 11.02
15–19 4,931,506 4,773,848 9,705,354 10.51
20–24 4,256,999 4,151,657 8,408,656 9.11
25–29 3,746,311 3,677,412 7,423,723 8.04
30–34 3,443,582 3,329,347 6,772,929 7.34
35–39 3,057,323 2,956,630 6,013,953 6.51
40–44 2,778,661 2,692,927 5,471,588 5.93
45–49 2,367,809 2,312,840 4,680,649 5.07
50–54 1,953,952 1,940,898 3,894,850 4.22
55–59 1,475,861 1,511,287 2,987,148 3.24
60–64 1,064,116 1,164,283 2,228,399 2.41
65–69 680 227 817 330 1,497,557 1.62
70–74 492 152 650 410 1,142,562 1.24
75–79 286 079 421 036 707 115 0.77
80–84 145 937 248 251 394 188 0.43
85–89 64 125 124 386 188 511 0.20
90–94 19 598 40 504 60 102 0.07
95–99 5 684 12 415 18 099 0.02
100+ 1 831 2 962 4 793 0.01
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 15,862,504 14,872,433 30,734,937 33.29
15–64 29,076,120 28,511,129 57,587,249 62.37
65+ 1,695,633 2,317,294 4,012,927 4.35

Vital statistics

UN estimates

World population prospects, 2010[31]
Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950–1955 981 000 269 000 712 000 48.6 13.3 35.3 7.42 96.8
1955–1960 1,095,000 285 000 810 000 45.7 11.9 33.8 7.27 86.5
1960–1965 1,218,000 299 000 919 000 43.0 10.6 32.5 6.98 77.4
1965–1970 1,334,000 311 000 1,023,000 40.4 9.4 31.0 6.54 67.8
1970–1975 1,461,000 326 000 1,136,000 38.3 8.5 29.8 5.98 59.3
1975–1980 1,643,000 346 000 1,297,000 37.4 7.9 29.5 5.46 51.8
1980–1985 1,801,000 368 000 1,433,000 35.6 7.3 28.3 4.92 45.2
1985–1990 1,968,000 393 000 1,575,000 34.0 6.8 27.2 4.53 39.5
1990–1995 2,084,000 419 000 1,664,000 31.8 6.4 25.4 4.14 34.5
1995–2000 2,216,000 450 000 1,766,000 30.2 6.1 24.1 3.90 30.1
2000–2005 2,360,000 487 000 1,873,000 28.8 5.5 23.3 3.70 26.3
2005–2010 2,318,000 528 000 1,790,000 25.9 5.5 20.4 3.30 23.0
2010–2015 24.1 5.8 18.3 3.05
2015–2020 20.6 5.8 14.8 2.58
2020–2025 19.6 6.2 13.4 2.45
2025–2030 18.6 6.5 12.1 2.34
1CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births
Population density (2010)

Fertility and births

Total fertility rate (TFR) (wanted fertility rate) and crude birth rate (CBR):[32]

Year CBR (total) TFR (total) CBR (urban) TFR (urban) CBR (rural) TFR (rural)
1993 29.7 4.09 (2.9) 28.5 3.53 (2.6) 30.9 4.82 (3.3)
1998 28.0 3.73 (2.7) 25.8 3.01 (2.3) 30.1 4.67 (3.3)
2003 25.6 3.5 (2.5) 24.7 3.0 (2.2) 26.7 4.3 (3.0)
2008 23.4 3.3 (2.4) 21.6 2.8 (2.1) 24.6 3.8 (2.7)
2013 22.1 3.0 (2.2) 21.5 2.6 (1.9) 22.6 3.5 (2.5)
2017 18.6 2.7 (2.0) 18.4 2.4 (1.8) 18.7 2.9 (2.2)

Single mother phenomenon and illegitimate birth rate

More than half of the children born every year in the Philippines are illegitimate, and the percentage of illegitimate children is rising by 2% per year.[33][34][35][36] First time single mothers normally consist of girls in the 17 to 19 years old age bracket.[37] Some females become prostitutes in the Philippines after they become unwed single mothers[38] from teenage pregnancy. More than half of women do not want anymore children but the access to contraceptive methods have declined, and especially in case of Philippines the people are hesitant to use modern scientific contraceptives due to opposition by the Catholic Church.[39][40] The reasons for the high illegitimate birthrate and single motherhood include the unpopularity of artificial contraception in the Philippines[41]Template:Failed verification inadequate sex education, delays in implementing birth control legislation and a machismo attitude among many Filipino males. There are three million household heads without a spouse, two million of whom were female (2015 PSA estimates).

Between 2010 and 2014, in Philippines 54% of all pregnancies (1.9 million pregnancies) were unintended. Consequently, 9% of women 15 to 19 years of age have begun childbearing and every year there are 610 000 unsafe abortions. In 2017, modern contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) in "the Philippines was 40% among married women of reproductive age and 17% among unmarried sexually active women" and "Forty-six percent of married women used no contraceptive method in 2017 and 14% a traditional method." The "unmet need for family planning' which is the lack of access of contraceptives to women do not want to have more children or wish to delay having children was 17% among married women and 49% among unmarried and among unmarried only 22% women were able to access modern contraceptive methods. "As a consequence of the low contraceptive met need, 68% of unintended pregnancies occur in women not using any method and 24% in those using traditional methods" and the rest had to resort to unsafe traditional methods.[42]

Catholic Church in Philippines preaches against sex before or outside marriage, resists the use of modern contraceptive and passing of laws allowing divorce. It continues to mix religion with politics since the time of Spanish friar, while Catholic priests continue to have scandals by having affairs and by fathering offsprings with women amidst of allegation of child sexual abuse by the Catholic Church clergy.[43] Aries Rufo's highlighted many such scandals in his 2013 book the "Altar of Secrets: Sex, Politics, and Money in the Philippine Catholic Church", which was also distributed by President Rodrigo Duterte when he attacked Catholic Church for hypocrisy and mixing religion with law making (violation of separation of church and state).[43] Filipinos [who practice a liberal native culture which still embodies aspects of relatively more liberal pre-Spanish pre-Catholic native faith called Bathala] also follow a version of Catholicism which was enforced in Philippines by Spanish colonial era Catholic Friars through a process of enculturation.[43] Hence, there is a gap between the present [Bathala based liberal] Filipino culture and [relatively more orthodox] scriptural Catholic religion.[43] 84% Filipinos are Catholic, and what Filipinos actually do in practice is different from what they believe in,[43] i.e. Filipinos practice a liberal cultural attitude towards sexual relationships while also contrastingly practicing orthodox Catholic religious belief which opposes the modern scientific contraceptives and laws based on the modern values, resulting in lack of access to family planning methods, stigmatization of medical abortions, a high number of unwanted pregnancies, lack of access to safe modern medical abortions, high and still rising trend of illegitimate newborn birth rate. Law in the Philippines continues to differentiate and discriminate between filiation (recognition of the biological relationship between father and child) and legitimacy (legally considered a legitimate child), national law still continues to label the "nonmarital births" as "illegitimate", which has been criticized by the social and legal activists for the constitutional stigmatization and denial of equal legal rights.

The following table, based on the annual official data sourced from Philippine Statistics Authority, shows the growing annual trend of illegitimate child births by percentages:

Reporting
Year
Nationwide % of illegitimate children born every year Nationwide % increase in illegitimate children compared to previous year % of illegitimate children born in NCR every year % of illegitimate children born in ARMM every year PSA sources
2021
2020
2019
2018 54.3% 1% 65.8% 4.3% [44]
2017 53.3% 4.1% 64.9% 4.3% [45]
2016 49.2% −2.9% 59.9% 4.8% [46]
2015 52.1 1.8 63.0 06.2 [47]
2014 50.3 2.1 62.0 06.6 [48]
2013 48.2 2.5 60.9 06.6 [49]
2012 45.7 1.1 58.5 05.4 [50]
2011 44.6 7.1 56.9 07.6 [51]
2008 37.5 NA NA NA [52]

Life expectancy

Period Life expectancy in years Period Life expectancy in years
1950–1955 55.4 1985–1990 64.7
1955–1960 57.1 1990–1995 65.7
1960–1965 58.6 1995–2000 66.8
1965–1970 60.1 2000–2005 67.5
1970–1975 61.4 2005–2010 68.0
1975–1980 61.7 2010–2015 68.6
1980–1985 62.9

Source: UN World Population Prospects[53]

Year by year

Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[54][55]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate Infant mortality rate (per 1000 births)
1903 7,635,000 284,000 329,671 -44,871 37.3 43.2 -5.9
1904 7,659,000 216,176 146,894 69,282 28.2 19.2 9.0
1905 7,699,000 244,586 166,555 78,031 31.8 21.6 10.2
1906 7,761,000 215,296 143,284 72,012 27.7 18.5 9.2
1907 7,844,000 258,010 138,464 119,546 32.9 17.7 15.2
1908 7,964,000 278,369 190,495 87,874 35.0 23.9 11.1
1909 8,095,000 234,726 179,355 55,371 29.0 22.2 6.8
1910 8,220,000 290,210 191,576 98,634 35.3 23.3 12.0
1911 8,387,000 302,855 188,412 114,443 36.1 22.5 13.6
1912 8,576,000 290,995 185,185 105,810 33.9 21.6 12.3
1913 8,786,000 316,056 154,086 161,970 36.0 17.5 18.5
1914 9,017,000 347,337 163,943 183,394 38.5 18.2 20.3
1915 9,269,000 327,206 176,313 150,893 35.3 19.0 16.3
1916 9,542,000 340,269 195,970 144,659 35.7 20.5 15.2
1917 9,836,000 353,283 212,334 140,949 35.9 21.6 14.3
1918 10,314,000 345,751 367,106 -21,355 33.5 35.6 -2.1
1919 10,324,000 306,832 326,716 -19,884 29.7 31.6 -1.9
1920 10,445,000 351,195 200,690 150,505 33.6 19.2 14.4
1921 10,673,000 364,432 205,654 158,778 34.1 19.3 14.8
1922 10,908,000 373,506 203,237 170,269 34.2 18.6 15.6
1923 11,152,000 385,418 202,981 182,437 34.6 18.2 16.4
1924
1925
1926 11,935,000 400,439 229,928 170,511 33.6 19.3 14.3 156.7
1927 12,212,000 414,357 229,328 185,029 33.9 18.8 15.1 152.5
1928 12,498,000 422,716 218,096 204,620 33.8 17.5 16.3 150.1
1929 12,792,000 428,996 237,733 191,263 33.5 18.6 14.9 161.6
1930 13,094,000 429,245 252,988 176,257 32.8 19.3 13.5 165.0
1931 13,405,000 440,159 240,825 199,334 32.8 18.0 14.8 155.1
1932 13,724,000 446,940 211,809 235,131 32.6 15.4 17.1 137.6
1933 14,051,000 459,682 227,594 232,088 32.7 16.2 16.5 145.8
1934 14,387,000 447,738 239,703 208,035 31.1 16.7 14.4 160.8
1935 14,731,000 461,410 257,181 204,229 31.3 17.5 13.8 153.4
1936 15,084,000 485,126 239,107 246,019 32.2 15.9 16.3 134.0
1937 15,445,000 513,760 254,740 259,020 33.3 16.5 16.8 137.3
1938 15,814,000 512,389 261,848 250,541 32.4 16.6 15.8 139.0
1939 16,000,000 522,432 273,141 249,291 32.7 16.9 15.8 146.2
1940 16,460,000 535,117 273,480 261,637 32.5 16.6 15.9 135.8
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946 18,434,000 533,283 278,546 254,737 28.9 15.1 13.8 125.5
1947 18,786,000 272,226 238,527 33,699 14.5 12.7 1.8 234.4
1948 19,234,000 602,415 243,467 358,948 31.3 12.7 18.6 114.4
1949 19,509,000 609,138 231,151 377,987 31.2 11.8 19.4 108.5
1950 19,881,000 642,472 226,505 415,967 32.3 11.4 20.9 101.6
1951 20,260,000 637,264 237,937 399,327 31.5 11.7 19.8 105.5
1952 20,646,000 650,725 241,020 409,705 31.5 11.7 19.8 101.2
1953 21,039,000 468,489 239,988 228,501 22.3 11.4 10.9 148.8
1954 22,869,000 702,662 217,650 485,012 30.7 9.5 21.2 94.2
1955 23,568,000 734,761 212,798 521,963 31.2 9.0 22.2 84.3
1956 24,288,000 542,249 205,581 336,668 22.3 8.5 13.8 110.9
1957 25,030,000 514,202 199,919 314,283 20.5 8.0 12.5 112.9
1958 25,795,000 484,592 185,437 299,155 18.6 7.2 11.4 109.2
1959 26,584,000 616,893 176,448 440,445 23.2 6.6 16.6 93.4
1960 27,088,000 649,651 196,544 453,107 24.0 7.3 16.7 7.15 84.6
1961 28,214,000 647,846 207,436 440,410 23.0 7.3 15.7 7.09 88.4
1962 29,064,000 775,146 169,880 605,266 26.7 5.9 20.8 7.02 58.6
1963 29,937,000 786,698 214,412 572,286 26.3 7.2 19.1 6.95 72.8
1964 30,841,000 802,648 222,097 580,551 26.0 7.2 18.8 6.87 70.5
1965 31,770,000 795,415 234,935 560,480 25.0 7.4 17.6 6.78 72.9
1966 32,727,000 823,342 236,396 586,946 25.2 7.2 18.0 6.69 72.0
1967 33,713,000 840,302 240,122 600,180 24.9 7.1 17.8 6.59 72.2
1968 34,728,000 898,570 261,893 636,677 25.9 7.5 18.4 6.48 71.0
1969 35,774,000 946,753 241,678 705,075 26.5 6.8 19.7 6.38 67.3
1970 36,684,000 966,762 234,038 732,724 26.4 6.4 20.0 6.26 60.0
1971 37,902,000 963,749 250,139 713,610 25.4 6.6 18.8 6.15 62.0
1972 38,991,000 968,385 285,761 682,624 24.8 7.3 17.5 6.04 67.9
1973 40,123,000 1,049,290 283,475 765,815 26.2 7.1 19.1 5.93 64.7
1974 41,279,000 1,081,073 283,975 797,098 26.2 6.9 19.3 5.82 58.7
1975 42,071,000 1,223,837 271,136 952,701 29.1 6.4 22.7 5.72 53.3
1976 43,338,000 1,314,860 299,861 1,014,999 30.3 6.9 23.4 5.61 56.9
1977 44,417,000 1,344,836 308,904 1,035,932 30.3 7.0 23.3 5.51 56.8
1978 45,498,000 1,387,588 297,034 1,090,554 30.5 6.5 24.0 5.40 53.1
1979 46,592,000 1,429,814 306,427 1,123,387 30.7 6.6 24.1 5.29 50.2
1980 48,098,000 1,456,860 298,006 1,158,854 30.3 6.2 24.1 5.18 45.1
1981 49,536,000 1,461,204 301,117 1,160,087 29.5 6.1 23.4 5.08 44.1
1982 50,783,000 1,474,491 308,758 1,165,733 29.0 6.1 22.9 4.98 41.8
1983 52,055,000 1,506,356 327,260 1,179,096 28.9 6.3 22.6 4.88 42.7
1984 53,351,000 1,478,205 313,359 1,164,846 27.7 5.9 21.8 4.80 38.5
1985 54,668,000 1,437,154 334,663 1,102,491 26.3 6.1 20.2 4.71 38.0
1986 56,004,000 1,493,995 326,749 1,167,246 26.7 5.8 20.9 4.63 35.0
1987 57,356,000 1,582,469 335,254 1,247,215 27.6 5.8 21.8 4.55 32.1
1988 58,721,000 1,565,372 325,098 1,240,274 26.7 5.5 21.2 4.48 30.1
1989 60,097,000 1,565,254 325,621 1,239,633 26.0 5.4 20.6 4.40 27.5
1990 60,703,000 1,631,069 313,890 1,317,179 26.9 5.4 21.5 4.32 24.3
1991 63,729,000 1,643,296 298,063 1,345,233 25.8 4.7 21.1 4.25 20.9
1992 65,339,000 1,684,395 319,579 1,364,816 25.8 4.9 20.9 4.18 21.9
1993 66,982,000 1,680,896 318,546 1,362,350 25.1 4.8 20.3 4.11 20.6
1994 68,624,000 1,645,011 321,440 1,323,571 24.0 4.7 19.3 4.06 18.9
1995 68,617,000 1,645,043 324,737 1,320,306 24.0 4.7 19.3 4.01 18.6
1996 69,951,000 1,608,468 344,363 1,264,105 23.0 4.9 18.1 3.96 19.0
1997 71,549,000 1,653,236 339,400 1,313,836 23.1 4.7 18.4 3.92 17.0
1998 73,147,000 1,632,859 352,992 1,279,867 22.3 4.8 17.5 3.89 17.3
1999 74,746,000 1,613,335 347,989 1,265,346 21.6 4.7 16.9 3.85 15.6
2000 76,348,000 1,766,440 366,931 1,399,509 23.1 4.8 18.3 3.81 15.7
2001 77,926,000 1,714,093 381,834 1,332,259 22.0 4.9 17.1 3.77 15.2
2002 79,503,000 1,666,773 396,297 1,270,476 21.0 5.0 16.0 3.71 14.2
2003 81,081,000 1,669,442 396,331 1,273,111 20.6 4.9 15.7 3.64 13.7
2004 82,663,000 1,710,994 403,191 1,307,803 20.7 4.9 15.8 3.57 13.2
2005 84,241,000 1,688,918 426,054 1,262,864 20.0 5.1 14.9 3.48 12.8
2006 86,973,000 1,663,029 441,036 1,221,993 19.1 5.1 14.0 3.40 13.1
2007 88,706,000 1,749,878 441,956 1,307,922 19.7 5.0 14.7 3.33 12.4
2008 90,457,000 1,784,316 461,581 1,322,735 19.7 5.1 14.6 3.26 12.5
2009 92,227,000 1,745,585 480,820 1,264,765 18.9 5.2 13.7 3.20 12.4
2010 94,013,000 1,782,981 488,265 1,294,716 19.0 5.2 13.8 3.15 12.6
2011 95,053,000 1,746,864 498,486 1,248,378 18.4 5.3 13.2
2012 96,328,000 1,790,367 514,745 1,275,622 18.6 5.3 13.2
2013 97,571,000 1,761,602 531,280 1,230,322 17.9 5.4 12.5 3.0
2014 99,138,000 1,748,857 536,999 1,211,858 17.6 5.4 12.2
2015 100,699,000 1,744,767 560,605 1,184,162 17.3 5.5 11.8
2016 102,530,000 1,731,289 582,183 1,149,106 16.8 5.6 11.2
2017 104,169,000 1,700,618 579,262 1,121,356 16.2 5.5 10.7 2.7
2018 105,755,000 1,668,120 590,709 1,077,411 15.8 5.6 10.2
2019 107,288,150 1,674,302 620,724 1,053,578 15.6 5.8 9.8
2020 1,403,336 601,811 801,525 5.7

By region

Total fertility rate (TFR) and other related statistics by region, as of 2013:[56]

Region Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15–49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40–49
National Capital Region 2.3 3.0 3.0
Cordillera Administrative Region 2.9 4.8 4.0
Ilocos Region 2.8 4.5 3.2
Cagayan Valley 3.2 6.1 3.7
Central Luzon 2.8 4.1 3.3
Calabarzon 2.7 3.1 3.4
Mimaropa 3.7 5.8 4.5
Bicol 4.1 4.0 4.6
Western Visayas 3.8 4.2 4.2
Central Visayas 3.2 3.9 3.6
Eastern Visayas 3.5 5.9 4.0
Zamboanga Peninsula 3.5 6.4 4.5
Northern Mindanao 3.5 5.7 4.3
Davao 2.9 5.0 3.9
Soccsksargen 3.2 3.8 4.2
Caraga 3.6 6.6 4.4
ARMM 4.2 4.7 5.5

Ethnic groups and modern immigrants in the Philippines

Ethnographic map of the Philippines, 1890

The majority of the people in the Philippines are related to Malay people, or more broadly the Austronesian peoples. The largest of these groups are the Visayans, Tagalogs, Ilocanos, Bicolanos, Moros, Kapampangans, Pangasinenses, and the Zamboangueños. The indigenous peoples of the Philippines form a minority of the population. Other large ethnic groups include Filipinos of Chinese, Spanish, Latino and American descent. There are more than 175 ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines, its own culture, identity, literature, tradition, music, dances, foods, beliefs, and history, which are all part of Filipino culture. The latest censuses did not take account of ethnicity, and the only census that included questions on ethnicity is of the 2000 census. Nevertheless a 2019 Anthropology Study by Matthew Go, published in the Journal of Human Biology, using physical anthropology, estimated that, 72.7% of Filipinos are Asian, 12.7% of Filipinos can be classified as Hispanic (Latin-American Mestizos or Malay-Spanish Mestizos), 7.3% as Indigenous American, African at 4.5% and European at 2.7%.[57]

The total number of immigrants and expats in Philippines as of the 2010 censuses is 177,365.[58] By country:[59]

  • United States of America 29,972
  • China 28,705
  • Japan 11,584
  • India 9,007
  • Korea, South 5,822
  • Korea, North 4,846
  • Canada 4,700
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain And Northern Ireland 3,474
  • Australia 3,360
  • Germany 3,184
  • Indonesia 2,781
  • Taiwan 1,538
  • Italy 1,460
  • Afghanistan 1,019
  • France 1,014
  • Spain 1,009
  • Switzerland 872
  • Turkey 739
  • Singapore 691
  • South Africa 681
  • Malaysia 673
  • Saudi Arabia 621
  • Norway 550
  • Israel 514
  • Sweden 513
  • Iran 498
  • Tunisia 479
  • Belgium 445
  • Congo 444
  • Austria 424
  • Pakistan 421
  • Netherlands 407
  • Algeria 389
  • Ecuador 387
  • Denmark 374
  • United Arab Emirates 368
  • Ireland 362
  • Myanmar 355
  • Vietnam 351
  • Oman 342
  • New Zealand 325
  • Thailand 286
  • Hungary 206
  • Nigeria 162
  • Jordan 150
  • Sri Lanka 146
  • Kuwait 144
  • Egypt 135
  • Brazil 134
  • Bangladesh 133
  • Greece 129
  • Argentina 125
  • Mexico 123
  • East Timor 119
  • Armenia 115
  • Lebanon 110
  • Cape Verde 109
  • Colombia 106
  • Suriname 106
  • Qatar 102
  • Others 1,617

Languages

See also: Philippine languages According to the Komisyon ng Wikang Filipino, there are 135 ethnic languages in the Philippine archipelago, each spoken by the respective ethno-linguistic group, except for the national Filipino language which is spoken by all 134 ethno-linguistic groups in the country. Most of the languages have several varieties (dialects), totaling over 300 across the archipelago. In the 1930s in an act of cultural hegemony, the government imposed the use of the Tagalog language as the national language, and called the new Tagalog-based language as the national Filipino language, becoming the 135th ethnic language of the country.[28][60] Visayan languages (also called Bisaya or Binisaya) are widely spoken throughout the Visayas and in most parts of Mindanao. Ilokano is the lingua franca of Northern Luzon excluding Pangasinan. Zamboangueño Chavacano is the official language of Zamboanga City and lingua franca of Basilan.

Filipino and English are the official languages of the country for purposes of communication and instruction.[61] Consequently, English is widely spoken and understood, although fluency has decreased as the prevalence of Tagalog in primary and secondary educational institutions has increased.

Religion

See also: Religion in the Philippines

The Philippine Statistics Authority in October 2015 reported that Template:Rnd% of the total Filipino population were Roman Catholics, 10.8% were Protestant and Template:Rnd% were Islamic.[62] Although the 2012 International Religious Freedom (IRF) reports that an estimate by the National Commission on Muslim Filipinos (NCMF) in 2011 stated that there were then 10.3 million Muslims, or about 10 percent of the total population however this is yet to be proven officially.[63] In 2000, according to the "World Values Survey", 1.8% were Protestant Christians and 10.9% were then irreligious.[64]Template:Dubious Other Christian denominations include the Iglesia ni Cristo (one of a number of separate Churches of Christ generally not affiliated with one another), Aglipayan Church, Members Church of God International, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). Minority religions include Buddhism, Hinduism, and Judaism. Roman Catholics and Protestants were converted during the four centuries of Western influence by Spain, and the United States. Under Spanish rule, much of the population was converted to Christianity.

Orthodox Christians also live in Philippines. The Orthodoxy was brought over by Russian and Greek immigrants to the Philippines Russian settlement in the Philippines Greek settlement in the Philippines Protestant Christianity arrived in the Philippines during the 20th century, introduced by American missionaries.

Other religions include Judaism, Mahayana Buddhism, often mixed with Taoist beliefs, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Indigenous Philippine folk religions.

Population by religious affiliation (2015)
Affiliation Number
Roman Catholic, including Catholic Charismatic Template:Bartable 74,211,896
Islam Template:Bartable 5,127,084
Evangelicals (PCEC) Template:Bartable 2,469,957
Iglesia ni Cristo Template:Bartable 2,251,941
Non-Roman Catholic and Protestant (NCCP) Template:Bartable 1,071,686
Aglipayan Template:Bartable 916,639
Seventh-day Adventist Template:Bartable 681,216
Bible Baptist Church Template:Bartable 480,409
United Church of Christ in the Philippines Template:Bartable 449,028
Jehovah's Witnesses Template:Bartable 410,957
Other Protestants Template:Bartable 287,734
Church of Christ Template:Bartable 258,176
Jesus Is Lord Church Worldwide Template:Bartable 207,246
Tribal Religions Template:Bartable 177,147
United Pentecostal Church (Philippines) Inc. Template:Bartable 169,956
Other Baptists Template:Bartable 154,686
Philippine Independent Catholic Church Template:Bartable 138,364
Unión Espiritista Cristiana de Filipinas, Inc. Template:Bartable 137,885
Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints Template:Bartable 133,814
Association of Fundamental Baptist Churches in the Philippines Template:Bartable 106,509
Evangelical Christian Outreach Foundation Template:Bartable 96,102
None Template:Bartable 73,248
Convention of the Philippine Baptist Church Template:Bartable 65,008
Crusaders of the Divine Church of Christ Inc. Template:Bartable 53,146
Buddhist Template:Bartable 46,558
Lutheran Church of the Philippines Template:Bartable 46,558
Iglesia sa Dios Espiritu Santo Inc. Template:Bartable 45,000
Philippine Benevolent Missionaries Association Template:Bartable 42,796
Faith Tabernacle Church (Living Rock Ministries) Template:Bartable 36,230
Others Template:Bartable 299,399
TOTAL 92,097,978
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[62]

Education

Education in the Philippines has been influenced by foreign models, particularly the United States, and Spain.[65][66] Philippine students enter public school at about age four, starting from nursery school up to kindergarten. At about seven years of age, students enter elementary school (6 to 7 years). This is followed by junior high school (4 years) and senior high school (2 years). Students then take the college entrance examinations (CEE), after which they enter university (3 to 5 years). Other types of schools include private school, preparatory school, international school, laboratory high school, and science high school. School year in the Philippines starts from June, and ends in March with a two-month summer break from April to May, one week of semestral break in October, and a week or two during Christmas and New Year holidays.

Starting in SY 2011–2012 there has been a phased implementation of a new program. The K to 12 Program covers kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of junior high school, and two years of senior high school [SHS]).[67]

Publications

  • Cristian Capelli; et al. (2001). "A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian-Speaking Peoples of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics. 68 (2): 432–443. doi:10.1086/318205. PMC 1235276. PMID 11170891. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 14, 2010.
  • Frederic H. Sawyer (1900). The Inhabitants of the Philippines. Library of Alexandria. ISBN 978-1-4655-1185-0. 
  • 1903 Census of the Philippine Islands, Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4

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External links