Cavite

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Cavite, officially the Province of Cavite, is a province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon region in Luzon. Located on the southern shores of Manila Bay and southwest of Metro Manila, it is one of the most industrialized and fastest-growing provinces in the Philippines. Its population of 3,678,301 (2015) makes it one of the most populated provinces in the country. Originally agricultural and now a booming bedroom community for ultracongested Metro Manila, its location just north of Taal volcano poses significant risks of ashfall, and debris flows through it into Manila Bay.

The de facto capital and seat of the government of the province is Trece Martires, although Imus is the official (de jure) capital.

For over 300 years, the province played an important role in both the country's colonial past and eventual fight for independence, earning it the title "Historical Capital of the Philippines". It became the cradle of the Philippine Revolution, which led to the renouncement of Spanish colonial control, finally culminating in the Philippine Declaration of Independence on JuneTemplate:Nbsp12, 1898 in Kawit, Cavite. The old provincial capital, Cavite City also hosted docks for the Manila galleon, becoming an essential part of commerce between Asia and Latin America.

This province is a part of Greater Manila Area.

Etymology

The name "Cavite" comes from the Hispanicized form of kawit or it may be a corruption of kalawit, Tagalog words for "hook", in reference to the small hook-shaped peninsula jutting out to Manila Bay.[1] The name originally applied to the peninsula, Cavite La Punta (now Cavite City) and the adjacent lowland coastal area of Cavite Viejo (now Kawit).

Another theory proposes that the name is a Hispanicized form of kabit, Tagalog for "joined", "connected", or "attached", referring to the peninsula's topographical relation to the mainland.[1] Edmund Roberts, in his 1821 memoir, stated that the "natives" called it Caveit due to the "crooked point of land extending into the sea".[2]

History

Pre-Hispanic period

The present Cavite City was once a mooring place for Chinese junks trading that came to trade with the settlements around Manila Bay. The land was formerly known as "Tangway". Archeological evidence in coastal areas shows prehistorical settlements. According to local folklore, the earliest settlers of Cavite came from Sulu or Borneo. The territory of what is Cavite used to be under the jurisdiction of the Indianized Empire of Majapahit which was superseded by the Kingdom of Tondo which had waged a successful war for independence, thereafter, invaded by the Sultanate of Brunei which established a vassal-state, the Rajahnate of Maynila.

Spanish colonial period

The Spanish colonizers who arrived in the late 16th century saw the unusual tongue of land jutting out on Manila Bay and saw its deep waters as the main staging ground where they could launch their bulky galleons. It would later become the most important port linking the colony to the outside world through the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade. In 1571, Spanish colonizers established the port and City of Cavite and fortified the settlement as a first line of defense for the city of Manila. Galleons were built and fitted at the port and many Chinese merchants settled in the communities of Bacoor and Kawit, opposite the Spanish city to trade silks, porcelain and other oriental goods.[3]

"A defensive curtained wall was constructed the length of Cavite's western side," beginning from the entrance, "La Estanzuela", and continuing to the end of the peninsula, "Punta de Rivera", with the eastern shore unprotected by a wall. Cavite contained government offices, churches, mission buildings, Spanish homes, Fort San Felipe and the Rivera de Cavite shipyard. Docks were in place to construct galleons and galleys, but without a dry dock, ships were repaired by careening along the beach.[3]

Fort San Felipe, La Fuerza de San Felipe, was built between 1609 and 1616. This quadrilateral structure of curtained walls, with bastions at the corners, contained 20 cannons facing the seashore. Three infantry companies, 180 men each, plus 220 Pampangan infantry, garrisoned the fort.[3]Template:Rp

The galleons Espiritu Santo and San Miguel, plus six galleys were constructed between 1606 and 1616. From 1729 to 1739, "the main purpose of the Cavite shipyard was the construction and outfitting of the galleons for the Manila to Acapulco trade run."[3]

The vibrant mix of traders, Spanish seamen from Spain and its Latin-American colonies,[4][5] as well as local residents, gave rise to the use of pidgin Spanish called Chabacano. A great number of Mexican men had settled at Cavite, spread throughout Luzon, and had integrated with the local Philippine population. Some of these Mexicans became Tulisanes (Bandits) that led peasant revolts against Spain.[6]

In 1614, the politico-military jurisdiction of Cavite was established. As with many other provinces organized during the Spanish colonial era, Cavite City, the name of the capital, was applied to the whole province, Cavite. The province covered all the present territory except for the town of Maragondon, which used to belong to the Corregimiento of Mariveles. Maragondon was ceded to Cavite in 1754 when Bataan province was created from Pampanga province.[7] Within Maragondon is a settlement established in 1660 by Christian Papuan exiles brought in by the Jesuits from Ternate in the Maluku Islands, and named this land Ternate after their former homeland.[8][9]

Owing to its military importance, Cavite had been attacked by foreigners in their quest to conquer Manila and the Philippines. The Dutch made a surprise attack on the city in 1647, pounding the port incessantly, but were repulsed. In 1672, the British occupied the port during their two-year control in the Philippines.[8]

In the 17th century, encomiendas (Spanish Royal land grants) were given in Cavite and Maragondon to Spanish conquistadores and their families. The religious orders began acquiring these lands, with some donated, enlarging vast haciendas (estates) in Cavite during the 18th and 19th century, enriching themselves. These haciendas became the source of bitter conflicts between the friar orders and Filipino farmers and pushed a number of Caviteños to live as outlaws. This opposition to the friar orders was an important factor that drove many Cavite residents to support reform, and later, independence.[8]

In 1872, Filipinos launched their revolt against Spain. Three Filipino priests—Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez and Jacinto Zamora—were implicated in the Cavite mutiny when 200 Filipinos staged a rebellion within Spanish garrisons. On August 28, 1896, when the revolution against Spain broke out, Cavite became a bloody theater of war. Led by Emilio Aguinaldo, Caviteños made lightning raids on Spanish headquarters, and soon liberated the entire province through the Battle of Alapan. Aguinaldo commanded the Revolution to its successful end – the proclamation of the First Republic of the Philippines on June 12, 1898 in Kawit.

A marker affixed to the Cavite cannon in Winnetka, IL that reads "This gun was mounted on the defences of Cavite arsenal which was surrendered to Commodore George Dewey"

During the Spanish–American War, American forces attacked the Spanish squadron in Cavite. The Spanish defeat marked the end of Spanish rule in the country.[8] A captured Spanish cannon from the Cavite arsenal now sits in Village Green Park in Winnetka, Illinois, USA.[10]

World War II: Japanese occupation and liberation

In May 1942, after the fall of Bataan and Corregidor Island, the Japanese Imperial forces occupied Cavite and made garrisons in each town of the province.

After surviving in the Bataan Death March and released from Capas, Tarlac concentration camp USAFFE Col.Mariano Castañeda, a future governor of the province, returned to Cavite and secretly organized the resistance movement in the province.

The Japanese authorities pressured him to accept the position as Provincial Governor of Cavite, he refused many times over until his excuses did not work, much against his will he was forced to accept the position by the Japanese, and by thinking that it would be beneficial to further organize the resistance movement as Governor by day and a guerilla by night. Eventually, the Japanese discovered his guerrilla connection and raided his house in the attempt to capture him, but he escaped along with Col. Lamberto Javalera by swimming the Imus river up to Salinas, Bacoor and finally joined his comrades in the field in Neneng, the General Headquarters of the FACGF located in Dasmarinas.

At this time due to his organizational skills the Fil American Cavite Guerilla Forces (FACGF) raised a regiment in each of the administrative units and also created attached special battalions Overall, 3 special battalions, 1 medical battalion, 1 signal company, 1 hospital unit, Division GHQ and Staff were raised to provide administrative and combat support. Later on, the FACGF, with a peak of 14,371 Enlisted Men and 1,245 officers, grew into a formidable force to take on the omnipresent rule of the Japanese in the province. At its peak the force contained 14 infantry regiments:

  • 1st Infantry Regiment, Imus (Col. Lorenzo Saulog)
  • 2nd Infantry Regiment, Bacoor (Col. Francisco Guererro)
  • 3rd Infantry Regiment, Silang (Col. Dominador Kiamson)
  • 4th Infantry Regiment, Dasmarinas (Col. Estanislao Mangubat Carungcong)
  • 5th Infantry Regiment, Barangay Anabu, Imus (Col. Raymundo Paredes)
  • 6th Infantry Regiment, Cavite City (Col. Amado Soriano)
  • 7th Infantry Regiment, Alfonso (Col. Angeles Hernais)
  • 8th Infantry Regiment, Naic (Col. Emilio Arenas)
  • 9th Infantry Regiment, Mendez (Col. Maximo Rodrigo)
  • 10th Infantry Regiment Kawit (Col. Hugo Vidal)
  • 11th Infantry Regiment Imus (Col. Maximo Reyes)
  • 12th Infantry Regiment, Amadeo (Col. Daniel Mediran)
  • 13th Infantry Regiment, Rosario (Col. Ambrosio Salud)
  • 14th Infantry Regiment, Brgy. Paliparan, Dasmarinas (Col. Emiliano De La Cruz)

On January 31, 1945, the liberation of the province of Cavite started with the combined forces of the American 11th Airborne Division under General Swing and Col. Hildebrand and the valiant Caviteño guerrilleros of the Fil-American Cavite Guerilla Forces, which liberated the province of Cavite from the Japanese occupiers, and protected at all costs the National Highway 17 from Tagaytay to Las Pinas that serve as the vital supply route of the 11th Airborne Division, paving the way towards the road to the bitter but victorious Battle of Manila.

Postwar growth

The economic growth of the country began to creep its way to the province following the end of the Second World War and the restoration of independence. Given its distance from Manila, the province soon began to feel a transformation into an economic provider of food and industrial goods not just for Metro Manila but for the whole of the country. In 1954, Trece Martires City was created out as a planned capital city from portions of Tanza, Indang, Naic, and General Trias. Despite the transfer of capital status to Imus City in 1979, it retains many offices of the provincial government, acting thus as the de facto capital of the province. Also, Tagaytay's high location and cool temperatures would enable it to become a secondary summer capital and a vacation spot especially during the Christmas season, given its distance to the Manila area.

Plan CALABARZON of 1972, in the midst of martial law and the communist and antigovernmental aggression that occurred in the rural areas and the western highlands, set the roadmap for the arrival of industrial estates to the province, beginning an era of economic progress. Carmona was the first town to have industrial estates, through the rising number of residents from the capital region enabled the creation of a new town, General Mariano Alvarez, in 1981, from parts of the town's north and west. In addition, Bacoor, given its distance from Metro Manila, saw the building of the first residential villages to accommodate the rising number of workers in the capital in the same period, and today, this city, alongside other towns and cities in the province's north and central parts, have more residential subdivisions and townships, as well as a number of shopping malls and other private business establishments.

Geography

Detailed topographic map of Cavite

Cavite is surrounded by Laguna province to the east, Metro Manila to the northeast, and Batangas province to the south. To the west lies the West Philippine Sea.[11] It is located within the Greater Manila Area, not to be confused with adjacent Metro Manila, the defined capital region.Template:Citation needed

Cavite is the second-smallest province (the Province of Rizal being the smallest) in the Calabarzon region. Cavite occupies a land area of Template:Convert, which is approximately 8.72 percent of Calabarzon's total land area, 2.74 percent of the regional area and 0.48 per cent of the total land area of the Philippines. The municipalities of Maragondon and Silang have the biggest land areas, comprising Template:Convert and Template:Convert respectively, while the municipality of Noveleta has the smallest land area as indicated by Template:Convert or 0.38 percent of the provincial total and area.[12]

Topography and slope

Topographic map of Cavite on 1 arc second/30-meter resolution

Situated at the entrance of Manila Bay, Cavite is characterized by rolling hinterlands punctuated by hills; shoreline fronting Manila Bay at sea level; and rugged portion at the boundary with Batangas where the Dos Picos mountains are located. The province has two mountain ranges.

Cavite is divided into four physiographical areas, namely: the lowest lowland area, lowland area, the central hilly area and the upland mountainous area.[13]

Islands

Land resources and distribution

Cavite's land resources are categorized into two: forest lands and alienable and disposable lands. Forest lands are being maintained as they play a great role in the ecological balance of the province aside from the fact that they are home to numerous flora and fauna that needs to be protected and preserved. Correspondingly, the alienable and disposable lands are the built-up areas as well as production areas. These lands are intended for urban, economic and demographic developments.

Forest lands

Cavite province lies in the western monsoon forest zone. This location is very beneficial for the formation of tropical rainforests, which are characteristically made through natural vegetation. In 2007, the existing forest area within the province totaled only to 8,625 hectares (21,310 acres). These forest areas were categorized as Protected Landscape under the National Integrated Protected Area System (NIPAS) and the rest, unclassified forest (Non-NIPAS). A total of Template:Convert are located within the Mounts Palay-Palay–Mataas-na-Gulod Protected Landscape, a protected area in Ternate and Maragondon created by Proclamation Number 1594 on October 26, 1976. The park lies at the border of Cavite and Batangas and encompasses three peaks, Palay-Palay, Pico de Loro and Mataas na Gulod. The five (5) unclassified forests are found along Tagaytay Ridge, Maragondon, Magallanes, Ternate and Alfonso. The other mountain peaks in the province are Mt. Buntis, Mt. Nagpatong, Mt. Hulog and Mt. Gonzales (Mt. Sungay).

Cavite's forest provides an abundance of different forest products. Bamboo, a member of the grass family, is one of the most available forest products found in the municipalities of Ternate, Magallanes, Maragondon and General Aguinaldo throughout the year.

Alienable and disposable lands

These lands are being used in various ways, either for agriculture, residences, open areas, etc. Based on the Cavite Provincial Physical Framework Plan 2005–2010, Cavite's alienable and disposable lands are further classified into production lands and built-up areas. Production lands in Cavite are intended for agriculture, fishery, and mining. On the other hand, built-up areas are mainly for residential areas, commercial, industrial and tourism areas.

Production land-use

Majority of production land-use is for agriculture. Considering that 50.33% of the total provincial land area is engaged in agriculture, it can be generalized that in spite of rapid urbanization in the province, Cavite remains to have an agricultural economy that makes food security attainable. Some of the major crops being produced in the province are rice, corn, coffee, coconuts, cut flowers and vegetables.

Included in the agricultural land use are livestock farms that range from piggery, poultry, goat and cattle farms. The climatic suitability of Cavite makes the province ideal for integrated farming, having crops and livestock raising in one farm.

Fishery is also another major component of the agricultural sector. Having rich marine resources and long coastlines, the province is home to numerous fishery activities providing livelihood to many Caviteños. In some lowland and even upland areas, fishery, in the form of fish ponds are also producing a large amount of fish products. Some areas in Cavite are also engaged in fish processing and production of fish products like fish sauce.

Mining is the third component of production land-use in the province. As of 2009, there are 15 mining and quarrying areas operating in Cavite. Extraction includes filling materials, gravel, and sand.

Built-up areas

The built-up areas are mainly composed of residential and industrial sites. This also includes commercial and business areas where commerce is transpiring. According to the 2007 Census of Population and Housing by the Philippine Statistics Authority, there are 611,450 occupied housing units in Cavite.

Moreover, according to the Housing and Land-Use Regulatory Board, there are around 1,224 housing subdivisions with issued license to sell in the province until 2009 which occupies an area of 9,471 hectares.

Meanwhile, the industrial sector also develops rapidly in the province. For 2009, operational industrial estates cover around 2,939 hectares (7,260 acres). Tourism establishments are also considered built-up areas such as golf courses, leisure farms, resorts and the likes.[12]

Water resources

The hydrological network of the province is composed of seven major rivers and its tributaries. These river systems generally flows from the highlands of Tagaytay and Maragondon to Manila Bay. Numerous springs, waterfalls and rivers found in the upland areas of the province, have been developed for tourism. In the lowland areas, hundreds of artesian wells and deep wells provide water supply for both residential and irrigation purposes.

Cavite shoreline stretches about 123 kilometres (76 mi). The communities located along the coast are Cavite City, Bacoor, Kawit, Noveleta, Rosario, Tanza, Naic, Maragondon, and Ternate. The richness of Cavite's coastal resources is a major producer of oysters and mussels. The fishing industry also produces shrimp and bangus (milkfish). The western coastline are lined with pale gray sand beaches popular with tourists. Thus, fishery and tourism contributes to the economic activity of the province.[19]

Major rivers

These rivers are known to have various tributaries passing through the municipalities of the province:

  1. Bacoor River
  2. Cañas River
  3. Imus River
  4. Labac River
  5. Maragondon River
  6. San Juan River or Rio Grande (Grande River)
  7. Ylang-Ylang River

Springs

  1. Balite Spring (Amadeo)
  2. Saluysoy Spring (Alfonso)
  3. Matang Tubig Spring (Silang, Cavite)
  4. Malakas Spring (General Aguinaldo)
  5. Ulo Spring (Mendez)
  6. Bucal ni Tata Enteng Spring (Indang)

Waterfalls

  1. Palsajingin Falls (Indang)
  2. Balite Falls (Amadeo)
  3. Malibiclibic Falls (Gen. Aguinaldo)
  4. Talon-Butas Falls (Gen. Aguinaldo)
  5. Saluysoy Falls (Alfonso)
  6. Tala River (Gen. Aguinaldo)
  7. Utod Falls (Magallanes)
  8. Mayang Falls (Trece Martires City)

Soil properties

Cavite is composed of several soil types according to soil surveys conducted by the Bureau of Soils and Water Management (BSWM). Classification of soil types in a specific area is a very important consideration in identifying its most fitted land-use. This way, utmost productivity can be achieved.

The lowland area of Cavite is generally composed of Guadalupe clay and clay loam. It is characterized as coarse and granular when dry but sticky and plastic when wet. Its substratum is solid volcanic tuff. These types of soils are suited to lowland rice and corn while those in the upland are suited for orchard and pasture. Guadalupe clay adobes are abundant in the southern part of Bacoor and Imus bordering Dasmariñas. The soil is hard and compact and difficult to cultivate that makes it generally unsuitable for diverse cropping. It is very sticky when wet and granular when dry. Forage grass is advised for this type of soil. Hydrosol and Obando sand are found along Bacoor Bay. The shoreline of Rosario, Tanza, Naic and Ternate are lined with Guadalupe sand.

The central area principally consists of Magallanes loam with streaks of Magallanes clay loam of sandy texture. This is recommended for diversified farming such as the cultivation of upland rice, corn, sugarcane, vegetables, coconut, coffee, mangoes and other fruit trees. The steep phase should be forested or planted to rootcrops. The eastern side of Cavite consists of Carmona clay loam with streaks of Carmona clay loam steep phase and Carmona sandy clay loam. This type of soil is granular with tuffaceaous material and concretions. It is hard and compact when dry, sticky and plastic when wet. This type of soil is planted to rice with irrigation or sugarcane without irrigation. Fruit trees such as mango, avocado and citrus are also grown in this type of soil. Guingua fine sandy loam is found along the lower part of Malabon and Alang-ilang River at Noveleta.

The type of soils that dominate the upland areas are Tagaytay loam and Tagaytay sandy loam with mountain soil undifferentiated found on the south-eastern side bordering Laguna province. Also on the southern tip are Magallanes clay and Mountain soil undifferentiated with interlacing of Magallanes clay loam steep phase. The Tagaytay loam contains fine sandy materials, moderately friable, and easy to work on when moist. In an undisturbed condition, it bakes and becomes hard when dry. About one-half of this soil type is devoted to upland rice and upland crops. On the other hand, Tagaytay sandy loam is friable and granular with considerable amount of volcanic sand and underlain by adobe clay. Mountain soil undifferentiated is forested with bamboos found in the sea coast. Cavite also has the Patungan sand characterized by pale gray to almost white sand with substratum of marine conglomerates which are found at Santa Mercedes in Maragondon and in some coastlines of Ternate.[12]

Mineral resources and reserves

The greater parts of Cavite are composed of volcanic materials, tuff, cinders, basalt, breccias, agglomerate and interbeddings of shales, and sandstones. The dormant and active volcanoes (Taal) are within these volcanic areas and have been the sources of volcanic materials which form the Tagaytay Cuesta. The drainage systems are deeply entrenched in the tuffs, eroding thin interbedded sandstones and conglomerate rocks which are the sources of little reserves of sand and gravel in the larger stream. Adobe stone quarries also flourish in the tuff areas.

Cavite coastal areas have marl and conglomerate sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks which are prominent in the high, mountainous regions of western part of the province. Black sands are found in Kawit while Noveleta has its own salt products. Magallanes has gravel deposits while reserves of sand and gravel materials are found in Alfonso, Carmona, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, Naic, Ternate, Maragondon and Silang.[12]

Administrative divisions

Cavite comprises 16 municipalities and 7 cities:

City or Municipality District AreaTemplate:PSGC detail Density
km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi
Alfonso VIII 66.58 25.71 779 2,020 32
Amadeo VII 36.92 14.25 1,020 2,600 26
Bacoor II 46.17 17.83 13,009 33,690 73
Carmona V 30.92 11.94 3,155 8,170 14
Cavite City I 10.89 4.20 9,440 24,400 84
Dasmariñas IV 90.13 34.80 7,312 18,940 75
General Emilio Aguinaldo VIII 51.03 19.70 2,364 6,120 14
General Mariano Alvarez V 11.40 4.40 13,609 35,250 27
General Trias VI 81.46 31.45 3,858 9,990 33
Imus III 64.7 25.0 2,352 6,090 97
Indang VII 74.90 28.92 876 2,270 36
Kawit I 22.86 8.83 3,651 9,460 23
Magallanes VIII 73.07 28.21 311 810 16
Maragondon VIII 164.61 63.56 229 590 27
Mendez VIII 43.27 16.71 729 1,890 24
Naic VIII 76.24 29.44 1,462 3,790 30
Noveleta I 16.43 6.34 2,790 7,200 16
Rosario I 38.16 14.73 2,901 7,510 20
Silang V 209.43 80.86 1,185 3,070 64
Tagaytay VIII 65.00 25.10 1,095 2,840 34
Tanza VII 95.59 36.91 2,366 6,130 41
Ternate VIII 59.93 23.14 386 1,000 10
Trece Martires VII 39.10 15.10 3,982 10,310 13
Total 1,574.17 607.79 2,300 6,000 829

Climate

Cavite belongs to Type 1 climate based on the Climate Map of the Philippines by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA). Being a Type 1, Cavite has two pronounced seasons – the dry season, which usually begins in November and ends in April, and the rainy season, which starts in May and ends in October.[12] The Köppen Climate Classification sub-type for this climate is "Am" (Tropical Monsoon Climate).[20]

Demographics

Cavite had a total population of 3,678,301 in the 2015 census,  making it the most populous (if independent cities are excluded from Cebu), and the second most densely populated province in the country. The tremendous increase can be observed in the year 1990 when industrialization was introduced in the province. Investors established their businesses in different industrial estates that magnetized people to migrate to Cavite due to job opportunities the province offers. Another factor attributed to the increase of population is the mushrooming of housing subdivisions. Since Cavite is proximate to Metro Manila, people working in the metropolitan area choose to live in the province together with their families. Natural increase also contributes to the increase in population. The population density of the province based on the 2015 census was 2,300 inhabitants per square kilometre or 6,000 inhabitants per square mile.

Among the cities and municipalities in Cavite, the city of Dasmariñas has the biggest population with 659,019 people while the municipality of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo has registered the smallest population with 22,220 people.

Cavite is classified as predominantly urban having 90.69 percent of the population concentrated in the urban areas, while 9.21 percent of the population reside in the rural areas.

Religion

Christianity

In line with national statistics, Christianity is the predominant faith in the province, composed of Catholics, Protestants, and other Independent Christian groups. The majority (70%) of the population are Roman Catholic.

Adherents of the Philippine Independent Church, also known as the Aglipayan Church, are particularly found in the towns where historically the Philippine Revolution and anti-clericalist sentiments are strong.

The Eastern Orthodox Church presence in Cavite province was a part of the Philippine Orthodox Church here in the Philippines under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Moscow and its own Orthodox Diocese province in Southeast Asia the Diocese of the Philippines and Vietnam. Many Orthodox community lives throughout the province especially in the city of Tagaytay.[21][22]

The strong presence of other Christian denominations and sects such as the mainline Protestant Evangelical Churches, Christian Fellowships and other Christian sects are also evident throughout the province. Chapels of the Iglesia ni Cristo also known as INC, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,[23] and the Seventh-day Adventist Church including its key institutions such as the Adventist University of the Philippines and Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies are in Cavite.[24] Meanwhile, the Members Church of God International has established coordinating centers throughout the province and a local convention center situated in Biga, Silang, Cavite.

Islam

With the influx of Filipino Muslim migrants from the Mindanao, local Caviteño Balik Islam or reverts, and some non-Filipino expats, their OFW spouses and children returning from Muslim countries, Sunni Islam of either the Shafii or Hanbali schools-of-thought has become evident in various areas of the province, and accounts for the majority of the non-Christian population.

Mosques, prayer halls, and prayer rooms catering to the community exist in places where local Muslim Caviteños live and work; especially in the municipalities of Bacoor, Imus, Rosario, and Dasmariñas.

Interreligious dialogue and communal relations between the majority Christians and minority Muslims are peaceful and amicable, with some families consisting of both Christian and Muslim members.

Other faiths

Non-Abrahamic faiths include native-Tagalog Anitism, Animism, Sikhism, and Hinduism. Among the local Chinese and Chinese-Filipino communities Taoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism are followed.

Irreligious and Atheism

A small minority of residents who class themselves as irreligious, agnostic or Atheist also reside peacefully alongside people of faith; demonstrating the diverse and tolerant attitude towards personal or group belief in Caviteño society.

Languages

The main languages spoken are Tagalog, Chavacano and English. Due to the province bordering south of Metro Manila, a large number of people from farther provinces migrated to Cavite, resulting in minor but significant usages of Bicolano, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon and Waray languages.

Chavacano in Cavite

Chavacano or Chabacano is a Spanish-based creole language and known in linguistics as Philippine Creole Spanish. Chabacano is originally spoken by majority of the Caviteños that lived in Cavite City and Ternate after the arrival of the Spaniards three centuries ago. The various dialects of Chabacano were formed out of necessity like all languages, though scholars and laypersons disagree about exactly when and where it all began. The various language groups working at the Cavite naval base needed a way to communicate with each other, and to the soldiers who were barking the orders in less-than-genteel Spanish. It was from this situation that Cavite Chabacano began as a simplified form of Spanish – a pidgin language that later developed into a mixed, or creole language. The fact that the first Chabacanos learned their Spanish from the coarse language of soldiers is probably why they were called Chabacanos in the first place.

However, some historians disagree with parts of this story and say that Chabacano did not emerge until almost a century later when Catholic Malays settled in Cavite after the Spaniards had abandoned the Spice Islands to the Dutch in 1662. These Malays, known as the Mardicas (likely from the Malay word merdeka meaning "free" or "independent"), settled in Ternate, the town named after their original homeland. They joined with many other language groups to defend Manila from yet another Chinese warlord, Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong).[25]

Now used almost exclusively in Cavite City and coastal Ternate, Chabacano enjoyed its widest diffusion and greatest splendor in Spanish and American period of Filipino history, when newspapers and literary outputs flourished. Cavite Chabacano was spoken with relative ease because it was essentially a simplification of Castillan morphology patterned after the Tagalog syntax. Gradually and naturally, it acquired the sounds present in the Spanish phonological system. After World War II, creole Spanish speakers within the capital of the archipelago vanished. Around 30,000 Caviteños still speak Chabacano, mostly elderly speakers. The language is today taught in elementary schools in both Cavite City and Ternate as part of the K-12 national curriculum from the first to 3rd grades, building up a new generation of speakers and writers within the province.

Culture

Aside from the celebrations of town fiestas, the province of Cavite celebrates festivals as forms of thanksgiving for a bountiful harvest. Some of these festivals are also observed in honor of the historical legacies passed from one generation to another generation. In fact, the province fetes the renowned Kalayaan Festival which is given a great social importance in commemoration of the heroism of its people. The annual Fiesta de la Reina del Provincia de Cavite is a grandiose fiesta celebration in honor of the patroness of the province, the Nuestra Señora de la Soledad de Porta Vaga. The image is enshrined at San Roque Church in Cavite City. Her feastday is celebrated every 2nd and 3rd Sunday of November.

Traditions and fiesta celebrations include Mardicas, a war dance held in Ternate town. Karakol street dancing with a fluvial procession is usually held in coastal towns. There is also a pre-colonial ritual called the Sanghiyang as a form of thanksgiving and to heal the sick.Template:Where Another cultural tradition is the Live via Crucis or Kalbaryo ni Hesus held during Holy Week. The Maytinis or word prayer that is annually held in Kawit every December 24 before the beginning of the midnight Mass.

Festivals

Special events

Foundation Day

Cavite Province celebrates its foundation every March 10

Birthday of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo

This is celebrated every March 22 in commemoration of the birth of the First President of the Republic.

Independence Day

This is celebrated every June 12 in Kawit as a re-enactment of the historic proclamation of Philippine independence at the mansion of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo.

Economy

Agriculture

The province is predominantly an agriculture province. The province's economy is largely dependent to agriculture. Despite urbanization and industrialization, still, a significant number of inhabitants are engaged into agribusinesses. The data gathered from Office of the Provincial Agriculturist shows that though the province lies in the industrial belt, the agricultural land is about 49.38 percent or 70,466.53 hectares (174,126.6 acres) of the total land area of the Province. This is 1,176.5 hectares (2,907 acres) bigger than that of the declared agricultural lands in 2008 (69,290.03 hectares).

The municipality of Maragondon has the biggest area intended for agriculture, accounts for 14.57% of the total provincial agricultural lands while Cavite City has no longer available land for agriculture related activities and industries. If based on total agricultural lands, we may say that the major players in agriculture in the province are Maragondon, Silang, Indang, Naic and Alfonso. Of the eight districts in the province, the top three with the widest agricultural area are District VII comprising 43,587.01 hectares or 61.85 percent of the total agricultural areas with 27,115 farmers followed by District VI with 17.40 percent or 12,257.71 hectares (30,289.5 acres) having 8,701 farmers and District V comprising 10,248.55 hectares (25,324.7 acres) with 10,295 farmers. The municipality of Silang has the most number of farmers. The municipality of Maragondon only ranks 3rd in terms of number of farmers. This can be attributed to highly mechanized operation and vast plantation of rice. The same is true with General Trias and Naic, known as the rice producing municipalities in Cavite. The number of farmers increased by 6.5% that corresponds to around 3,097 farmers. The increase in the number of farmers was due to worldwide recession which led to work displacement of some inhabitants. Silang is dominated by pineapple and coffee plantations as well as with cutflower production.

Industry and commerce

Cavite has twelve (12) economic zones. The largest economic zone under development is located in Gen. Trias, the PEC Industrial Park with 177 hectares intended for garments, textiles, semiconductors, food processing and pharmaceuticals.[26]

Major townships

  • Lancaster New City (ProFriends) 2,000 hectares — Imus, Kawit, General Trias and Tanza
  • Vista City (Vista Land) 1,500 hectares — Bacoor and Dasmariñas (shared with Las Piñas and Muntinlupa)
  • Twin Lakes Tagaytay (Megaworld) 1,149 hectares — Alfonso (shared with Laurel, Batangas)
  • Vermosa (Ayala Land) 770 hectares — Imus and Dasmariñas
  • Eagle Ridge Golf & Residential Estates (Santa Lucia) 700 hectares — General Trias
  • Southwoods City (Megaworld) 561 hectares— Carmona (shared with Biñan, Laguna)
  • Camella Tanza (Vista Land) 500 hectares — Tanza
  • Suntrust Ecotown (Megaworld) 350 hectares — Tanza
  • Evo City (Ayala Land) 250 hectares — Kawit
  • South Forbes City (Cathay Land) 250 hectares — Silang
  • Golden Horizon (HG-III Construction and Development Corp) 250 hectares — Trece Martires
  • Antel Grand (Antel Holdings) 170 hectares — General Trias
  • Maple Grove (Megaworld) 120 hectares — General Trias
  • RCD Royale Home (RCD Land, Inc.) – Kalubkob, Silang, Cavite
  • Sabella Village ("MyCitiHomes") 47 hectares Masterplanned Community – Brgy Panungyanan, General Trias, Cavite
  • South Forbes Golf City (Cathay Land) 2,500 hectares — Silang, Cavite
  • Mallorca City (Cathay Land) 100 hectares — Silang and Carmona, Cavite

Tourism

Tagaytay serves as the main tourist center in the province.Template:Citation needed Historical attraction and sites are Fort San Felipe and Sangley Point, both in Cavite City; Corregidor Island; General Trias; Calero Bridge, Noveleta; Battle of Alapan Marker and Flag in Imus; Zapote Bridge in Bacoor; Battle of Binakayan Monument in Kawit; Tejeros Convention Site in Rosario; and Aguinaldo Shrine, the site of the declaration of Philippine Independence in Kawit. Several old churches stand as glorious reminders of how the Catholic faith has blossomed in the Province of Cavite. Existing museums include Geronimo de los Reyes Museum, General Trias; Museo De La Salle, Dasmariñas; Philippine Navy Museum, Cavite City; Baldomero Aguinaldo Museum, Kawit; and Cavite City Library Museum, Cavite City. There are eight world-class golf courses in the province. Natural wonders are mostly found in the upland areas such as Tagaytay Ridge, Macabag Cave in Maragondon, Balite Falls in Amadeo, Malibiclibic Falls in General Aguinaldo-Magallanes border, Mts. Palay-Palay and Mataas na Gulod National Park in Ternate and Maragondon, Sitio Buhay Unclassified Forest in Magallanes and flowers, vegetables and coffee farms.

The Aguinaldo Shrine and Museum in Kawit is where the independence of the Philippines was proclaimed on June 12, 1898 by General Aguinaldo, the Philippines' first president. The multi-level structure includes a mezzanine and tower, and spans 14,000 square feet. Today, the ground floor serves as a museum, which houses historical artifacts. The tomb of Aguinaldo lies in a garden behind the house.

The Andrés Bonifacio House in General Trias is the former home of the country's revolutionary leader The site of his court martial in Maragondon is also preserved. Other historical sites include the Battle of Alapan and Battle of Julian Bridge Markers, the House of Tirona, and Fort San Felipe.

The main churches of the province are the Imus Cathedral, San Roque Parish in Cavite City where the miraculous image of Nuestra Señora de la Soledad de Porta Vaga enshrined., Bacoor, Silang, Naic, Tanza, Ternate, Indang, General Trias, Kawit and Maragondon Catholic Churches. The Shrines of Our Lady of La Salette in Silang, and St. Anne, Tagaytay, also attract pilgrims.

Corregidor is an island fortress where Filipino and American forces fought against the Japanese invaders in 1942. It has become a tourist attraction with tunnels, cannons and other war structures still well-preserved. The famous line of General Douglas McArthur said is associated with Corregidor: "I shall return!"

There are first class hotels, inns and lodging houses to accommodate both foreign and local tourists. Conference facilities can be found in several convention centers, hotels and resorts in the province. Restaurants and specialty dining places offer mushroom dishes, native delicacies and exotic cuisines. Seafoods, fruits, coffee, organic vegetables, tinapa, handicrafts, ornamental plants also abound in the province.

Mountain climbing is also one of the outdoor activities in Cavite. This includes Mount Pico De Loro which is within the towns of Ternate and Maragondon (and some parts of it are already part of Batangas), which is a part of the Palay-Palay and Mataas na Gulod protected landscape. Mt. Pico De Loro is the highest part of Cavite at 664 meters above sea level and is noted for its 360-degree view at its summit and a cliff known as Parrot's Beak or Monolith that mountaineers would also like to climb.[27] Mt. Marami, within the same mountain range, located at Magallanes town is also a mountaineering location due to its "silyang bato" (en. Chair of rocks) at its summit.[28]

There are twenty-two (22) accredited tourism establishments and three (3) accredited tour guides. There are also tour packages being arranged with the Department of Tourism. Centuries old traditions and the very rich culture of Cavite have been the source of great pride to Caviteños.

Transportation

In the mid-19th century, Cavite, particularly the Cavite Peninsula in the north, was a stop for ships from South America before free trade opened up.[2]

Roads

Cavite's total road network comprises roughly Template:Convert. Of these, the Template:Convert national roads are mostly paved with concrete or asphalt and are relatively in good condition with some portions in need of rehabilitation. Provincial roads stretches to an approximate total length of Template:Convert. Most of these roads are concrete, some are paved with asphalt and the rest remain gravel roads. Majority of the municipal/city roads are paved with concrete, while barangay roads consist of 46.7% concrete and asphalt roads and 53.3% earth and gravel roads.

There are three main highways traversing the province: Aguinaldo Highway runs in a general north–south direction which includes the Tagaytay–Nasugbu Highway segment in the south; the Governor's Drive runs in a general east–west direction; the Antero Soriano Highway runs within the coastal towns on the northwest. The existing road length computed in terms of road density with respect to population at the standard of Template:Convert per 1,000 population has a deficit of Template:Convert.

In 2011, the Cavite Expressway (CAVITEx) was opened, which lessened the heavy volume of vehicles on Aguinaldo Highway in Bacoor. This project decreased the traffic congestion in Aguinaldo Highway in Bacoor, so travel time from Imus to Baclaran/Pasay is lessened to only one hour.

In 2013, the Kaybiang Tunnel, the country's longest underground highway tunnel at Template:Convert was opened along the Ternate–Nasugbu Road piercing through Mt. Pico De Loro's north ridge, and shortens the travel time from Manila to the western coves of Cavite and Nasugbu, Batangas.[29]

Last July 24, 2015, the Muntinlupa–Cavite Expressway (MCX), a Template:Convert long access-controlled toll expressway linking the southern province of Cavite to Muntinlupa in the Philippines, was opened to the public. The road is expected to reduce travel time by an average of 45 minutes from Daang Hari to Alabang Interchange as well as decongest traffic in Cavite, Las Piñas and Muntinlupa.

Currently, Cavite province is served by three DPWH offices: Cavite 1st, Cavite 2nd and Cavite Sub District Engineering Offices.

Proposed/ongoing transportation projects

Sangley International Airport

The Department of Transportation had "no objection" to an offer building a P508-billion airport complex on reclaimed land in Sangley Point. The upcoming international airport was pursued as a joint venture between investors, including Chinese enterprises, and the Cavite LGU.[30]

Cavite–Laguna and Cavite–Tagaytay–Batangas Expressways

The Cavite–Laguna Expressway (CALAEx) is an under-construction expressway that will cross the provinces of Cavite and Laguna in the Philippines. The construction of the four-lane Template:Convert long expressway will connect CAVITEx in Kawit, Cavite to SLEx – Interchange. When constructed, it is expected to ease the traffic in the Cavite–Laguna region, particularly in Aguinaldo Highway, Santa Rosa–Tagaytay Road and Governor's Drive.

Cavite–Tagaytay–Batangas Expressway is also a proposed expressway connects with CALAEx from Silang, Cavite to Nasugbu, Batangas. CTBEx is a future alternative route for tourists going to Tagaytay and Nasugbu.

LRT Line 1 South Extension Project

The LRT Line 1 South Extension Project or Cavite Extension Project through southern Metro Manila to the Province of Cavite has been identified as an integral link of the Rail Transit Network by Metro Manila Urban Transportation Integration Study (MMUTIS). It is one of the priority projects of the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC) and LRTA. It is also a flagship project of the Office of the President.

The project aims to expand the existing LRT Line 1 service southward to the cities of Parañaque, Las Piñas and the city of Bacoor in the Cavite Province. The 11.7-km route of the light railway system that will start from Baclaran to Niog was planned to carry a capacity of 40,000 passengers per direction per hour. The extension will have 48 air-conditioned coaches, 12-four car trains, 8 passenger stations and a satellite depot in Cavite. The groundbreaking of LRT Line 1 South Extension Project was held on Thursday, May 4, 2017. The actual construction officially started on Tuesday, May 7, 2019 because the Right-of-way is "free and clear" from obstructions. Once its fully operational, Cavite will be served by the LRT-1 (via Niog station). Partial operation of the project will be in the end of 2021 and full operation will be in first quarter of 2024. This is the second project outside Metro Manila after the planned MRT-7 that starts from North Avenue, Quezon City and it will end in San Jose Del Monte, Bulacan. The said project will serve approximately 1.9 million commuters based in Pasay, Paranaque, Las Piñas and Bacoor.

LRT Line 6 Project

The proposed LRT Line 6 project would further extend the LRT system by another 19 kilometers all the way to Dasmariñas from the proposed end in Niog in Bacoor, Cavite.

The mass transit system would pass along the Aguinaldo Highway and would have stations in Niog, Tirona station, Imus station, Daang Hari station, Salitran station, Congressional Avenue station, and Governor's Drive station. The project will improve passenger mobility and reduce the volume of vehicular traffic in the Cavite area by providing a higher capacity mass transit system. It also aims to spur economic development along the extension corridor.

Ferry services

There is one ferry service: Metrostar Ferry, from Cavite City to SM Mall of Asia in Pasay.

Local government

Governor

Vice Governor

Board members

District Member (party) Member (party)
1st bgcolor="Template:Nacionalista Party/meta/color" | Davey Christian R. Chua
(Nacionalista)
bgcolor="Template:Nacionalista Party/meta/color" | Romel R. Enriquez
(Nacionalista)
2nd bgcolor="Template:Nationalist People's Coalition/meta/color" | Edralin G. Gawaran
(NPC)
bgcolor="Template:Liberal Party (Philippines)/meta/color" | Edwin E. Malvar
(Lakas-CMD)
3rd bgcolor="Template:Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan/meta/color" | Jeffrey V. Asistio
(PDP–Laban)
bgcolor="Template:Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan/meta/color" | Dennis T. Lacson
(PDP–Laban)
4th bgcolor="Template:National Unity Party (Philippines)/meta/color" | Fulgencio C. dela Cuesta Jr.
(NUP)
bgcolor="Template:National Unity Party (Philippines)/meta/color" | Valeriano S. Encabo
(NUP)
5th bgcolor="Template:Nacionalista Party/meta/color" | Ivee Jayne A. Reyes
(Nacionalista)
bgcolor="Template:Independent/meta/color" | Alston Kevin A. Anarna
(Independent)
6th bgcolor="Template:National Unity Party (Philippines)/meta/color" | Felix A. Grepo
(NUP)
bgcolor="Template:National Unity Party (Philippines)/meta/color" | Kerby J. Salazar
(NUP)
7th bgcolor="Template:Nacionalista Party/meta/color" | Angelito H. Langit
(Nacionalista)
bgcolor="Template:Nacionalista Party/meta/color" | Crispin Diego D. Remulla
(Nacionalista)
8th bgcolor="Template:Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan/meta/color" | Reyniel A. Ambion
(PDP–Laban)
bgcolor="Template:Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan/meta/color" | Virgilio P. Varias
(PDP–Laban)

Ex-officio members

Position Member (party)
Provincial Councilor League bgcolor="Template:Independent/meta/color" | Benzen Raleigh G. Rusit (Cavite City)
(Partido Magdalo)
Liga ng mga Barangay bgcolor="Template:Independent/meta/color" | Francisco Paolo P. Crisostomo (Silang)
SK Provincial Federation bgcolor="Template:Independent/meta/color" | Jerome Napoleon T. Gonzales (Dasmariñas)

House of Representatives

District Representative Party
1st District

Template:Party colour

Francis Gerard A. Abaya Liberal
2nd District
(Bacoor)

Template:Party colour

Edwin "Strike" B. Revilla NUP
3rd District
(Imus)

Template:Party colour

Alex L. Advincula PDP–Laban
4th District
(Dasmariñas)

Template:Party colour

Elpidio Barzaga, Jr. NUP
5th District
(CarSiGMA)

Template:Party colour

Dahlia A. Loyola NPC
6th District
(General Trias)

Template:Party colour

Luis A. Ferrer IV NUP
7th District

Template:Party colour

Jesus Crispin C. Remulla Nacionalista
8th District

Template:Party colour

Abraham N. Tolentino PDP–Laban

Notable people

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Official Website of the Provincial Government of Cavite – Cavite City Archived March 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  2. 2.0 2.1 Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Fish, Shirley (2011). The Manila-Acapulco Galleons: The Treasure Ships of the Pacific. AuthorHouse. ISBN 9781456775421. 
  4. Galaup "Travel Accounts" page 375.
  5. "Forced Migration in the Spanish Pacific World" By Eva Maria Mehl, page 235.
  6. (Page 10) Pérez, Marilola (2015). Cavite Chabacano Philippine Creole Spanish: Description and Typology (PDF) (PhD). University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. The galleon activities also attracted a great number of Mexican men that arrived from the Mexican Pacific coast as ships’ crewmembers (Grant 2009: 230). Mexicans were administrators, priests and soldiers (guachinangos or hombres de pueblo) (Bernal 1964: 188) many though, integrated into the peasant society, even becoming tulisanes ‘bandits’ who in the late 18th century “infested” Cavite and led peasant revolts (Medina 2002: 66). Meanwhile, in the Spanish garrisons, Spanish was used among administrators and priests. Nonetheless, there is not enough historical information on the social role of these men. In fact some of the few references point to a quick integration into the local society: “los hombres del pueblo, los soldados y marinos, anónimos, olvidados, absorbidos en su totalidad por la población Filipina.” (Bernal 1964: 188). In addition to the Manila-Acapulco galleon, a complex commercial maritime system circulated European and Asian commodities including slaves. During the 17th century, Portuguese vessels traded with the ports of Manila and Cavite, even after the prohibition of 1644 (Seijas 2008: 21). Crucially, the commercial activities included the smuggling and trade of slaves: “from the Moluccas, and Malacca, and India… with the monsoon winds” carrying “clove spice, cinnamon, and pepper and black slaves, and Kafir [slaves]” (Antonio de Morga cf Seijas 2008: 21).” Though there is no data on the numbers of slaves in Cavite, the numbers in Manila suggest a significant fraction of the population had been brought in as slaves by the Portuguese vessels. By 1621, slaves in Manila numbered 1,970 out of a population of 6,110. This influx of slaves continued until late in the 17th century; according to contemporary cargo records in 1690, 200 slaves departed from Malacca to Manila (Seijas 2008: 21). Different ethnicities were favored for different labor; Africans were brought to work on the agricultural production, and skilled slaves from India served as caulkers and carpenters.
  7. (2001). "Merriam-Webster Geographical Dictionary, 3rd Edition.", pg. 119. Google Books.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 "Brief History of Cavite" Archived July 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Official Website of the Provincial Government of Cavite. Retrieved on June 25, 2013.
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named census
  10. "Village Green – Winnetka Park District", Winnetka Park District. (in en-US) 
  11. Local Government Report 2015: Province of Cavite.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 "Physical and Natural Resources" Archived September 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Province of Cavite Official Website.
  13. Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan 2011–2016.
  14. "Mount Sungay elevation". Google maps. Retrieved on February 4, 2012.
  15. Census of the Philippine Islands (1920). "Census of the Philippine Islands Vol. I, 1918", pg. 131. Bureau of Printing, Manila.
  16. "Ternate Website". Ternate Cavite Website. Retrieved on October 28, 2011.
  17. "History" Archived September 4, 2012, at Archive.today. Island Cove Hotel and Leisure Park. Retrieved on October 28, 2011.
  18. U.S. Army (1916). "United States military reservations, National cemeteries, and military parks", p. 344. Government Printing Office, Washington.
  19. "General Information" Archived January 31, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Cavite Official Website.
  20. Cavite, Philippines Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase).
  21. Father, Silouan (August 10, 2019). Hierarchal Liturgy at Tagaytay.
  22. RUSSIAN CHURCH ESTABLISHES FOUR DIOCESES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA (February 27, 2019).
  23. Manila Philippines Temple District (Map View).
  24. Cavite Satellite Field Office | Seventh-Day Adventists.
  25. Morrow, Paul (November 1, 2007). "Chabacano". Pilipino Express. Retrieved on June 25, 2013.
  26. "Agriculture" Archived April 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Cavite Official Website.
  27. Mt. Pico de Loro. Maragondon Municipal Government.
  28. Mt. Marami. Maragondon Municipal Government.
  29. The nearness of Pico de Loro. Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  30. New tack for Sangley airport project. Inquirer Business.
  31. (2013-01-31)"TAGLE Card. Luis Antonio Gokim". Holy See Press Office.