Cagayan de Oro

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Cagayan de Oro City is a highly urbanized city located in Northern Mindanao, Philippines. It is the provincial capital of the province of Misamis Oriental, although it is governed independently from the province.[1] It is also the regional center of Region X (Northern Mindanao).[2]

Geography

The city lies along the Cagayan River and near the head of Macajalar Bay.[3] It has a land area of 412.80 square kilometers or 159.38 square miles.[4]

History

The seal of Cagayan de Oro City, a city located in Northern Mindanao, Philippines (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons/City of Cagayan de Oro)

Precolonial period

The present-day city was first inhabited in 350 AD. Archaeological excavations in Huluga discovered skeletons, pots, potsherds, tools, possibly Indian glass beads, Chinese pot fragments, and vestiges of possibly Annamese and Thai wares — indications of human settlement in the area and trade with foreigners such as the Indians and the Chinese.[5]

It has been noted that prior to the arrival of the Spaniards, the inhabitants of the present-day city were animists, and that they were paying tributes to Sultan Kudarat.[6]

Spanish colonial period

The Spaniards first set foot in the present-day city in 1622, when Augustinian Recollect missionaries Fray Juan de San Nicolas and Fray Francisco de la Madre de Dios arrived in Huluga.[7] The area was then designated as an encomienda of Juan Griego on January 25, 1571.[8]

The Christianization of the inhabitants in the present-day city began in 1626, when the Augustinian Recollect Fray Agustin de San Pedro baptized the chief of Hulugan (which was then called Himologan), Datu Salangsang, his wife, and his people.[9] Fray de San Pedro also persuaded the chieftain to transfer his settlement down to the river, which is the location of the present-day Gaston Park and the Cathedral.[10] In response to the conversion of the inhabitants, Sultan Kudarat sent troops to drive away the missionaries.[11] Fray de San Pedro, who studied mathematics, architecture, gunnery, and military strategy at the University of Salamanca, built a wooden fortress and watchtower to protect the inhabitants.[12]

In 1674, the Augustinian Recollects made Cagayan a mission area.[13] In 1818, Cagayan became part of the Segundo Distrito de Misamis, the largest politico-military district founded by the Spaniards in Mindanao.[14] On February 27, 1872, Cagayan, which was named as Cagayan de Misamis, became the capital of the district.[15]

Philippine Revolution

During the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution, a group of Filipinos in Iligan, who had been deported from Luzon, mutinied against the Spaniards under instructions from the Katipunan in Manila.[16] They raided the Spanish armory, and then ransacked all convents and homes of the Spaniards from Iligan to Cagayan de Misamis.[17] Together with other natives from Bukidnon, they attacked Balingasag, and raided the outpost of Gingoog in January 1897.[18] However, they were eventually defeated by the Spaniards.[19]

After the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1898, the Spaniards relinquished their control over the town and the district to the Filipinos.[20] On January 10-11, 1899, Cagayan de Misamis celebrated the declaration of independence of the country by organizing the so-called Fiesta Nacional.[21]

American colonial period

During the Philippine-American War, the Americans invaded Cagayan de Misamis on March 31, 1900.[22] Resistance were made by the Filipinos, particularly on April 7, 1900 led by Gen. Nicolas Capistrano, during the Battle of Agusan Hill led by Capt. Vicente Roa y Racines, and during the Battle of Makahambus Hill, which was the first battle that the Americans lost during the war.[23]

However, the Americans won the war, and Cagayan de Misamis was designated as the economic, cultural, and educational center in Northern Mindanao.[24] In 1930, Misamis Oriental, in which Cagayan de Misamis is part of, became a separate province.[25]

Japanese occupation

During the Second World War, the Japanese occupied Cagayan de Misamis.[26] They implemented a "scorched earth policy" wherein most of the town were burned. Eventually, the town was liberated by the Americans on May 10, 1945.[27]

Post-war and contemporary periods

Five years after the liberation of Cagayan de Misamis, the town was declared a city. On June 15, 1950, then President Elpidio Quirino signed the charter that created the city.[28] The new city's name was changed into Cagayan de Oro in recognition of the gold mining industry that the city is known for since the 1500s.[29]

On June 29, 1951, Pope Pius XII elevated the Diocese of Cagayan into a metropolitan archdiocese, the first in Mindanao.[30]

Economy

The city exports products which include rice, corn, and copra.[31] Last 2016, the city has collected a regular revenue of ₱2,666,818,516.92.[32]

Population

As of 2015, the city has a population of 675,950. The age group with the highest population in the city are is 20 to 24, with 71,702 people. The age group with the lowest population is 80 and over, with 3,668 people.

References

  1. "History," Province of Misamis Oriental, accessed January 7, 2020, https://www.misamisoriental.gov.ph/history/
  2. "History."
  3. "Cagayan de Oro," Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed January 7, 2020, https://www.britannica.com/place/Cagayan-de-Oro
  4. "Cagayan de Oro," PhilAtlas, accessed January 7, 2020, https://www.philatlas.com/mindanao/r10/cagayan-de-oro.html
  5. Antonio J. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro," Heritage Conservation Advocates, accessed January 7, 2021, http://heritage.elizaga.net/history/
  6. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  7. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  8. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  9. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  10. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  11. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  12. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  13. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  14. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  15. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  16. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  17. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  18. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  19. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  20. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  21. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  22. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  23. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  24. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  25. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  26. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  27. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  28. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  29. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  30. Montalván, "History of Cagayan de Oro."
  31. "Cagayan de Oro," Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed January 7, 2020, https://www.britannica.com/place/Cagayan-de-Oro
  32. "Cagayan de Oro," PhilAtlas, accessed January 7, 2020, https://www.philatlas.com/mindanao/r10/cagayan-de-oro.html

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