Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines

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An associate justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines (Filipino: Kasangguning Mahistrado ng Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Pilipinas[1]) is one of fifteen members of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, the highest court in the Philippines. The Chief Justice presides over the high court, but carries only one of the 15 votes in the court. Traditionally, the Chief Justice is deemed primus inter pares ("first among equals") among the justices.

Until 1973, only men were appointed as Associate Justices to the Court. Cecilia Muñoz-Palma, an appointee of President Ferdinand Marcos, was the first woman to sit on the Court. Since then, 15 other women have been appointed as Associate Justices of the Supreme Court. The most recent woman to be appointed to the high tribunal is Priscilla J. Baltazar-Padilla, a former Justice of the Court of Appeals of the Philippines.

Current associate justices

There are currently thirteen associate justices on the Supreme Court, with the most recent appointment being that of Jhosep Lopez, who was appointed on January 26, 2021, and sworn on January 27, 2021, succeeding Priscilla Baltazar-Padilla, whose early retirement was approved on November 3, 2020. A seat was left vacant as then-Associate Justice Alexander Gesmundo was appointed by President Rodrigo Duterte as the 27th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court replacing retired Chief Justice Diosdado Peralta, who retired early last March 27, 2021. The justices, ordered by seniority, are:

Constitutional requirements and limitations

Under the 1987 Constitution, the minimum requirements for appointment to the Supreme Court are natural born citizenship; 40 years of age; and 15 years or more as a judge of a lower court or engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines. (sec. 7(1), Article VIII) The members of the Court are appointed by the President from a list of at least 3 nominees prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council. (sec. 9, Article VIII) The appointment is not subject to confirmation by Congress.

Members of the Court are mandated to retire upon reaching the age of 70. (sec. 11, Article VIII) They may also be removed from office through impeachment, which is accomplished through a resolution of impeachment affirmed by a 1/3 vote of all members of the House of Representatives and conviction by 2/3 vote of all members of the Senate.

Since 1901, there has always been only one Chief Justice. In contrast, the number of Associate Justices has wildly varied. From the original number of six (1901–1916), this was increased to eight (1916–1935), then to ten (1935–1940). During the years 1940–1945, the membership varied from five to seven. After liberation in 1945, the number was reset to ten, and the current number of fourteen was first set in place with the enactment of the 1973 Constitution. During the first few months of the Aquino administration, ten Associate Justices sat on the Court, but the appointment of Carolina Griño-Aquino in February 1988 finally restored the number of Associate Justices at fourteen.

Official functions

The cases decided by the Supreme Court involve several classes of disputes. Most prominently, the Court is called upon to exercise the power of judicial review of presidential or legislative actions. More often, the Court also undertakes appellate review of decisions of the trial courts and the Court of Appeals in civil and criminal cases. The Court is also tasked with deciding administrative cases involving members and employees of the judiciary and of lawyers belonging to the Philippine Bar. The decisions of the Court become part of the law of the land.

Each Justice carries one vote on the Court which they exercise whether when sitting in Division, or in the full complement of 15 (or "en banc"). Since the 1970s, the Supreme Court has sat in three divisions, with five Justices as members of each division. As most Supreme Court cases are decided by the division rather than the en banc, a vote of three Justices sitting in a division is usually sufficient to decide the case. However, the Constitution prescribes instances whereby a case must be decided en banc, such as in declaring a law as unconstitutional or when a judicial precedent is overturned. Each vote can be crucial, as recently shown in the 2006 People's Initiative case (Lambino v. COMELEC), which was decided en banc by an 8–7 vote.

As a case is decided, one justice in the majority is assigned to write the majority opinion for the Court. Even as these decisions speak in behalf of the Court, the writer of the opinion (known as the "ponente") is strongly identified with the decision, and the body of opinions of each Justice enhances his/her reputation. Many important opinions are analyzed in law schools and are well-remembered long after the Justice had left the Court. For example, several of the opinions of Associate Justice Jose P. Laurel were crucial in the development of Philippine jurisprudence and are widely read and quoted nearly 70 years after they had been written.

Any other Justice, whether they be in the majority or in the minority, is entitled to write a separate opinion in a case to clarify his/her views, or even to challenge the points raised in the majority opinion. In the 1973 case of Javellana v. Executive Secretary, concerning the ratification of the 1973 Constitution, each Justice chose to write a separate opinion, while more recently, the 2005 decision on the Expanded VAT Law (Abakada v. Executive Secretary) saw 11 separate opinions. The separate opinions of a Justice in the majority is usually known as a "concurring opinion", while one penned by a Justice in the minority is known as a "dissenting opinion". A Justice who only partially agrees with the majority opinion while disagreeing with portions thereof may even write a "concurring and dissenting opinion".

While these separate opinions do not receive as much public attention as majority opinions, they are usually studied in the legal academe and by other judges. On several occasions, views expressed in a dissenting or concurring opinion were adopted by the Supreme Court in later years. Justice Gregorio Perfecto, whose staunch libertarian views were out of sync with the Cold War era, wrote over 140 dissenting opinions in just 4 years. Years after his death, some of his views in dissent, such as in Moncado v. People's Court (1948) were adopted by a more liberal Supreme Court.

The rule of seniority

The Associate Justices of the Court are usually ordered according to the date of their appointment. There are no official ramifications as to this ranking, although the order determines the seating arrangement on the bench and is duly considered in all matters of protocol. Within the discretion of the Court, the ranking may also factor into the composition of the divisions of the Court.

In 1986, the order of seniority in the Court was modified upon the assumption to the presidency of Corazon C. Aquino. President Aquino had sought to reorganize the Court by obtaining the resignation of most of the Associate Justices who had been appointed by Ferdinand Marcos, and filling those vacancies with her own choices. Eventually, Aquino chose to re-appoint three Marcos-appointed Justices: Ameurfina A. Melencio-Herrera, Hugo E. Gutierrez, Jr.[14] and Nestor B. Alampay, but did so only after appointing several new Justices to the Court. The previous service of these three were not considered for the purposes of determining seniority. This point would cause a minor controversy in 1992. During that time, it was advocated in some sectors that Herrera, as the longest serving incumbent Associate Justice, was more qualified to succeed the resigned Chief Justice Marcelo B. Fernan than Andres R. Narvasa, who was considered as the Senior Associate Justice despite having been appointed to the Court 7 years after Melencio-Herrera. President Aquino eventually appointed Narvasa over Herrera.

The incumbent Justice with the earliest date of appointment is deemed the Senior Associate Justice. While the Senior Associate Justice has no constitutional or statutory duties, he or she usually acts as Acting Chief Justice during the absence of the Chief Justice. The Senior Associate Justice is also usually designated as the chairperson of the second division of the Court.

The following became Senior Associate Justices in their tenure in the Supreme Court:

*Highlights in red: Appointed as Chief Justice

*Highlights in blue: Elected as President

No. Senior Associate Justice Year Appointed Tenure
1 Florentino Torres 1901 1901–1920
2 Elias Finley Johnson 1903 1920–1933
3 Thomas A. Street 1917 1933–1935
4 George A. Malcolm 1917 1936–1936
5 Antonio Villa-Real 1925 1936–1940
6 José Abad Santos 1932 1940–1941
7 José P. Laurel Sr. 1936 1941–1942
8 Manuel V. Moran 1938 1942–1945
9 Roman Ozaeta 1941 1945–1950
10 Ricardo M. Parás Jr. 1941 1950–1951
11 Felicisimo R. Feria 1945 1951–1953
12 César F. Bengzon 1945 1953–1961
13 Sabino B. Padilla 1945 1961– 1964
14 Roberto R. Concepcion, Jr. 1954 1964–1966
15 Jose B. L. Reyes 1954 1966–1972
16 Querube C. Makalintal 1962 1972–1973
17 Roberto Regala 1962 1973–1975
18 Fred Ruiz Castro 1966 1975–1976
19 Enrique M. Fernando Sr. 1967 1976–1979
20 Claudio Teehankee Sr. 1968 1979–1986
21 Ameurfina Melencio-Herrera 1979 and 1986 1986–1992
22 Hugo Gutierrez Jr. 1982 and 1986 1992–1993
23 Isagani A. Cruz 1986 1993–1994
24 Teodoro R. Padilla 1987 1994–1997
25 Florenz D. Regalado 1988 1997–1998
26 Flerida Ruth P. Romero 1991 1998–1999
27 Josue N. Bellosillo 1992 1999–2003
28 Reynato S. Puno 1993 2003–2005
29 Leonardo A. Quisumbing 1998 2005–2009
20 Antonio T. Carpio 2001 2009–2019
30 Estela M. Perlas-Bernabe 2011 2019–present

Becoming chief justice

Only two persons appointed as Chief Justice had not previously served as Associate Justices. These were Cayetano Arellano, the first Chief Justice, and Jose Yulo, the former Speaker of the House of Representatives who was appointed as Chief Justice during the Japanese period. All other Chief Justices, except for Victorino Mapa, were incumbent Associate Justices at the time of their appointment as Chief Justice. Mapa had served as Associate Justice from 1901 to 1913, when he was appointed as Secretary of Justice. Mapa would be appointed as Chief Justice in 1920.

Another tradition, though less stringently observed, was that the most senior Associate Justice would be appointed as Chief Justice upon a permanent vacancy to that post. Deviations from this tradition, especially in recent years, have caused some controversy. Senior Associate Justice Claudio Teehankee, who had emerged as a fervent critic of Ferdinand Marcos, was twice bypassed for Chief Justice by Marcos. More recently, in 2005, the appointment of Artemio Panganiban as Chief Justice over Senior Associate Justice Reynato Puno was also the subject of some controversy. Puno was eventually appointed as Chief Justice in 2006. Another contender for Chief Justice in 2006 was Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago. Had Santiago been appointed Chief Justice, she would have been the first person since Jose Yulo in 1942 to have been appointed Chief without serving as Associate Justice. When Justice Renato Corona assumed as Chief Justice on May 17, 2010, the most senior Associate Justice was Antonio Carpio, who was appointed to the Court in October 2001, 6 months before Corona's own appointment.

List of associate justices of the Supreme Court of the Philippines

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Living associate justices of the Supreme Court of the Philippines

Rank Justice Life dates Age Notes
13 Regino C. Hermosisima Jr. October 18, 1927 93 years, 247 days Current oldest living former Associate Justice
28 Minerva Gonzaga-Reyes September 25, 1931 89 years, 270 days
30 Bernardo P. Pardo February 11, 1932 89 years, 131 days
36 Santiago M. Kapunan August 12, 1932 88 years, 314 days
42 Vicente V. Mendoza April 5, 1933 88 years, 78 days
44 Josue N. Bellosillo November 13, 1933 87 years, 221 days
50 Jose C. Vitug July 15, 1934 86 years, 342 days
59 Hilario Davide Jr. December 20, 1935 85 years, 184 days Nineteenth Chief Justice (1998–2005)
64 Artemio Panganiban December 7, 1936 84 years, 197 days 20th Chief Justice (2005–2007)
66 Romeo J. Callejo, Sr. April 28, 1937 84 years, 55 days
70 Angelina Sandoval-Gutierrez February 28, 1938 83 years, 114 days
76 Ruben T. Reyes January 3, 1939 82 years, 170 days
78 Adolfo S. Azcuna February 16, 1939 82 years, 126 days
79 Dante O. Tiñga May 11, 1939 82 years, 42 days
82 Consuelo Ynares-Santiago October 5, 1939 81 years, 260 days
83 Minita V. Chico-Nazario December 5, 1939 81 years, 199 days
84 Reynato Puno May 17, 1940 81 years, 36 days 22nd Chief Justice (2006–2010)
86 Alicia Austria-Martinez December 19, 1940 80 years, 185 days
88 Antonio Eduardo B. Nachura June 13, 1941 80 years, 9 days
89 Conchita Carpio-Morales June 19, 1941 80 years, 3 days
98 Roberto A. Abad May 22, 1944 77 years, 31 days
111 Martin Villarama Jr. April 14, 1946 75 years, 69 days
114 Jose P. Perez December 14, 1946 74 years, 190 days
115 Arturo D. Brion December 29, 1946 74 years, 175 days
121 Bienvenido L. Reyes July 6, 1947 73 years, 351 days
123 Jose C. Mendoza August 13, 1947 73 years, 313 days
129 Presbitero Velasco Jr. August 8, 1948 72 years, 318 days
134 Teresita Leonardo-de Castro October 8, 1948 72 years, 257 days de Jure 24th Chief Justice (2018)
136 Samuel R. Martires January 2, 1949 72 years, 171 days Currently serving as the Ombudsman
137 Noel G. Tijam January 5, 1949 72 years, 168 days
141 Mariano del Castillo July 29, 1949 71 years, 328 days
142 Francis Jardeleza September 26, 1949 71 years, 269 days
143 Lucas Bersamin October 18, 1949 71 years, 247 days 25th Chief Justice (2018–2019)
144 Antonio Carpio October 26, 1949 71 years, 239 days
148 Andres B. Reyes Jr. May 11, 1950 71 years, 42 days
150 Jose Reyes Jr. September 18, 1950 70 years, 277 days
153 Rosmari Carandang January 9, 1952 69 years, 164 days
155 Diosdado Peralta March 27, 1952 69 years, 87 days 26th Chief Justice (2019– 2021)
156 Estela Perlas-Bernabe May 14, 1952 69 years, 39 days
157 Edgardo L. Delos Santos June 12, 1952 69 years, 10 days
163 Mario V. Lopez June 4, 1955 66 years, 18 days
170 Alexander Gesmundo November 6, 1956 64 years, 228 days 27th Chief Justice (2021–present)
172 Amy Lazaro-Javier November 16, 1956 64 years, 218 days
173 Henri Jean Paul B. Inting September 4, 1957 63 years, 291 days
175 Priscilla Baltazar-Padilla July 2, 1958 62 years, 355 days
176 Samuel H. Gaerlan December 19, 1958 62 years, 185 days
177 Ricardo Rosario October 15, 1958 62 years, 250 days
179 Alfredo Benjamin Caguioa September 30, 1959 61 years, 265 days
181 Maria Lourdes Sereno July 2, 1960 60 years, 355 days de facto Chief Justice (2012–2018)
184 Marvic Leonen December 29, 1962 58 years, 175 days
186 Jhosep Lopez February 8, 1963 58 years, 134 days
189 Rodil V. Zalameda August 3, 1963 57 years, 323 days
190 Ramon Paul Hernando August 27, 1966 54 years, 299 days

The most recent death of a former Justice was that of Jose Armando R. Melo who passed away on October 17, 2020, at the age of 88 years, 141 days.

Current Age of living Justices as of 01:44, Tuesday, June 22, 2021 (UTC).

Notable associate justices

  1. To date, one Associate Justice, José P. Laurel, would later serve as President of the Philippines. Laurel also ran for the presidency in 1949 but was defeated by Elpidio Quirino. Another Associate Justice, Claro M. Recto, would be a candidate for president, but he and former Chief Justice Jose Yulo lost to Carlos P. Garcia in the 1957 presidential election.
  2. Since 1973 there are Seventeen women appointed as Associate Justices of the Court (by Appointing President)
    1. Ferdinand Marcos (19651986)
      1. Cecilia Muñoz-Palma (1973)
      2. Ameurfina Melencio-Herrera (1979)
    2. Corazon Aquino (19861992)
      1. Irene Rian-Cortes (1986)
      2. Carolina Griño-Aquino (1987)
      3. Flerida Ruth Pineda-Romero (1991)
    3. Joseph Estrada (19982001)
      1. Minerva Gonzaga-Reyes (1999)
      2. Consuelo Ynares-Santiago (1999)
      3. Angelina Sandoval-Gutierrez (2000)
    4. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (20012010)
      1. Ma. Alicia Austria-Martinez (2002)
      2. Conchita Carpio-Morales (2002)
      3. Minita Chico-Nazario (2003)
      4. Teresita Leonardo-De Castro (2007)
    5. Benigno Aquino III (20102016)
      1. Maria Lourdes Sereno (2020)
      2. Estela M. Perlas-Bernabe (2011)
    6. Rodrigo Duterte (2016incumbent)
      1. Rosmari Carandang (2018)
      2. Amy Lazaro-Javier (2019)
      3. Priscilla Baltazar-Padilla (2020, most recent)
  3. Among the Catholic Justices There are other denominations from which justices came from.
    1. Islam
      1. Abdulwahid Bidin (Appointed in 1987)
    2. Methodist
      1. Chief Justice José Abad Santos
      2. Chief Justice Reynato Puno
    3. Non-denominational Christian
      1. Chief Justice María Lourdes Sereno
  4. There has been notable pairs Appointed in the Supreme Court
    1. Husband and Wife
      1. Chief Justice Ramon and Associate Justice Carolina Aquino (Appointed in 1987)).
    2. Father-Son
      1. The Torreses: Florentino Torres (appointed in 1901) and Luis (appointed in 1949)
      2. The Parases: Chief Justice Ricardo Paras (appointed in 1941) and his son, Associate Justice Edgardo (appointed in 1987)
      3. The Padillas: Sabino Padilla (appointed in 1946, again in 1950) and Teodoro (Appointed in 1987);
      4. The Ferias: Felicisimo Feria (appointed in 1945) and Jose (appointed in 1986)).
    3. Uncle-Nephew
      1. The Abad Santoses: Chief Justice José Abad Santos and Associate Justice Vicente
      2. The Brioneses: Associate Justice Manuel Briones and Chief Justice Marcelo Briones Fernan
  5. At age 35, American George A. Malcolm was the youngest person ever appointed Associate Justice, in 1915. However, the present age limit in the Constitution is 40. The youngest Filipinos named Associate Justices were Claro M. Recto (45 years, 4 months, 25 days old) and Ramon Avanceña (45 years, 5 months, 18 days old).
  6. The oldest person named Associate Justice was Jose C. Campos, Jr. (69 years, 4 months and 23 days old), serving under President Fidel Ramos in 1993. However, Jose Lopez Vito was 69 years, 364 days old when he temporarily sat in Court to fill a vacancy during the Japanese occupation. The oldest Justice to ever sit in Court upon retirement or death was Florentino Torres, who was 75 when he resigned in 1920; this was prior to the specification of any age limit.
  7. The longest-serving Associate Justice was American Elias Finley Johnson, who served in that position for 29 years, 5 months and 27 days, from 1903 to 1933. The longest serving Filipino Associate Justice was Florentino Torres, who served for 18 years, 10 months, and 3 days, from 1901 to 1920. Justices Ramon Avanceña and Cesar Bengzon would serve longer in the Court than Torres, but their tenure as Associate Justice was terminated by their upon their appointment as Chief Justice in 1925 and 1961 respectively.
  8. The Associate Justice serving the shortest period was Ramon Diokno, a former Senator who died 2 months and 11 days after his appointment in 1954.
  9. The youngest Associate Justice to die was American Fletcher Ladd, who died shortly after resigning in 1903 aged 40 years and 356 days; Ladd had served in the Court for less than two years. The youngest Filipino Justice to die was José Abad Santos, who was executed by the Imperial Japanese Army at age Template:Ayd. Gregorio Perfecto meanwhile died in office aged Template:Ayd.
  10. Of the 188 Justices of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, 12 (3 Chief Justices and 9 Associate Justices) died while serving their respective tenures they were
    1. Chief Justice Manuel Araullo (1924)
    2. Associate Justice Charles Johns (1932)
    3. Associate Justice Ignacio Villamor (1933)
    4. Associate Justice Carlos Imperial (1941)
    5. Chief Justice Jose Abad Santos (1942)
    6. Associate Justice Anacleto Diaz (1945)
    7. Associate Justice Antonino Villareal (1945)
    8. Associate Justice Gregorio Perfecto (1949)
    9. Associate Justice Ramon Diokno (1954)
    10. Associate Justice Fernando Jugo (1956)
    11. Chief Justice Fred Ruiz Castro (1976)
    12. Associate Justice Leo Medialdea (1992)
  11. The only Associate Justice who resigned before the age of compulsory retirement due to health reasons was Austria-Martinez. Note that Florentino Feliciano retired at 67 to accept appointment to the Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization. In September 2008, Ma. Alicia Austria-Martinez, citing health reasons, filed a letter to the Supreme Court of the Philippines through Reynato Puno, tendering her resignation effective April 30, 2009, or 15 months before her compulsory retirement on December 19, 2010. In the October 1 Judicial and Bar Council's en banc deliberations, Reynato Puno ruled: "The court merely noted it. We don't have to approve it... it is her right."[15] During the JBC hearing, a JBC member said "Austria-Martinez had wanted to retire earlier because of health reasons. We were told she had health problems even when she was in the CA."[16] Retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Artemio Panganiban stated: "I am saddened that Justice Ma. Alicia Austria-Martinez has opted to retire early from the Supreme Court due to 'health reasons.' to discharge the duties of their office."[17]
  12. The longest-lived Supreme Court Associate Justice was Associate Justice James C. Vickers, who died on Template:Dts,[18] aged 122 years, 149 days. As of Template:Date, the oldest living Associate Justice is Regino C. Hermosisima Jr. who born on Template:Birth date who is currently Template:Ayd, he will outlive Justice Vickers if he lives to Template:Dts.
  13. Nineteen associate Justices lived pass their 90s:
    1. James C. Vickers, (August 5, 1877–January 1, 2000[18] (aged 122 years, 149 days))
    2. Hermogenes Concepcion Jr. (April 20, 1920 – November 28, 2018 (aged 98 years, 222 days))
    3. Ameurfina Melencio-Herrera (May 11, 1922 – October 11, 2020 (aged 98 years, 154 days))
    4. Lorenzo Relova (January 20, 1916 – April 23, 2014 (aged 98 years, 93 days))
    5. Delfin Jaranilla (December 24, 1883 – June 4, 1980 (aged 96 years, 302 days))
    6. Guillermo Pablo (June 5, 1886 – August 2, 1982 (aged Template:Ayd)
    7. César Bengzon (May 29, 1896 – September 3, 1992 (aged 96 years, 97 days))
    8. Jose A. Espiritu (April 10, 1886 – May 30, 1982 (aged 96 years, 50 days))
    9. Ricardo M. Parás, Jr. (February 17, 1891 – October 10, 1984 (93 years, 236 days))
    10. Lino M. Patajo (September 23, 1916 – April 11, 2010 (aged 93 years, 200 days))
    11. Conrado M. Vasquez (September 13, 1913 – September 19, 2006 (aged 93 years, 6 days))
    12. Jose Benedicto L. Reyes (August 19, 1902 – December 27, 1994 (aged 92 years, 130 days))
    13. Regino C. Hermosisima Jr. (born October 18, 1927 Template:Ayd))
    14. Cecilia Muñoz-Palma (November 22, 1913 – January 2, 2006 (aged 92 years, 41 days)),
    15. Vicente G. Ericta (February 3, 1915 – February 7, 2007 (aged 92 years, 4 days))
    16. Querube Makalintal (December 22, 1910 – November 8, 2002 (aged 91 years, 321 days))
    17. Sabino B. Padilla (August 21, 1894 – June 15, 1986 (aged 91 years, 298 days)
    18. Jose P. Bengzon (May 5, 1898 – February 4, 1990 (aged 91 years, 275 days)
    19. Jesus G. Barrera (December 18, 1896 – August 28, 1988 (aged 91 years, 254 days))
    20. Jose Feria (January 11, 1917 – May 8, 2008 (aged 91 years, 117 days))
    21. Pastor M. Endencia (July 26, 1890 – July 22, 1981 (aged 90 years, 361 days))
    22. Justo P. Torres Jr. (November 1, 1927 – December 26, 2017 (aged 90 years, 55 days))

Note Updated daily through UTC.

See also

References

  • The Supreme Court E-library
  • Sevilla, Victor J. (1985). Justices of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Vol. I. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers. ISBN 971-10-0134-9. 
  • Sevilla, Victor J. (1985). Justices of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Vol. II. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers. ISBN 971-10-0137-3. 
  • Sevilla, Victor J. (1985). Justices of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Vol. III. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers. ISBN 971-10-0139-X. 

Notes

  1. (2018) Direktoryo ng mga Ahensiya at Opisyal ng Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas (in fil). Kagawaran ng Badyet at Pamamahala (Department of Budget and Management). 
  2. Profile of the new Supreme Court Justice, Estela M. Perlas-Bernabe | Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines (2012-07-23).
  3. Patricia Denise Chiu (2012-11-21). Peace negotiator Leonen named to Supreme Court; youngest justice since '38 (en-US).
  4. Torres-Tupas, Tetch. "Justice Secretary Caguioa takes oath as 174th SC justice", January 27, 2016. 
  5. Punay, Edu (2018-10-11). Court of Appeals Ramon Paul Hernando promoted to Supreme Court.
  6. Buan, Lian (2018-11-28). Duterte appoints woman justice to the Supreme Court (en).
  7. LIST: 8 nominees for SC associate justice post (2018-06-25).
  8. "Metro News Today: Bersamin Is The New Chief Justice", League Online News, November 28, 2018. 
  9. Buan, Lian. Duterte appoints CA justice Zalameda to Supreme Court (en).
  10. Justice Mario Villamor Lopez is sworn in as the 185th Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines | Supreme Court of the Philippines (en-US) (December 5, 2019).
  11. Panaligan, Rey (December 4, 2019). SC receives appointment papers of two new associate justices (en-US).
  12. Gita-Carlos, Ruth Abbey (8 January 2020). Samuel Gaerlan promoted to Supreme Court: Palace.
  13. Lagrimas, Nicole-Annie (16 September 2020). JBC shortlists 7 for upcoming Supreme Court vacancy (en).
  14. Torres-Tupas, Tetch. "Retired Associate Justice Hugo Gutierrez Jr. passes away at 86", Philippine Daily Inquirer, June 12, 2013. 
  15. Manila Standard.
  16. abs-cbnNEWS.com/Newsbreak, by ARIES RUFO (September 30, 2008). Exclusive: SC Justice Alicia Martinez to retire early.
  17. 1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES - CHAN ROBLES VIRTUAL LAW LIBRARY.
  18. 18.0 18.1 https://elibrary.judiciary.gov.ph/supremecourtjustices/associatejustice/43