Anino ng Kahapon

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Anino ng Kahapon is a novel authored by Francisco Laksamana published in 1907, during the first decade of the American Occupation. Unlike his contemporaries Roman Reyes and Iñigo Ed. Regalado, Laksamana wrote a pro-American novel contrasting the cruelty and brashness of Spain to the "benevolence" of America.


Modesto Magsikap is affronted by Sergeant Cruz's boorishness in courting Modesto's beloved, Elisea Liwayway. He stabs Cruz, leaves the soldier to die, and escapes. He is found and imprisoned. When a group of outlaws besiege the town, the prisoners are freed and Modesto runs back to his town and learns of his father's death. Unhampered by grief and seized by jealousy, Modesto murders one of Elisea's suitors again, Lieutenant Rosca. He becomes a fugitive once more, his two brothers imprisoned and paying for his crimes. Knowing that the system run by the Spaniards and friars is corrupted, Modesto leaves for the United States. There, he writes to Elisea about the plentifulness of wonder and opportunity in the US. Upon his return to the Philippines five years later, he finds a good homecoming in America's "benevolent presence".


This novel's positive depiction of America in contrast to the cruelty and abusiveness of Spain highlights its bias. It portended the effective assimilation and annexation of the Philippines during the American Occupation and the obvious favor given by the Filipinos to America over Spain as a colonizer.

For comparison, see Mga Anak-Bukid, Ang mga Anak Dalita, and Isa Pang Bayani.

External Links


  • Laksamana, Francisco. Anino ng Kahapon. Manila: S.P., 1907.



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