Andres Garcia Camba

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A lithograph of Andrés García Camba, Governor-General of the Philippines (1837-1838) (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons/Domingo Valdivieso y Henarejos/Biblioteca Nacional de España)

Andrés García Camba (20 October 1790 – 7 October 1861)[1] was the Governor-General of the Philippines from 27 August 1837 to 29 December 1838.[2]

Biography

García Camba was from Monforte de Lemos, Lugo, Spain.[3] He was the son of Francisco García Camba y Soria and Francisca de las Heras y Taboada.[4]

He entered as a cadet in the squadron of Húsares de Galicia in February 1810.[5] From there, he started his military career. He fought against the French during the Peninsular War and the Spanish War of Independence (1807–1814).[6] He also participated in campaigns to defeat the independence forces in America. He was sent in Perú, where he participated in battles such as the Battle of Torata on 19 January 1823, the Battle of Moquehua, and the Battle of Aracucho in 1824 where led a group of Spanish cavalry.[7]

He also served in the military as an academician. He was appointed as professor of tactics in the Academia de Oficiales in 1813.[8] In the same year, he was then appointed as instructor in the Depósito de Ultramar.[9]

He first set foot in the archipelago after the defeat of Spanish forces in Perú.[10] He embarked on a squadron to the archipelago, accompanying Viceroy José de la Serna.[11] García Camba continued on to the Marianas Islands, but due to a crew uprising on 11 March 1825, he was forced to disembark on Guam.[12] He eventually arrived in Manila in April 1825 by embarking on a whaling ship.[13]

Upon arriving in Manila, he was appointed by Governor-General Juan Antonio Martínez as major general of the infantry and the cavalry.[14] He asked to return to Spain in 1828, but his request was not granted.[15] He was asked to stay in the archipelago so that the colonial government can make use of his military knowledge.[16] He drafted a project to organize the Army in the country in January 1829, which was approved by the royal government the following year.[17] He eventually went back to Spain in 1835 when he was elected as deputy of Manila to the Cortes.[18]

While in Spain, he was also elected to represent Lugo, Spain in parliament on 2 October 1836, but he declined the position.[19] He was appointed as interim minister of war on August 14, 1836.[20] Fifteen days later, he was promoted as mariscal de campo and appointed as Governor-General of the Philippines.[21] He succeeded Gabriel de Torres as Governor-General. Before his appointment, Juan Crámer and Pedro Antonio Salazar Castillo served as acting Governors-General.

As Governor-General

García Camba arrived in Manila on 4 August 1837.[22] He was well-received by the inhabitants, although the Liberals in Manila were not happy as the Cortes removed the right of the archipelago for representation.[23]

He laid out laws regarding the justice department and the vagabonds in the archipelago.[24]

However, his administration faced difficulties in governing the archipelago due to the ideological effects of the First Carlist War (1833 – 1840). García Camba, who was a liberal and a supporter of Queen Isabella II; clashed with the religious orders and Manila Archbishop José Seguí, who were supporters of Carlos de Borbón who claimed the Spanish throne.[25] García Camba discovered that not only are the religious orders and the Archbishop sympathizers, but they actively aided Borbón's claim to the throne by giving him financial support.[26] He even discovered that Carlist reunions were being held in the convents of San Juan de Dios and Sto. Domingo.[27] It did not help that the members of the Real Audiencia and many influential officials and citizens were hostile towards him.[28] As a result of intrigues made against him, he left his position on 29 December 1838.[29] He was succeeded by Luis Lardizábal.

After his term

He returned to Spain where he became a senator of Valencia from 1839 to 1843.[30] He became the minister of marine, trade, and overseas from 21 May 1841 to 25 May 1842.[31] He was also appointed as captain general of Puerto Rico in 1854.[32] He became a lifetime senator from 1853, 1857 to 1861.[33]

He died in 1861.[34] Throughout his military and political career, he was awarded with the Grand Cross of San Hermenegildo in 1836, and became a knight of the Military Order of Santiago in the same year.[35]

References

  1. Real Academia de la Historia, "Andrés García Camba y de las Heras," accessed 2 February 2021, http://dbe.rah.es/biografias/14139/andres-garcia-camba-y-de-las-heras
  2. Carlos Quirino, Old Manila, ed. María Eloísa G. Parco-de Castro, 2nd ed. (Quezon City: Vibal Foundation, 2016), 295.
  3. Quirino, Old Manila, 295.
  4. Real Academia de la Historia, "Andrés García Camba y de las Heras."
  5. Real Academia de la Historia, "Andrés García Camba y de las Heras."
  6. Quirino, Old Manila, 295.
  7. Quirino, Old Manila, 295; Real Academia de la Historia, "Andrés García Camba y de las Heras."
  8. Real Academia de la Historia, "Andrés García Camba y de las Heras."
  9. Real Academia de la Historia, "Andrés García Camba y de las Heras."
  10. Real Academia de la Historia, "Andrés García Camba y de las Heras."
  11. Real Academia de la Historia, "Andrés García Camba y de las Heras."
  12. Real Academia de la Historia, "Andrés García Camba y de las Heras."
  13. Real Academia de la Historia, "Andrés García Camba y de las Heras;" José Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," in The Philippine Islands 1493-1898, trans. Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson, vol. 51 (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1906), 65.
  14. Quirino, Old Manila, 295.
  15. Real Academia de la Historia, "Andrés García Camba y de las Heras."
  16. Real Academia de la Historia, "Andrés García Camba y de las Heras."
  17. Real Academia de la Historia, "Andrés García Camba y de las Heras."
  18. Real Academia de la Historia, "Andrés García Camba y de las Heras;" Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 65.
  19. Quirino, Old Manila, 295.
  20. Real Academia de la Historia, "Andrés García Camba y de las Heras."
  21. Real Academia de la Historia, "Andrés García Camba y de las Heras."
  22. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 65.
  23. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 65.
  24. Quirino, Old Manila, 295-6.
  25. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 65-6.
  26. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 65-6.
  27. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 66.
  28. Montero y Vidal, "Events in Filipinas, 1801-1840," 66.
  29. Quirino, Old Manila, 296.
  30. Quirino, Old Manila, 296; Senado de España, "GARCIA CAMBA AND LAS HERAS, ANDRÉS," accessed January 15, 2021, https://www.senado.es/web/conocersenado/senadohistoria/senado18341923/senadores/fichasenador/index.html?id1=1128
  31. Quirino, Old Manila, 296.
  32. Quirino, Old Manila, 296.
  33. Senado de España, "GARCIA CAMBA."
  34. Quirino, Old Manila, 296.
  35. Real Academia de la Historia, "Andrés García Camba y de las Heras."

External links

Citation

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