Vanda

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For other meanings, see Vanda (disambiguation).
Vanda
Vanda Miss Joaquim
Vanda Miss Joaquim
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Tribe: Vandeae
Subtribe: Sarcanthinae
Alliance: Vanda
Genus: Vanda
Jones ex R.Br.
Species

See text.


Vanda W. Jones ex R. Br. 1820, is a genus in the orchid family (Orchidaceae) which, although not large (about fifty species), is one of the most important florally.

Contents

Description

The name "Vanda" is derived from the Sanskrit name for the species Vanda tessellata.

These mostly epiphytic, but sometimes lithophytic or terrestrial orchids are distributed in India, Himalaya, SE Asia, Indonesia, the Philippines, New Guinea, southern China and northern Australia.

The genus has a monopodial growth habit with leaves that are highly variable according to habitat. Some have flat, typically broad, ovoid leaves (strap-leaves), while others have cylindrical (terete), fleshy leaves and are adapted to dry periods. The stems of these orchids vary considerably in size; there are miniature plants and plants with a length of several meters.

There are few to many flattened flowers growing on a lateral inflorescence. Most show a yellow-brown color with brown markings, but they also appear in white, green, orange, red and burgundy shades. The lip has a small spur. Vandas usually bloom every few months and the flowers last for two to three weeks.

This genus is one of the five most horticulturally important orchid genera, because it has some of the most magnificent flowers to be found in the entire orchid family. This has contributed much to the work of hybridists producing flowers for the cut flower market. Vanda coerulea is one of the few botanical orchids with blue flowers (actually a very bluish purple), a property much appreciated for producing interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. Vanda dearei is one of the chief sources of yellow color in Vanda hybrids.

Vanda Miss Joaquim is the National Flower of Singapore.

Many Vanda orchids (especially Vanda coerulea) are endangered, because of habitat destruction. The export of wild-collected specimens of the Blue Orchid (Vanda coerulea) and other wild Vandas is prohibited worldwide, as all orchids are listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species.

Species

Vanda denisoniana, misidentified as Vanda bensonii
  • Vanda alpina (Himalaya to China - S. Yunnan).
  • Vanda arbuthnotiana (India).
  • Vanda arcuata (Indonesia - Sulawesi).
  • Vanda bensonii (Assam to Thailand).
  • Vanda bicolor (Bhutan).
  • Vanda bidupensis (Vietnam).
  • Vanda brunnea (China - Yunnan to Indo-China).
  • Vanda celebica (Indonesia – Sulawesi).
  • Vanda chlorosantha (Bhutan).
  • Vanda coerulea : Blue Orchid (Assam to China - S. Yunnan)
  • Vanda coerulescens (Arunachal Pradesh to China - S. Yunnan).
  • Vanda concolor (S. China to Vietnam).
A hybrid descendant of Vanda coerulea, misidentified as Vanda coerulea itself
  • Vanda cristata (Himalaya to China - NW. Yunnan).
  • Vanda dearei (Borneo).
  • Vanda denisoniana (China - Yunnan to N. Indo-China).
  • Vanda devoogtii (Sulawesi).
  • Vanda foetida (S. Sumatra).
  • Vanda furva (Java, Maluku).
  • Vanda fuscoviridis (S. China to Vietnam).
  • Vanda griffithii (E. Himalaya).
  • Vanda hastifera (Borneo).
    • Vanda hastifera var. gibbsiae (N. Borneo).
    • Vanda hastifera var. hastifera (Borneo).
  • Vanda helvola (W. Malaysia).
  • Vanda hindsii (Papuasia to N. Queensland).
Vanda tricolor, misidentified as Vanda insignis
  • Vanda insignis (Lesser Sunda Is.).
  • Vanda jainii (Assam).
  • Vanda javierae (Philippines).
  • Vanda lamellata (Taiwan (to Philippines, N. Borneo).
  • Vanda leucostele (N. & W. Sumatra).
  • Vanda lilacina (China - Yunnan to Indo-China).
  • Vanda limbata (Java, Lesser Sunda Is., Philippines).
  • Vanda lindenii (Maluku).
  • Vanda liouvillei (Assam to Indo-China).
  • Vanda lombokensis (Lesser Sunda Is.).
  • Vanda luzonica (Philippines - Luzon).
  • Vanda merrillii (Philippines).
  • Vanda petersiana (Myanmar).
  • Vanda pumila (Nepal to Hainan and N. Sumatra).
  • Vanda punctata (Pen. Malaysia).
  • Vanda roeblingiana (Philippines).
  • Vanda sanderiana (now synonym of Euanthe sanderiana (Rchb.f.) Schltr )
  • Vanda scandens (Borneo, Philippines - Mindanao).
Vanda suavis, currently mistreated as merely another variety of Vanda tricolor
  • Vanda spathulata (India -Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Sri Lanka).
  • Vanda stangeana (India - Arunachal Pradesh to Assam).
  • Vanda subconcolor (China - SW. Yunnan to Hainan).
    • Vanda subconcolor var. disticha (Hainan).
    • Vanda subconcolor var. subconcolor (China - SW. Yunnan to Hainan).
  • Vanda sumatrana (Sumatra).
  • Vanda tessellata (Indian Subcontinent to Indo-China).
  • Vanda testacea (Indian Subcontinent to SC. China).
  • Vanda thwaitesii (Sri Lanka).
  • Vanda tricolor (Laos, Java to Bali).
  • Vanda vipanii (Myanmar).
  • Vanda wightii (S. India)

Natural hybrids

  • Vanda × boumaniae (V. insignis × V. limbata) (Lesser Sunda Is.).
  • Vanda × charlesworthii (V. bensonii × V. coerulea) (Myanmar).
  • Vanda × confusa (V. coerulescens × V. lilacina) (Myanmar).
  • Vanda x Miss Joaquim (V. hookeriana x V. teres) (Singapore).

Intergeneric hybrids

  • Aeridovanda (Aerides x Vanda)
  • Aeridovanisia (Aerides x Luisia x Vanda)
  • Alphonsoara (Arachnis x Ascocentrum x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Andrewara (Arachnis x Renanthera x Trichoglottis x Vanda)
  • Aranda (Arachnis x Vanda)
  • Ascocenda (Ascocentrum x Vanda)
  • Ascovandoritis (Ascocentrum x Doritis x Vanda)
  • Bokchoonara (Arachnis x Ascocentrum x Phalaenopsis x Vanda)
  • Bovornara (Arachnis x Ascocentrum x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Burkillara (Aerides x Arachnis x Vanda)
  • Charlieara (Rhynchostylis x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Christieara (Aerides x Ascocentrum x Vanda)
  • Darwinara (Ascocentrum x Neofinetia x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Debruyneara (Ascocentrum x Luisia x Vanda)
  • Devereuxara (Ascocentrum x Phalaenopsis x Vanda)
  • Eastonara (Ascocentrum x Gastrochilus x Vanda)
  • Fujiora (Ascocentrum x Trichoglottis x Vanda)
  • Goffara (Luisia x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Hawaiiara (Renanthera x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Hagerara (Doritis x Phalaenopsis x Vanda)
  • Himoriara (Ascocentrum x Phalaenopsis x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Holttumara (Arachnis x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Isaoara (Aerides x Ascocentrum x Phalaenopsis x Vanda)
  • Joannara (Renanthera x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Kagawara (Ascocentrum x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Knappara (Ascocentrum x Rhynchostylis x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Knudsonara (Ascocentrum x Neofinetia x Renanthera x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Leeara (Arachnis x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Luisanda (Luisia x Vanda)
  • Luivanetia (Luisia x Neofinetia x Vanda)
  • Lewisara (Aerides x Arachnis x Ascocentrum x Vanda)
  • Maccoyara (Aerides x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Macekara (Arachnis x Phalaenopsis x Renanthera x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Micholitzara (Aerides x Ascocentrum x Neofinetia x Vanda)
  • Moirara (Phalaenopsis x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Mokara (Arachnis x Ascocentrum x Vanda)
  • Nakamotoara (Ascocentrum x Neofinetia x Vanda)
  • Nobleara (Aerides x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Okaara (Ascocentrum x Renanthera x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Onoara (Ascocentrum x Renanthera x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Opsisanda (Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Pageara (Ascocentrum x Luisia x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Pantapaara (Ascoglossum x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Paulara (Ascocentrum x Doritis x Phalaenopsis x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Pehara (Aerides x Arachnis x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Pereiraara (Aerides x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Phalaerianda (Aerides x Phalaenopsis x Vanda)
  • Raganara (Renanthera x Trichoglottis x Vanda)
  • Ramasamyara (Arachnis x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Renafinanda (Neofinetia x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Renanda (Arachnis x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Renantanda (Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Rhynchovanda (Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Ridleyare (Arachnis x Trichoglottis x Vanda)
  • Robinaria (Aerides x Ascocentrum x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Ronnyara (Aerides x Ascocentrum x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Sanjumeara (Aerides x Neofinetia x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Sarcovanda (Sarcochilus x Vanda)
  • Shigeuraara (Ascocentrum x Ascoglossum x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Stamariaara (Ascocentrum x Phalaenopsis x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Sutingara (Arachnis x Ascocentrum x Phalaenopsis x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Teohara (Arachnis x Renanthera x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Trevorara (Arachnis x Phalaenopsis x Vanda)
  • Trichovanda (Trichoglottis x Vanda)
  • Vascostylis (Ascocentrum x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Vandachnis (Arachnis x Vandopsis)
  • Vancampe (Acampe x Vanda)
  • Vandaenopsis (Phalaenopsis x Vanda)
  • Vandaeranthes (Aeranthes x Vanda)
  • Vandewegheara (Ascocentrum x Doritis x Phalaenopsis x Vanda)
  • Vandofinetia (Neofinetia x Vanda)
  • Vandofinides (Aerides x Neofinetia x Vanda)
  • Vandoritis (Doritis x Vanda)
  • Vanglossum (Ascoglossum x Vanda)
  • Wilkinsara (Ascocentrum x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Yapara (Phalaenopsis x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Yusofara (Arachnis x Ascocentrum x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Yonezawaara (Neofinetia x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)

References

Grove, D. L. 1995. Vandas and Ascocendas. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 241 pp.


Motes, M. R., and A. L. Hoffman. 1997 Vandas, heir botany, history and culture. ISBN 0-88192-376-1

External links

de:Vanda (Orchideen) es:Vanda (orquídea) fr:Vanda (plante) lt:Vanda (augalas) pt:Vanda zh:萬代蘭屬

Original Source

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