Tejeros Convention

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The Tejeros Convention (also referred to as Tejeros Congress or Tejeros Assembly), held at Tejeros (now General Trias) in Cavite on 22 March 1897, was the meeting that brought together the members of both the Magdalo and Magdiwang factions of the Katipunan. This is considered as the first Presidential and Vice Presidential election in the history of the Philippines.



In pursuit of forming a revolutionary government, the revolutionaries, headed by Jacinto Lumbreras, assembled themselves in a friar hacienda. Originally, the assembly was called upon to bridge the increasing gap between the Magdiwang and Magdalo factions and to discuss matters concerning the defense of Cavite against the Spaniards. According to Lumbreras, a Magdiwang, the subjects were not discussed; instead, the assembly turned out to be an election of leaders for the revolution. This “call” unceremoniously discarded the Supreme Council of the Katipunan.

Election and conclusion

Reluctantly, Andres Bonifacio, the Supremo of the Katipunan, presided over the election. To quote Bonifacio <ref name="test1">Constantino, Renato A. The Philippines: A Past Revisited.Quezon City:Tala Pub. Services, 1975.</ref>:

The result of the election was as followed:

Painting depicting a scene between Tirona and Bonifacio in the Tejeros Convention.

Position Name
  President   Emilio Aguinaldo
  Vice-President   Mariano Trias
  Captain-General   Artemio Ricarte
  Director of War   Emiliano Riego de Dios  
  Director of the Interior     Andres Bonifacio

There was no doubt that Aguinaldo, who was then busy on the military front in Pasong Santol, won in the said election. The majority of the voters were Caviteños and were on the general's side. Bonifacio, defeated as President, was elected Director of the Interior which obviously maneuvered him out of power. It must have been an insult to the Supremo to lose in the election especially since even the Magdiwang, who were supposed to be his supporters, did not vote for him for the two highest positions.

Many Caviteño elite were doubtful of his qualification – Bonifacio was neither educated nor a Caviteño himself. Daniel Tirona protested that Bonifacio's position, Director of Interior, should be occupied by a person with a lawyer's diploma; thus, he proposed a Caviteño lawyer, Jose del Rosario, for the position. Bonifacio's pride was affronted ego and he walked out of the assembly, after proclaiming the result of the convention null and invalid by virtue of his authority as Supremo. This started the rivalry between Bonifacio and Aguinaldo, and the decline of the Katipunan as an organization.


<references />

  • Guerrero, Amado. Philippine Society and revolution. 5th Edition. Aklat ng Bayan, 2006.
  • Ileto, Reynaldo C. Filipinos and their Revolution: Event, Discourse and Historiography. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1998.
  • Ileto, Reynaldo C. Pasyon and Revolution: Popular Movements in the Philippines, 1840-1910. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2003.
  • Kalaw, Maximo M. The Development of Philippine Politics (1872-1920).
  • Kalaw, Teodoro M. Ang Himagsikang Pilipino. Translated from English by Virgilio Almario. Manila: National Historical Institute, 1989.
  • Mabini, Apolinario. The Philippine Revolution Volume II. Translated from the original Spanish. Manila: NHI, 1969.



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