Tagalog language

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colspan="3" style="text-align: center; font-size:120%; color: {{
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default | white = white Afro-asiatic | yellow = yellow yellowgreen = yellowgreen lightblue = lightblue orchid = #eba9ee Austro-Asiatic | Austro-asiatic | lightcoral = lightcoral tomato = pink pink = tomato Caucasian = lightgreen conlang | constructed language | black = black creole = tan mediumspringgreen = mediumspringgreen lightcyan = lightcyan Hmong-Mien = #ff0033 lawngreen = lawngreen language isolate | Isolate | #dddddd = #dddddd goldenrod = goldenrod mixed = tan Na-Dené | deepskyblue = deepskyblue orange = orange gold = gold Palaeo-Siberian | Palaeo-siberian | Paleosiberian | Paleo-Siberian | Paleo-siberian = darkseagreen violet = #fd79da pidgin = tan sign | sign language | silver = silver lightgreen = lightgreen Sino-Tibetan = tomato lavender = lavender limegreen = limegreen

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silver {{
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default | white = white Afro-asiatic | yellow = yellow yellowgreen = yellowgreen lightblue = lightblue orchid = #eba9ee Austro-Asiatic | Austro-asiatic | lightcoral = lightcoral tomato = pink pink = tomato Caucasian = lightgreen conlang | constructed language | black = black creole = tan mediumspringgreen = mediumspringgreen lightcyan = lightcyan Hmong-Mien = #ff0033 lawngreen = lawngreen language isolate | Isolate | #dddddd = #dddddd goldenrod = goldenrod mixed = tan Na-Dené | deepskyblue = deepskyblue orange = orange gold = gold Palaeo-Siberian | Palaeo-siberian | Paleosiberian | Paleo-Siberian | Paleo-siberian = darkseagreen violet = #fd79da pidgin = tan sign | sign language | silver = silver lightgreen = lightgreen Sino-Tibetan = tomato lavender = lavender limegreen = limegreen

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default | white = white Afro-asiatic | yellow = yellow yellowgreen = yellowgreen lightblue = lightblue orchid = #eba9ee Austro-Asiatic | Austro-asiatic | lightcoral = lightcoral tomato = pink pink = tomato Caucasian = lightgreen conlang | constructed language | black = black creole = tan mediumspringgreen = mediumspringgreen lightcyan = lightcyan Hmong-Mien = #ff0033 lawngreen = lawngreen language isolate | Isolate | #dddddd = #dddddd goldenrod = goldenrod mixed = tan Na-Dené | deepskyblue = deepskyblue orange = orange gold = gold Palaeo-Siberian | Palaeo-siberian | Paleosiberian | Paleo-Siberian | Paleo-siberian = darkseagreen violet = #fd79da pidgin = tan sign | sign language | silver = silver lightgreen = lightgreen Sino-Tibetan = tomato lavender = lavender limegreen = limegreen

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Created by {{
 #if:{{#ifeq:{{
  1. switch:Austronesian
default | white = white Afro-asiatic | yellow = yellow yellowgreen = yellowgreen lightblue = lightblue orchid = #eba9ee Austro-Asiatic | Austro-asiatic | lightcoral = lightcoral tomato = pink pink = tomato Caucasian = lightgreen conlang | constructed language | black = black creole = tan mediumspringgreen = mediumspringgreen lightcyan = lightcyan Hmong-Mien = #ff0033 lawngreen = lawngreen language isolate | Isolate | #dddddd = #dddddd goldenrod = goldenrod mixed = tan Na-Dené | deepskyblue = deepskyblue orange = orange gold = gold Palaeo-Siberian | Palaeo-siberian | Paleosiberian | Paleo-Siberian | Paleo-siberian = darkseagreen violet = #fd79da pidgin = tan sign | sign language | silver = silver lightgreen = lightgreen Sino-Tibetan = tomato lavender = lavender limegreen = limegreen

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Signed Spoken}} in}}: colspan="{{
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default | white = white Afro-asiatic | yellow = yellow yellowgreen = yellowgreen lightblue = lightblue orchid = #eba9ee Austro-Asiatic | Austro-asiatic | lightcoral = lightcoral tomato = pink pink = tomato Caucasian = lightgreen conlang | constructed language | black = black creole = tan mediumspringgreen = mediumspringgreen lightcyan = lightcyan Hmong-Mien = #ff0033 lawngreen = lawngreen language isolate | Isolate | #dddddd = #dddddd goldenrod = goldenrod mixed = tan Na-Dené | deepskyblue = deepskyblue orange = orange gold = gold Palaeo-Siberian | Palaeo-siberian | Paleosiberian | Paleo-Siberian | Paleo-siberian = darkseagreen violet = #fd79da pidgin = tan sign | sign language | silver = silver lightgreen = lightgreen Sino-Tibetan = tomato lavender = lavender limegreen = limegreen

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default | white = white Afro-asiatic | yellow = yellow yellowgreen = yellowgreen lightblue = lightblue orchid = #eba9ee Austro-Asiatic | Austro-asiatic | lightcoral = lightcoral tomato = pink pink = tomato Caucasian = lightgreen conlang | constructed language | black = black creole = tan mediumspringgreen = mediumspringgreen lightcyan = lightcyan Hmong-Mien = #ff0033 lawngreen = lawngreen language isolate | Isolate | #dddddd = #dddddd goldenrod = goldenrod mixed = tan Na-Dené | deepskyblue = deepskyblue orange = orange gold = gold Palaeo-Siberian | Palaeo-siberian | Paleosiberian | Paleo-Siberian | Paleo-siberian = darkseagreen violet = #fd79da pidgin = tan sign | sign language | silver = silver lightgreen = lightgreen Sino-Tibetan = tomato lavender = lavender limegreen = limegreen

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Setting and usage Region
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default | white = white Afro-asiatic | yellow = yellow yellowgreen = yellowgreen lightblue = lightblue orchid = #eba9ee Austro-Asiatic | Austro-asiatic | lightcoral = lightcoral tomato = pink pink = tomato Caucasian = lightgreen conlang | constructed language | black = black creole = tan mediumspringgreen = mediumspringgreen lightcyan = lightcyan Hmong-Mien = #ff0033 lawngreen = lawngreen language isolate | Isolate | #dddddd = #dddddd goldenrod = goldenrod mixed = tan Na-Dené | deepskyblue = deepskyblue orange = orange gold = gold Palaeo-Siberian | Palaeo-siberian | Paleosiberian | Paleo-Siberian | Paleo-siberian = darkseagreen violet = #fd79da pidgin = tan sign | sign language | silver = silver lightgreen = lightgreen Sino-Tibetan = tomato lavender = lavender limegreen = limegreen

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Central & south Luzon

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Language extinction Total {{
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default | white = white Afro-asiatic | yellow = yellow yellowgreen = yellowgreen lightblue = lightblue orchid = #eba9ee Austro-Asiatic | Austro-asiatic | lightcoral = lightcoral tomato = pink pink = tomato Caucasian = lightgreen conlang | constructed language | black = black creole = tan mediumspringgreen = mediumspringgreen lightcyan = lightcyan Hmong-Mien = #ff0033 lawngreen = lawngreen language isolate | Isolate | #dddddd = #dddddd goldenrod = goldenrod mixed = tan Na-Dené | deepskyblue = deepskyblue orange = orange gold = gold Palaeo-Siberian | Palaeo-siberian | Paleosiberian | Paleo-Siberian | Paleo-siberian = darkseagreen violet = #fd79da pidgin = tan sign | sign language | silver = silver lightgreen = lightgreen Sino-Tibetan = tomato lavender = lavender limegreen = limegreen

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signers speakers}}}}: {{
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default | white = white Afro-asiatic | yellow = yellow yellowgreen = yellowgreen lightblue = lightblue orchid = #eba9ee Austro-Asiatic | Austro-asiatic | lightcoral = lightcoral tomato = pink pink = tomato Caucasian = lightgreen conlang | constructed language | black = black creole = tan mediumspringgreen = mediumspringgreen lightcyan = lightcyan Hmong-Mien = #ff0033 lawngreen = lawngreen language isolate | Isolate | #dddddd = #dddddd goldenrod = goldenrod mixed = tan Na-Dené | deepskyblue = deepskyblue orange = orange gold = gold Palaeo-Siberian | Palaeo-siberian | Paleosiberian | Paleo-Siberian | Paleo-siberian = darkseagreen violet = #fd79da pidgin = tan sign | sign language | silver = silver lightgreen = lightgreen Sino-Tibetan = tomato lavender = lavender limegreen = limegreen

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First language: 24 million

Second language: more than 65 million}}}}{{

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Ranking: 40}}
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default | white = white Afro-asiatic | yellow = yellow yellowgreen = yellowgreen lightblue = lightblue orchid = #eba9ee Austro-Asiatic | Austro-asiatic | lightcoral = lightcoral tomato = pink pink = tomato Caucasian = lightgreen conlang | constructed language | black = black creole = tan mediumspringgreen = mediumspringgreen lightcyan = lightcyan Hmong-Mien = #ff0033 lawngreen = lawngreen language isolate | Isolate | #dddddd = #dddddd goldenrod = goldenrod mixed = tan Na-Dené | deepskyblue = deepskyblue orange = orange gold = gold Palaeo-Siberian | Palaeo-siberian | Paleosiberian | Paleo-Siberian | Paleo-siberian = darkseagreen violet = #fd79da pidgin = tan sign | sign language | silver = silver lightgreen = lightgreen Sino-Tibetan = tomato lavender = lavender limegreen = limegreen

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  1. switch:Austronesian
default | white = white Afro-asiatic | yellow = yellow yellowgreen = yellowgreen lightblue = lightblue orchid = #eba9ee Austro-Asiatic | Austro-asiatic | lightcoral = lightcoral tomato = pink pink = tomato Caucasian = lightgreen conlang | constructed language | black = black creole = tan mediumspringgreen = mediumspringgreen lightcyan = lightcyan Hmong-Mien = #ff0033 lawngreen = lawngreen language isolate | Isolate | #dddddd = #dddddd goldenrod = goldenrod mixed = tan Na-Dené | deepskyblue = deepskyblue orange = orange gold = gold Palaeo-Siberian | Palaeo-siberian | Paleosiberian | Paleo-Siberian | Paleo-siberian = darkseagreen violet = #fd79da pidgin = tan sign | sign language | silver = silver lightgreen = lightgreen Sino-Tibetan = tomato lavender = lavender limegreen = limegreen

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 Malayo-Polynesian
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Meso Philippine
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               Tagalog
Tagalog}} Tagalog}} Tagalog}} Tagalog}} Tagalog}} Tagalog}} Tagalog}} Tagalog}} Tagalog}} Tagalog}} Tagalog}} Tagalog}} Tagalog}} {{
#ifexpr:{{#if:Tagalog|1|0}} and {{#if:{{#ifeq:{{
  1. switch:Austronesian
default | white = white Afro-asiatic | yellow = yellow yellowgreen = yellowgreen lightblue = lightblue orchid = #eba9ee Austro-Asiatic | Austro-asiatic | lightcoral = lightcoral tomato = pink pink = tomato Caucasian = lightgreen conlang | constructed language | black = black creole = tan mediumspringgreen = mediumspringgreen lightcyan = lightcyan Hmong-Mien = #ff0033 lawngreen = lawngreen language isolate | Isolate | #dddddd = #dddddd goldenrod = goldenrod mixed = tan Na-Dené | deepskyblue = deepskyblue orange = orange gold = gold Palaeo-Siberian | Palaeo-siberian | Paleosiberian | Paleo-Siberian | Paleo-siberian = darkseagreen violet = #fd79da pidgin = tan sign | sign language | silver = silver lightgreen = lightgreen Sino-Tibetan = tomato lavender = lavender limegreen = limegreen

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 Tagalog}}
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  1. ifexpr:{{#if:Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino (Commission on the Filipino language)|1|0}} and {{#if:{{#ifeq:{{
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default | white = white Afro-asiatic | yellow = yellow yellowgreen = yellowgreen lightblue = lightblue orchid = #eba9ee Austro-Asiatic | Austro-asiatic | lightcoral = lightcoral tomato = pink pink = tomato Caucasian = lightgreen conlang | constructed language | black = black creole = tan mediumspringgreen = mediumspringgreen lightcyan = lightcyan Hmong-Mien = #ff0033 lawngreen = lawngreen language isolate | Isolate | #dddddd = #dddddd goldenrod = goldenrod mixed = tan Na-Dené | deepskyblue = deepskyblue orange = orange gold = gold Palaeo-Siberian | Palaeo-siberian | Paleosiberian | Paleo-Siberian | Paleo-siberian = darkseagreen violet = #fd79da pidgin = tan sign | sign language | silver = silver lightgreen = lightgreen Sino-Tibetan = tomato lavender = lavender limegreen = limegreen

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Regulated by: Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino (Commission on the Filipino language) {{
#if:Philippines (in the form of Filipino)Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino (Commission on the Filipino language)
 
colspan="3" style="text-align: center; color: {{
  #if:{{#ifeq:{{
  1. switch:Austronesian
default | white = white Afro-asiatic | yellow = yellow yellowgreen = yellowgreen lightblue = lightblue orchid = #eba9ee Austro-Asiatic | Austro-asiatic | lightcoral = lightcoral tomato = pink pink = tomato Caucasian = lightgreen conlang | constructed language | black = black creole = tan mediumspringgreen = mediumspringgreen lightcyan = lightcyan Hmong-Mien = #ff0033 lawngreen = lawngreen language isolate | Isolate | #dddddd = #dddddd goldenrod = goldenrod mixed = tan Na-Dené | deepskyblue = deepskyblue orange = orange gold = gold Palaeo-Siberian | Palaeo-siberian | Paleosiberian | Paleo-Siberian | Paleo-siberian = darkseagreen violet = #fd79da pidgin = tan sign | sign language | silver = silver lightgreen = lightgreen Sino-Tibetan = tomato lavender = lavender limegreen = limegreen

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white black}}; background-color: {{
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black {{
  1. switch:Austronesian
default | white = white Afro-asiatic | yellow = yellow yellowgreen = yellowgreen lightblue = lightblue orchid = #eba9ee Austro-Asiatic | Austro-asiatic | lightcoral = lightcoral tomato = pink pink = tomato Caucasian = lightgreen conlang | constructed language | black = black creole = tan mediumspringgreen = mediumspringgreen lightcyan = lightcyan Hmong-Mien = #ff0033 lawngreen = lawngreen language isolate | Isolate | #dddddd = #dddddd goldenrod = goldenrod mixed = tan Na-Dené | deepskyblue = deepskyblue orange = orange gold = gold Palaeo-Siberian | Palaeo-siberian | Paleosiberian | Paleo-Siberian | Paleo-siberian = darkseagreen violet = #fd79da pidgin = tan sign | sign language | silver = silver lightgreen = lightgreen Sino-Tibetan = tomato lavender = lavender limegreen = limegreen

}}}}}};"|Official status

Official language of: Philippines (in the form of Filipino)
Regulated by: Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino (Commission on the Filipino language)}}}}
colspan="3" style="text-align: center; color: {{
#if:{{#ifeq:{{
  1. switch:Austronesian
default | white = white Afro-asiatic | yellow = yellow yellowgreen = yellowgreen lightblue = lightblue orchid = #eba9ee Austro-Asiatic | Austro-asiatic | lightcoral = lightcoral tomato = pink pink = tomato Caucasian = lightgreen conlang | constructed language | black = black creole = tan mediumspringgreen = mediumspringgreen lightcyan = lightcyan Hmong-Mien = #ff0033 lawngreen = lawngreen language isolate | Isolate | #dddddd = #dddddd goldenrod = goldenrod mixed = tan Na-Dené | deepskyblue = deepskyblue orange = orange gold = gold Palaeo-Siberian | Palaeo-siberian | Paleosiberian | Paleo-Siberian | Paleo-siberian = darkseagreen violet = #fd79da pidgin = tan sign | sign language | silver = silver lightgreen = lightgreen Sino-Tibetan = tomato lavender = lavender limegreen = limegreen

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default | white = white Afro-asiatic | yellow = yellow yellowgreen = yellowgreen lightblue = lightblue orchid = #eba9ee Austro-Asiatic | Austro-asiatic | lightcoral = lightcoral tomato = pink pink = tomato Caucasian = lightgreen conlang | constructed language | black = black creole = tan mediumspringgreen = mediumspringgreen lightcyan = lightcyan Hmong-Mien = #ff0033 lawngreen = lawngreen language isolate | Isolate | #dddddd = #dddddd goldenrod = goldenrod mixed = tan Na-Dené | deepskyblue = deepskyblue orange = orange gold = gold Palaeo-Siberian | Palaeo-siberian | Paleosiberian | Paleo-Siberian | Paleo-siberian = darkseagreen violet = #fd79da pidgin = tan sign | sign language | silver = silver lightgreen = lightgreen Sino-Tibetan = tomato lavender = lavender limegreen = limegreen

}}}}}};" |Language codes

ISO 639-1: {{
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tgl {{
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{{Infobox Language/{{

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Tagalog (pronunciation: [tɐˈgaːlog]) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. It is the largest of the Philippine languages in terms of the number of speakers.

Tagalog, as its de facto standardized counterpart, Filipino, is the principal language of the national News media|media in the Philippines. It is the primary language of public education. As Filipino, it is, along with English, a co-official language and the sole national language. Tagalog is widely used as a lingua franca throughout the country, and in overseas Filipino communities. However, while Tagalog may be prevalent in those fields, English, to varying degrees of fluency, is more prevalent in the fields of government and business.

Contents

History

The word Tagalog was derived from tagá-ílog, from tagá- meaning "native of" and ílog meaning "river", thus, it means "river dweller." There are no surviving written samples of Tagalog before the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century. Some say that all the written texts were burned by the first Spanish priest, claiming that they were demonic. Very little is known about the history of the language. However there is speculation among linguists that the ancestors of the Tagalogs originated, along with their Central Philippine cousins, from northeastern Mindanao or eastern Visayas.

The first known book to be written in Tagalog is the Doctrina Cristiana (Christian Doctrine) of 1593. It was written in Spanish and two versions of Tagalog; one written in Baybayin and the other in the Latin alphabet.

Throughout the 333 years of Spanish occupation, there have been grammars and dictionaries written by Spanish clergymen such as Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala by Pedro de San Buenaventura (Pila, Laguna, 1613), Vocabulario de la lengua tagala (1835) and Arte de la lengua tagala y manual tagalog para la adminstración de los Santos Sacramentos (1850).

Poet Francisco "Balagtas" Baltazar (1788-1862) is regarded as the foremost Tagalog writer. His most famous work is the early 19th-century Florante at Laura.

Tagalog in the world.

Outside the Philippines, the Tagalog language is usually limited to communication within ethnic Filipino groups. Light blue boxes indicate significant Filipino communities where Tagalog is spoken.

Classification

Tagalog is a Central Philippine language within the Austronesian language family. Being Malayo-Polynesian, it is related to other Austronesian languages such as Indonesian language|Indonesian, Malay language|Malay, Fijian language|Fijian, Maori language|Maori (of New Zealand), Hawaiian language|Hawaiian, Malagasy (of Madagascar), Samoan language|Samoan, Tahitian language|Tahitian, Chamorro language|Chamorro (of Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands), Tetum (of East Timor), and Paiwan language|Paiwan (of Taiwan).

It is closely related to the languages spoken in the Bicol and Visayas regions such as Bikol, Hiligaynon, Waray-Waray, and Cebuano.

Languages that have made significant contributions to Tagalog are Spanish, Min Nan|Min Nan Chinese, English, Malay language|Malay, Sanskrit language|Sanskrit (via Malay), Arabic language|Arabic (via Malay/Spanish), and Northern Philippine languages such as Kapampangan spoken on the island of Luzon.

Geographic distribution

The Tagalog homeland, or Katagalugan, covers roughly much of the central to southern parts of the island of Luzon - particularly in Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Metro Manila, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, and Rizal. Tagalog is also spoken natively by inhabitants living on the islands of Lubang, Marinduque, and the northern and eastern parts of Mindoro. According to the Philippine Census of 2000, 21,485,927 out of 76,332,470 Filipinos claimed Tagalog as their first language. An estimated 50 million Filipinos speak it in varying degrees of proficiency.

Predominantly Tagalog-speaking regions in the Philippines.

Tagalog speakers are to be found in other parts of the Philippines as well as throughout the world; it is the sixth most-spoken language in the United States.

Official status

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After weeks of study and deliberation, Tagalog was chosen by the National Language Institute, a committee composed of seven members who represents various regions in the Philippines. President Manuel L. Quezon then proclaimed Tagalog the national language or wikang pambansâ of the Philippines on December 30, 1937. This was made official upon the Philippines' restoration of independence from the United States on July 4, 1946.

From 1961 to 1987, Tagalog was also known as Pilipino. Since 1987, the name Filipino has been used to refer to a de facto Tagalog-based national language that borrows from other languages.

Since 1940, Tagalog has been taught in schools throughout the Philippines. It is the only one out of over 170 Philippine languages that is officially used in schools.

Dialects

At present, no comprehensive dialectology has been done in the Tagalog-speaking regions, though there have been descriptions in the form of dictionaries and grammars on various Tagalog dialects. Ethnologue lists Lubang, Manila, Marinduque, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Tanay-Paete, and Tayabas as dialects of Tagalog.

However, there appear to be four main dialects of which the aforementioned are a part; Northern (exemplified by the Bulacan species), Central (including Manila), Southern (having the Batangas dialect as of prime example), and Marinduque.

Some example of dialectal differences are:

  • Many Tagalog dialects, particularly those in the south, preserve the glottal stop found after consonants and before vowels. This has been lost in standard Tagalog. For example standard Tagalog ngayon (now, today), sinigang (stew), gabi (night), matamis (sweet), are pronounced and written ngay-on, sinig-ang, gab-i, and matam-is in other dialects.
  • In Morong Tagalog, [r] is usually preferred over [d]. For example, bundók, dagat, dingdíng, and isdâ become bunrok, ragat, ringring, and isra.
  • In many southern dialects, the progressive aspect prefix of -um- verbs is na-. For example, standard Tagalog kumakain (eating) is nákáin in Quezon and Batangas Tagalog. This is the butt of some jokes by other Tagalog speakers since a phrase such as nakain ka ba ng pating is interpreted as "did a shark eat you?" by those from Manila but in reality means "do you eat shark?" to those in the south.
  • Some dialects have interjections which are a considered a trademark of their region. For example, the interjection ala eh usually identifies someone from Batangas while as does hani in Morong.

Perhaps the most divergent Tagalog dialects are those spoken in Marinduque. Linguist Rosa Soberano identifies two dialects, western and eastern with the former being closer to the Tagalog dialects spoken in the provinces of Batangas and Quezon.

One example are the verb conjugation paradigms. While some of the affixes are different, Marinduque also preserves the imperative affixes, also found in Visayan and Bikol languages, that have mostly disappeared from most Tagalog dialects by the early 20th century; they have since merged with the infinitive.

Standard Tagalog: Susulat sina Maria at Fulgencia kay Juan.
Marinduque Tagalog: Másúlat da Maria at Fulgencia kay Juan.
"Maria and Fulgencia will write to Juan."

ST: Mag-aaral siya sa Ateneo.
EM: Gaaral siya sa Ateneo.
"He will study at Ateneo."

ST: Magluto ka!
EM: Pagluto ka!
"Cook!"

ST: Kainin mo iyan.
EM: Kaina mo yaan.
"Eat that."

ST: Tinatawag ngâ tayo ni Tatay.
EM: Inatawag nganì kitá ni Tatay.
"Father is calling us."

ST: Tutulungan ba kayó ni Hilarion?
EM: Atulungan ga kamo ni Hilarion?
"Will Hilarion help you (pl.)?"

Derived languages

Filipino, the national language of the Philippines, is the de facto standardized variant of this language. It has heavy borrowings from English. Other Philippine languages have also influenced Filipino, which is caused primarily by the migration to Metro Manila by people from the provinces. The language was also a basis of Simlish, a fictional language spoken by people in the videogame The Sims.

Taglish and code-switching

Taglish, along with its counterpart Englog, is the name given to a mix of English and Tagalog. The amount of English in Tagalog ranges from simple loan words to outright code-switching where the language changes in midsentence; this is prevalent throughout the Philippines and various Philippine languages.

Nasirà ang computer ko kahapon!
"My computer broke down yesterday!"

Huwág kang maninigarilyo, because it is harmful to your health.
"Never smoke cigarettes, ..."

Although it is generally looked down upon, code-switching is prevalent in all levels of society, though urban-dwellers, those with high education, and those born around and after World War II are more likely to do it. Politicians, such as President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, have code-switched in interviews.

It is common in television, radio, and print media as well. In the US, advertisements from companies like Wells Fargo, Wal-Mart, Albertsons, McDonald's, and Western Union have contained Taglish.

The Chinese and the non-Tagalog communities also frequently code-switch their language, be it Cebuano or Min Nan Chinese, with Taglish.

Sounds

Tagalog has 21 phonemes; 16 consonants and five vowels. Syllable structure is relatively simple. Each syllable contains at least a consonant and a vowel.

Vowels

Before the arrival of the Spanish, Tagalog had three vowel phonemes: /a/, /i/, and /u/. This was later expanded to five vowels with the introduction of Spanish words.

They are:

  • /a/ an open front unrounded vowel similar to English "father"
  • /ɛ/ an open-mid front unrounded vowel similar to English "bed"
  • /i/ a close front unrounded vowel similar to English "machine"
  • /o/ a close-mid back rounded vowel similar to English "forty"
  • /u/ a close back unrounded vowel similar to English "flute"

There are four main diphthongs; /aɪ/, /oɪ/, /aʊ/, and /iʊ/.

Consonants

Below is a chart of Tagalog consonants. All the stops are unaspirated. The velar nasal occurs in all positions including at the beginning of a word.

Bilabial Dental

[Palatal consonant|Palatal

Velar Glottal
Stop consonant|Stops Voiceless p t k - [ʔ]
Voiced b d g
Affricate consonant|Affricates Voiceless (ts, ty/tiy) [tʃ]
Voiced (dy/diy) [dʒ]
Fricative consonant|Fricatives s (sy/siy) [ʃ] h
Nasal consonant|Nasals m n (ny/niy) [ɲ] ng [ŋ]
Lateral consonant|Laterals l (ly/liy) [lj]
Flap consonant|Flaps r
Semivowels w j

Stress

Stress is phonemic in Tagalog. Primary stress occurs on either the last or the next-to-the-last (penultimate) syllable of a word. Vowel lengthening accompanies primary or secondary stress except when stress occurs at the end of a word. Stress on words is very important, they differentiate words with the same spellings, but with different meanings, e.g. tayo(to stand) and tayo(us; we)

Phonology

  • /a/ is raised slightly to [ɐ] in unstressed positions and also occasionally in stressed positions (‘inang bayan’ [in'ɐŋ 'bɐjən])
  • Unstressed /i/ is usually pronounced [ɪ] as in English "bit"
  • At the final syallable, /i/ can be pronounced as [ɪ ~ i ~ e ~ ɛ] as [e ~ ɛ] was an allophone of [ɪ ~ i] in final syllables.
  • /ɛ/ and /o/ can sometimes be pronounced as [i ~ ɪ ~ e] and [u ~ ʊ ~ ɔ]. [o~ ʊ ~ ɔ] and [u ~ ʊ] were also former allophones.
  • Unstressed /u/ is usually pronounced [ʊ] as in English "book"
  • The diphthong /aɪ/ and the sequence /aʔi/ have a tendency to become [eɪ ~ ɛː].
  • The diphthong /aʊ/ and the sequence /aʔu/ have a tendency to become [oʊ ~ ɔː].
  • /k/ between vowels has a tendency to become [x] as in Spanish "José", whereas in the initial position it has a tendency to become [kx].
  • Intervocalic /g/ and /k/ tend to become [ɰ] (see preceding).
  • /ɾ/ and /d/ are sometimes interchangeable as /ɾ/ and /d/ were once allophones in Tagalog.
  • A glottal stop that occurs at the end of a word is often omitted when it is in the middle of a sentence, especially in the Metro Manila area. The vowel it follows is then usually lengthened. However, it is preserved in many other dialects.
  • /o/ tends to become [ɔ] in stressed positions.
  • /niy/, /siy/, /tiy/, and /diy/ may be pronounced as [nj]/[nij], [sj]/[sij], [tj]/[tij] and [dj]/[dij], respectively, especially in but not limited to rural areas.
  • /ts/ may be pronounced as [ts], especially in but not limited to rural areas.
  • /e/ or /i/ before s-consonant clusters have a tendency to become silent.

Historical sound changes

Tagalog differs from its Central Philippine counterparts with its treatment of the Proto-Philippine schwa vowel . In Bikol & Visayan, this sound merged with /u/ and [o]. In Tagalog, it has merged with /i/. For example, Proto-Philippine *dəkət (adhere, stick) is Tagalog dikít and Visayan & Bikol dukot.

Proto-Philippine *r, *j, and *z merged with /d/ but is /l/ between vowels. Proto-Philippine *ngajan (name) and *hajək (kiss) became Tagalog ngalan and halík.

Proto-Philippine *R merged with /g/. *tubiR (water) and *zuRuʔ (blood) became Tagalog tubig and dugô.

Grammar

Further information: Tagalog grammar

Writing system

Copperplate

Further information: Laguna Copperplate Inscription

Baybayin

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Tagalog was written in an abugida called Baybayin prior to the arrival of the Spaniards in the 16th century. This particular writing system was composed of symbols representing three vowels and 14 consonants. Belonging to the Brahmic family of scripts, it shares similarities with the Old Kawi script of Javanese language|Java and is believed to be descended from the script used by the Bugis in Sulawesi.

Although it enjoyed a relatively high level of literacy, the script gradually fell into disuse in favor of the Latin alphabet during Spanish colonial rule.

There has been confusion of how to use Baybayin. Each letter in the Latin Alphabet is not represented with one of those in the Baybayin alphabet. Rather than letters being put together to make sounds as in Western languages. Baybayin uses symbols to represent syllables.

A "kudlit" (resembles an apostrophe)is used above or below a symbol to change the vowel sound after its consonant. If the kudlit is used above, the vowel is an "E" or "I" sound. If the Kudlit is used below, the vowel is an "O" or "U" sound. A special kudlit was later added that resembles a plus sign, that is placed below the symbol to rid of the vowel sound all together, leaving a consonant.

Example:

Ba Be Bo B (in Baybayin)

Baybayin is encoded in Unicode version 3.2 in the range 1700-171F under the name "Tagalog".

Latin alphabet

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