Roman Catholicism

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The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church is the Christian church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and spread by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter.

The Catholic Church is by far the largest Christian church and the largest organized body of any world religion. According to the Statistical Yearbook of the Church, the Catholic Church's worldwide recorded membership at the end of 2005 was 1,114,966,000, approximately one-sixth of the world's population.

The worldwide Catholic Church is made up of one Western or Latin and 22 Eastern Catholic particular churches, all of which look to the Bishop of Rome, alone or along with the College of Bishops, as their highest authority on earth for matters of faith, morals and church governance. It is divided into jurisdictional areas, usually on a territorial basis. The standard territorial unit, each of which is headed by a bishop, is called a diocese in the Latin church and an eparchy in the Eastern churches. At the end of 2006, the total number of all these jurisdictional areas was 2,782.


Roman Catholicism in the Philippines

The Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.

Ecclesiastical Territories

The administration of the Catholic Church in the Philippines is divided into sixteen Ecclesiastical Provinces, each bearing the same name as the archdiocese in it. The provinces are divided into 72 dioceses. Additionally, there are seven Apostolic Vicariates and a Military Ordinariate.


Apostolic Vicariates

Fiestas and religious holidays

Roman Catholic holy days, such as Christmas, Good Friday, etc. are observed as official national holidays. Spanish-Mexican Culture and Catholicism has significantly influenced culture and traditions. On the 3rd Sunday of January the country celebrates the festival of the Santo Niño de Cebú, the largest being held in Cebu City.

Missionary work

Evangelism was done in the native language. Doctrina Christiana is a book of prayers in Tagalog published in the 16th century. When, Miguel Lopez de Legaspi set up the colonial system beginning 1565, he implemented an encomienda system where a native could acquire land if he underwent baptism and registered as a Catholic. Massive conversion occurred at this time.

Spanish Catholicism

Church and state were inseparable. The government assumed administrative responsibility, funding expenditures and selecting personnel, for the new ecclesiastical establishments. Responsibility for conversion to Christianity was assigned to the Dominicans, Franciscans, and Augustinians, known collectively as the friars and to the Jesuits. Although many friars were from Spain, others were from New Spain or Mexico.

The Catholic hierarchy took over some government roles, especially in the rural areas . Although they were not completely diabolic, neither were they saints. The Friars were notorious for fathering children, overtaxing land, limiting native ascendency and refusing civil government interference since they were under 'God's jurisdiction'. Three famous priests were implicated in trumped up charges because they were struggling for native ascendency. Their execution left a deep impression and outrage on many people including a future martyr and national hero who sought to open the eyes of passive natives to Spanish abuses. They were not totally evil either. Friars have also interceded for Filipinos when Spanish military and civil government were too harsh and provided counseling and education. The Noli Me Tangere exposed actual abuses by the friarchy in its satire and was quickly condemned by both the Spanish government and religious authorities. The friars and Jesuits were responsible for establishing some of Asia's oldest Universities and educational institutions in the Philippines.

American Occupation

See also Separation of church and state in the Philippines.

The American government (1898-1946) implemented the separation of Church and state. Many American friars, Jesuits and other Catholic religious orders as well as Protestant denominations have settled established themselves. William Howard Taft fully implemented policies on the Church. Ironically, when Apolinario Mabini put to vote, church and state separation at the Malolos Congress of 1898, the separation won by only a slight margin despite strong anti-friarcy sentiments.

At this same time, due to sentiments for independence, independent churches emerged such as the Aglipayan Church (which later aligned themselves with the Anglicans) and the Iglesia Ni Cristo. This separation continues after independence in 1946 to the present day.

Catholic Charismatic Renewal

A number of Catholic Charismatic movements emerged vis-a-vis the Born-again movement during the 70s. The Charismatic movement offered Life-In-the-Spirit seminars in the early days which have now evolved and have different names. These seminars focus on the Charismas or gifts of the Holy Spirit.Some of the Charismatic movements were the Assumption Prayer Group, Couples For Christ and the El Shaddai. Charismatic movements profess to be ecumenical, similar to the evangelical and pentecostal Christians; in fact, many non-Catholic Christians also join this movement. Even though the movement is ecumenical, majority of its adherents are Catholics, in addition, leaders and speakers in these groups are sometimes Catholic priests.

Current events

As of 2005, the government promotes freedom and equality among all religions in the Philippines. However, most of the population (83%) are baptised Catholics, with 68% of the entire population attending church weekly [1]

The Catholic Church still has great influence on Philippine society and politics. One typical event is the role of the Catholic hierarchy is the EDSA Revolution of 1986. Then Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Manila, Jaime Cardinal Sin called on the public to march along EDSA and force dictator Ferdinand E. Marcos to abdicate which occurred after seven million people responed.

In 2001, Cardinal Sin expressed his dismay over the allegations of corruption against Philippine president Joseph Estrada. His call sparked the second EDSA Revolution dubbed as "EDSA Dos". Estrada resigned after 5 continuous days of protest.

On the death of Pope John Paul II in 2005, Philippine president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo declared three days of national mourning. Arroyo herself attended the Pope's funeral in the Vatican.

Recent political turmoil in the Philippines widened the rift between the state and the Church. Arroyo's press secretary Ignacio Bunye called the bishops and priests who attended an anti-Arroyo protest as hypocrites and 'people who hide their true plans'. Yet many still await Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines on this issue. Arroyo meanwhile professes to be a devout Catholic.


The Crucifix, a cross with corpus, a symbol used in Catholicism in contrast with some other Christian communions, which use only a cross.

The Church's catechesis makes use of the Nicene Creed and the Apostles' Creed, summaries of the main points of Catholic belief. The Catechism of the Catholic Church gives a "systematic presentation of the faith" and a "complete exposition of Catholic doctrine". [2] The Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, first published in 2005 and in English in 2006, is a more concise version of the Catechism, in question and answer form.

In addition to all of the main points of orthodox trinitarian Christianity, Catholics place particular importance on the Church as an institution founded by Jesus and kept from doctrinal error by the presence and guidance of the Holy Spirit, and as the font of salvation for humanity. The seven sacraments, of which the most important is the Eucharist, are of prime importance in obtaining salvation.

Scripture and Tradition

The principal sources for the teachings of the Catholic Church are the Sacred Scriptures (the Bible), Sacred Tradition, and Living Magisterium. In his 1943 encyclical letter, Divino Afflante Spiritu, Pope Pius XII encouraged Biblical scholars to study diligently the original languages of the books of the Bible (Hebrew, Greek, and Aramaic for the Old Testament; Greek for the New Testament) and other cognate languages, so as to arrive at a deeper and fuller knowledge of the meaning of these texts, stating that "the original text ... having been written by the inspired author himself, has more authority and greater weight than any even the very best translation, whether ancient or modern." [3] The canonical list of sacred books, and their contents, accepted by the Catholic Church are those as contained in the old Latin Vulgate edition. [4]

There is a variety of sources for knowledge of Sacred Tradition, taught by the Church to be originally passed from the apostles in the form of oral tradition. Many of the writings of the early Church Fathers reflect teachings of Sacred Tradition, such as apostolic succession.

Nature of God

Catholicism is monotheistic: it believes that God is one, eternal, all-powerful (omnipotent), all-knowing (omniscient), all-good (omnibenevolent), and omnipresent. God exists as distinct from and prior to his creation (that is, everything which is not God, and which depends directly on him for existence) and yet is still present intimately in his creation. In the First Vatican Council the Church taught that, while by the natural light of human reason God can be known in his works as origin and end of all created things, [5] God has also chosen to reveal himself and his will supernaturally in the ways indicated in the Letter to the Hebrews 1:1-2.

Catholicism is also Trinitarian: it believes that, while God is one in nature, essence, and being, this one God exists in three divine persons, each identical with the one essence, whose only distinctions are in their relations to one another: the Father's relationship to the Son, the Son's relationship to the Father, and the relations of both to the Holy Spirit, constitute the one God as a Trinity.

Catholics are baptized in the name (singular) of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit — not three gods, but one God subsisting in three Persons. While sharing in the one divine essence, the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are distinct, not simply three "masks" or manifestations of one Person. The faith of the church and of the individual Christian is based on a relationship with these three Persons of the one God.

The Catholic Church believes that God has revealed himself to humanity as Father to his only-begotten Son, who is in an eternal relationship with the Father: "No one knows the Son except the Father, just as no one knows the Father except the Son and those to whom the Son chooses to reveal Him [6]

Catholics believe that God the Son, the Divine Logos, the second of the three Persons of God, became incarnate as Jesus Christ, a human being, born of the Virgin Mary. He remained truly divine and was at the same time truly human. In what he said, and by how he lived, he taught all people how to live, and revealed God as Love, the giver of unmerited favours or Graces.

After Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection, his followers, foremost among them the Apostles, spread more and more extensively their faith with a vigour that they attributed to the presence of the Holy Spirit, the third of the three Persons of God, sent upon them by Jesus.

Original sin

Human beings, in Catholic belief, were originally created to live in union with God. Through the disobedience of the first humans, that relationship was broken and sin and death came into the world. [7] The Fall of Man left humans in a state called original sin, that is, separated from their original state of intimacy with God which carried into death through the idea of the individual human soul being immortal. But when Jesus came into the world, being both God and man, he was able through his sacrifice to reconcile humanity with God. By becoming one in Christ, through the church, humanity was once again capable of intimacy with God but also offered a much more amazing gift: participation in the divine life on Earth, which will reach its fullness in heaven in the beatific vision. The sacrament of baptism is the only means for the remission of original sin.

The church (Ecclesiology)

The Church is, as scripture states, "the body of Christ," [1] and Catholics teach that it is one united body of believers both in heaven and on earth. There is therefore only one true, visible and physical church, not several. And to this one church, originally founded by Jesus on Peter and the Apostles, Jesus gave a mandate to be the authoritative teacher and guardian of the faith. To transmit Christ's divine revelation, the apostles were given the mandate to "preach the Gospel," which they performed both orally and in writing, and which they preserved by leaving bishops as their successors. Thus, the Catechism states "the apostolic preaching, which is expressed in a special way in the inspired books, was to be preserved in a continuous line of succession until the end of time. This living transmission, accomplished in the Holy Spirit, is called Tradition, since it is distinct from Sacred Scripture, though closely connected to it." [8] The Church is also a fount of divine grace which is administered through the sacraments (see below). The Church claims infallibility in teaching the faith, based on Jesus' scriptural promises to remain with his church always, [9] and to maintain it in truth through the Holy Spirit. [10] Furthermore, Jesus promised divine protection to the teachings and judgments of the Apostles, [11] and those who succeeded them in their teaching office (i.e. the bishops). Moreover, Jesus set up the church as the final arbiter between all believers: [12] "And if he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the church; and if he refuses to listen even to the church, let him be to you as a Gentile and a tax-gatherer." [13] In this, it bases its doctrines both on the written Apostolic record, The New Testament, and upon the oral traditions passed down from the Apostles to their successors (the bishops) through the continuous witness of the church. [14] The Basilica of St. John Lateran, cathedral of the diocese of Rome and therefore of the Pope.

Section 8 of the Second Vatican Council's Decree on the Church, Lumen Gentium states that "the one Church of Christ which in the Creed is professed as one, holy, catholic and apostolic" subsists "in the Catholic Church, which is governed by the successor of Peter and by the bishops in communion with him." [15] (The term successor of Peter refers in to the Bishop of Rome, the Pope; see Petrine theory).

The Catechism of the Catholic Church, 85 states that authentic interpretation of the Word of God is entrusted to the living Magisterium of the Church, namely the bishops in communion with the successor of Saint Peter. [16] Catholic theology places the authoritative interpretation of Scripture in the hands of the consistent judgment of the Church down the ages (what has always and everywhere been taught) rather than the private judgment of the individual. The Magisterium does, however, encourage its flock to read Sacred Scripture.

According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, "the Church's first purpose is to be the sacrament of the inner union of men with God." Thus the Church's "structure is totally ordered to the holiness of Christ's members." [17]


The Church teaches that salvation to eternal life is God's will for all people, and that God grants it to sinners as a free gift, a grace, through the sacrifice of Christ. "With regard to God, there is no strict right to any merit on the part of man. Between God and us there is an immeasurable inequality, for we have received everything from him, our Creator." [18] It is God who justifies, that is, who frees from sin by a free gift of holiness (sanctifying grace, also known as habitual or deifying grace). We can either accept the gift God gives through faith in Jesus Christ [19] and through baptism, [20] or refuse it. Human cooperation is needed, in line with a new capacity to adhere to the divine will that God provides. [21] The faith of a Christian is not without works, otherwise it would be dead. [22] In this sense, "by works a man is justified, and not by faith alone," [23] and eternal life is, at one and the same time, grace and the reward given by God for good works and merits. [24] Faith, and subsequently works, are a result of God's grace - thus, it is only because of grace that the believer can be said to "merit" salvation.

The Church teaches that a person must be in a state of Sanctifying Grace at the moment of death in order to be saved. Sanctifying Grace is conferred at Baptism, and is lost when a soul commits a mortal sin. A mortal sin is a deliberate and serious transgression of God's law. Sanctifying Grace is regained when a person confesses his or her sin in the Sacrament of Penance. If a person repents of his or her sin before he or she dies but is unable to obtain the actual Sacrament of Penance before death due to reasons outside of the person's control, the person's sin is forgiven by nature of the person's desire to receive it.

The Roman Catholic Church teaches that through the graces Jesus won for humanity by sacrificing himself on the cross, salvation is possible even for those outside the visible boundaries of the Church. Christians and even non-Christians, if in life they respond positively to the grace and truth that God reveals to them through the mercy of Christ, may be saved (an attitude often referred to, in the case of non-Christians, as "baptism of desire"). This may sometimes include awareness of an obligation to become part of the Catholic Church. In such cases, "whosoever, therefore, knowing that the Catholic Church was made necessary by Christ, would refuse to enter or to remain in it, could not be saved." [25]

Catholic life

Catholics are obliged to endeavour to be true disciples of Jesus. They seek forgiveness of their sins and follow the example and teaching of Jesus. They believe that Jesus has provided seven sacraments which give Grace from God to the believer.

Unless a Catholic dies in unrepented mortal sin, which is remitted in the Sacrament of Penance or Reconciliation, it is believed that person has God's promise of inheriting eternal life. Before entering heaven, some undergo a purification, known as Purgatory.

Armenian-Rite concelebrated Divine Liturgy, "the eucharistic sacrifice, which is the fount and apex of the whole Christian life." [26]

Catholics believe that God works actively in the world. Catholics grow in grace through participation in the sacramental life of the Church, and through prayer, the work of mercy, and spiritual disciplines such as fasting and pilgrimage. The Catholic laity also grow in grace when they fulfill their secular duties and try to imbue society with Christian values by being a model of Christ and his teachings.

Prayer for others, even for enemies and persecutors is a Christian duty. [27] Catholics say there are four types of prayer: adoration, thanksgiving, contrition, and supplication. Catholics may address their requests for the intercession of others not only to people still in earthly life, but also to those in heaven, in particular the Virgin Mary and the other Saints. As Mother of Jesus, the Virgin Mary is also considered to be the spiritual mother of all Catholics.

Social teaching

Catholic teachings stress forgiveness, doing good for others, especially those most in need, and the sanctity of life. Catholics were pacifists in the earliest days of the church, as witnessed by the fact that Christians were forbidden to join the Roman army. This was part of the cause of their political persecution in the empire. [28] Today, however, only some Catholics hold that position, with various analyses of the "just war" theory more widely held. It should be noted that the purpose of the Catholic "just war" criteria is to prevent and limit war rather than to justify it. [29]

Capital punishment, though it has not been absolutely condemned by the Church, has come under increasing criticism by theologians and church leaders. Pope John Paul II, for instance, opposed capital punishment in all instances as being immoral, because there are other options for punishment and deterrence in the modern world. He, along with most other modern Catholic theologians, held that if capital punishment was ever moral—a position some dispute—it would only be justifiable when there was no other option for the protection of the lives of others. After four years of consultations with the world's Catholic bishops, John Paul II wrote that execution is only appropriate "in cases of absolute necessity: in other words, when it would not be possible otherwise to defend society. Today however, as a result of steady improvements in the organization of the penal system, such cases are very rare, if not practically non-existent." [30] This position is also held today by Avery Cardinal Dulles, Msgr. William Smith, Germain Grisez and other Catholic moral theologians.

Human life

Michelangelo's The Creation of Adam. Pope John Paul II taught that, "by means of his corporality, his masculinity and femininity, (man) becomes a visible sign of the economy of truth and love, which has its source in God himself." Michelangelo's The Creation of Adam. Pope John Paul II taught that, "by means of his corporality, his masculinity and femininity, (man) becomes a visible sign of the economy of truth and love, which has its source in God himself." [31]

The Catholic Church affirms the sanctity of all human life, from conception to natural death. The Church believes that each person is made in the "image and likeness of God," and that human life should not be weighed against other values such as economy, convenience, personal preferences, or social engineering. Therefore, the Church opposes activities that it believes destroy or devalue divinely created life, including euthanasia, eugenics and abortion.

According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2267, the traditional teaching of the Church does not exclude, presupposing full ascertainment of the identity and responsibility of the offender, recourse to the death penalty, when this is the only practicable way to defend the lives of human beings effectively against the aggressor. If, instead, bloodless means are sufficient to defend against the aggressor and to protect the safety of persons, public authority should limit itself to such means, because they better correspond to the concrete conditions of the common good and are more in conformity to the dignity of the human person. Today, in fact, given the means at the State's disposal to effectively repress crime by rendering inoffensive the one who has committed it, without depriving him definitively of the possibility of redeeming himself, cases of absolute necessity for suppression of the offender "today ... are very rare, if not practically non-existent" (John Paul II, Evangelium vitae 56).


The Catholic Church teaches that human life and human sexuality are both inseparable and sacred. [60] The Church teaches that Manichaeism, the belief that the spirit is good while the flesh is evil, is a heresy. Therefore, the Church does not teach that sex is sinful or an impairment to a grace-filled life. As God created the human body in his own image and likeness, and because he found everything he created to be "very good,"[61] then the human body and sex must likewise be good. The Catechism teaches that "the flesh is the hinge of salvation." [27] Indeed, the Church considers the expression of love between husband and wife to be a most elevated form of human activity, joining as it does, husband and wife in complete mutual self-giving, and opening their relationship to new life. “The sexual activity, in which husband and wife are intimately and chastely united with one another, through which human life is transmitted, is, as the recent Council recalled, ‘noble and worthy.’” [28] It is in cases in which sexual expression is sought outside sacramental marriage, or in which the procreative function of sexual expression within marriage is deliberately frustrated, that the Catholic Church expresses her grave moral concern.

Pope John Paul II's first major teaching was on the Theology of the Body. Over the course of five years he elucidated a vision of sex that was not only positive and affirming but was about redemption, not condemnation. He taught that by understanding God's plan for physical love we could understand "the meaning of the whole of existence, the meaning of life." [29] "The body, and it alone, is capable of making visible what is invisible: the spiritual and divine. It was created to transfer into the visible reality of the world the mystery hidden since time immemorial in God, and thus to be a sign of it." [30]

However the Church teaches that sexual activity outside of marriage is sinful because it violates the purpose of human sexuality to participate in the "conjugal act" before one is actually married. The conjugal act "aims at a deeply personal unity, a unity that, beyond union in one flesh, leads to forming one heart and soul" (Catechism 1643) since the marriage bond is to be a sign of the love between God and humanity (Catechism 1617).

The Church requires members to eschew masturbation, fornication, adultery, pornography, prostitution, rape, homosexual practices, [31] and contraception. [32] The procurement or assistance in abortion can carry the penalty of excommunication, [33] as a specific offence.

The Church has been criticized[citation needed] for its teaching on fidelity, sexual abstinence and its opposition to promoting the use of condoms as a strategy to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS, teen pregnancy, and STDs as counterproductive. However, the Church maintains that the promotion of abstinence is the only effective way to deal with the AIDS crisis.

Cardinal Javier Lozano Barragán, President of the Pontifical Council for Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers, has stated that Pope Benedict XVI asked his department to study the question of condom use as part of a broad look at several questions of bioethics. [34] However, the president of the Pontifical Council for the Family, Cardinal Alfonso López Trujillo, in an interview reported by Catholic News Agency on May 4, 2006, said that the Church "maintains unmodified the teaching on condoms", and added that the Pope had "not ordered any studies about modifying the prohibition on condom use." [35]

Prayer and Worship

In the Catholic Church, there is a distinction between Liturgy, which is the formal public and communal worship of the Church, and personal prayer or devotion, which may be public or private. The Liturgy is regulated by church authority and consists of the Sunday Eucharist (the Mass), the Sacraments, and the Liturgy of the Hours. All Catholics are expected to participate in the liturgical life of the Church, but personal prayer and devotions are entirely a matter of personal preference.


The Catholic Church is fundamentally liturgical in its public life of worship. Liturgy is derived from the Greek for "work of the people." The Second Vatican Council stated "for the liturgy, 'through which the work of our redemption is accomplished,' most of all in the divine sacrifice of the Eucharist, is the outstanding means whereby the faithful may express in their lives, and manifest to others, the mystery of Christ and the real nature of the true Church." [36]


Mass celebrated at the Grotto at Lourdes. The chalice is displayed immediately after the transubstantiation of the wine into the Blood of Christ.

Catholics see the Eucharist, often called the Mass, as the source and summit of the Christian life, and believe that the bread and wine brought to the altar are transformed through the power of the Holy Spirit into the true Body and the true Blood of Christ.


The Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1131 teaches: "The sacraments are efficacious signs of grace, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, by which divine life is dispensed to us. The visible rites by which the sacraments are celebrated signify and make present the graces proper to each sacrament. They bear fruit in those who receive them with the required dispositions."

According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1113, "The whole liturgical life of the Church revolves around the Eucharistic sacrifice and the sacraments. There are seven sacraments in the Church: Baptism, Confirmation or Chrismation, Eucharist, Penance, Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders, and Matrimony." For a discussion of St. Thomas Aquinas and the Biblical foundation of the Sacraments, go to Aquinas and the Sacraments.

Liturgy of the Hours

The Liturgy of the Hours, at least in the simple form of morning prayer and evening prayer, is the daily liturgy of all the Catholic faithful. It is intended as a communal experience, just as the Sunday Eucharist or the celebration of the other Sacraments, but is often recited by individiuals.

Devotional life/Personal Prayer

In addition to the liturgy of the Church there is a variety of spirtual practices, devotions, and pietistic practices that Catholics may participate in, either communally or individually.

Important examples are blessings (by which praise is given to God and his gifts are prayed for), consecrations of persons, and dedications of objects to the worship of God. Popular devotions are not strictly part of the liturgy, but if they are judged to be authentic, the Church encourages them. They include veneration of relics of saints, visits to sacred shrines, pilgrimages, processions (including Eucharistic processions), the Stations of the Cross (also known as the Way of the Cross), Holy Hours, Eucharistic Adoration, Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, and the Rosary.

Likewise, the great variety of Catholic spirituality enables individual Catholics to pray privately in many different ways. The fourth and last part of the Catechism thus summarized the Catholic's response to the mystery of faith: "This mystery, then, requires that the faithful believe in it, that they celebrate it, and that they live from it in a vital and personal relationship with the living and true God. This relationship is prayer."

See Also


  1. ^
  2. ^ Pope Pius XII.Divino Afflante Spiritu. Vatican. para. 16.
  3. ^ Council of Trent Session IV; here an "edition" should not be confused with a "translation"
  4. ^ Romans 1:20
  5. ^ Matthew 11:27
  6. ^ Romans 5:12
  7. ^ Ephesians 1:22-23; [! cf. Romans 12:4-5
  8. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 77–78
  9. ^ Matthew 28:20
  10. ^ John 14:16-17; John 14:26
  11. ^ Matthew 18:18; Luke 10:16
  12. ^ Matthew 18:17
  13. ^ 1 Timothy 3:15
  14. ^ Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity. Response of the Catholic Church to the Joint Declaration of the Catholic Church and the Lutheran World Federation on the Doctrine of Justification, 2–3. Vatican. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  15. ^ James 2:26
  16. ^ James 2:24
  17. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1987–2016
  18. ^ Pope Paul VI (November 1964).Lumen Gentium (Dogmatic Constitution on the Church), 14. Vatican. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  19. ^ Pope Paul VI (November 1964).Lumen Gentium (Dogmatic Constitution on the Church), 11. Vatican. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  20. ^ Matthew 5:44
  21. ^ Koch, Carl (January 1994). The Catholic Church. Saint Mary's Press. ISBN 0-88489-298-0.
  22. ^ Aquinas, Thomas.Of War (Four Articles), Q. 40. The Summa Theologica (Second Part of Second Part). Benzinger Brothers. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  23. ^ Pope John Paul II (March 1995).Evangelium Vitae. Vatican. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  24. ^ a b Pope John Paul II (20 February 1980). General Audience. Vatican. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  25. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2331–2400
  26. ^ Genesis 1:31
  27. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1015
  28. ^ "Humanae Vitae, no. 11"
  29. ^ Pope John Paul II (29 October 1980). General Audience, 6. L'Osservatore Romano. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  30. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church,2351–2357
  31. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church,2370
  32. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church,2272
  33. ^ Dickey, Christopher (May 2006).Catholics and Condoms. Newsweek. MSNBC. Retrieved on 2006-09-16.
  34. ^ Church 'will not budge one inch' on issue of condom use, says Cardinal Lopez Trujillo. Catholic News Agency (May 2006). Retrieved on 2006-09-16.
  35. ^ Pope Paul VI (December 1963).Sacrosanctum Concilium, 2. Vatican. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.;
  36. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2351–2357
  37. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church,2370

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