Republic Act No. 9522

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Republic Act No. 9522, also known as the Philippine Archipelagic Baselines Law, is a law amending certain provisions of Republic Act No. 3046, entitled "An Act to Define the Baselines of the Territorial Sea of the Philippines," as amended by Section 1 of Republic Act No. 5446. The law, which was approved by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on 10 March 2009, specifically defines the archipelagic baselines of the Philippines by clearly establishing the 101 basepoints of the archipelago and the locations and specific geographical coordinates of each, as well as the distances between them. It also declares that the country exercises sovereignty and jurisdiction over the Kalayaan Island Group, which was constituted under Presidential Decree No. 1596, and the Bajo de Masinloc, also known as the Scarborough Shoal. The baseline in the following areas shall be determined as “Regime of Islands” under the Philippines consistent with Article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).

The National Mapping and Resource Information Authority (NAMRIA) will be the one responsible in producing and publishing charts and maps clearly representing the delineation of basepoints and baselines of the archipelago.

The Baselines Law was passed to beat the deadline of UNCLOS. Article 57 or the Breadth of the exclusive economic zone of UNCLOS states that a country's 200-nautical-mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is determined to extend outward from that country's baselines.

The baselines of the Philippine archipelago are defined and described specifically as follows:

Basepoint Number Station Name Location Latitude (N) Longitude (E) Distance to next basepoint (M)
1 PAB-01 Amianan Is. 21º6’57.73" 121º57’27.71" 70.08
2 PAB-02 Balintang Is. 19º57’38.19" 122º9’46.32" 99.17
3 PAB-04 Iligan Pt. 18º18’35.30" 122º20’19.07" 71.83
4 PAB-05A Ditolong Pt. 17º7’16.30" 122º31’28.34" 1.05
5 PAB-05B Ditolong Pt. 17º6’14.79" 122º31’43.84" 0.39
6 PAB-05 Ditolong Pt. 17º5’51.31" 122º31’42.66" 3.29
7 PAB-06 Spires Is. 17º2’36.91" 122º31’3.28" 9.74
8 PAB-06B Digollorin Pt. 16º53’18.03" 122º27’56.61" 3.51
9 PAB-06C Digollorin Rk. 16º49’56.11" 122º26’50.78" 2.40
10 PAB-07 Diviuisa Pt. 16º47’38.86" 122º26’4.40" 30.94
11 PAB-08 Dijohan Pt. 16º18’44.33" 122º14’16.69" 116.26
12 PAB-10A Tinaga Is. 14º29’54.43" 122º57’51.15" 80.29
13 PAB-11 Horodaba Rk. 14º6’29.91" 124º16’59.21" 0.54
14 PAB-12 Matulin Rk. 14º6’10.40" 124º17’26.28" 96.04
15 PAB-13 Atalaya Pt. 12º41’6.37" 125º3’53.71" 6.79
16 PAB-13A Bacan Is. 12º36’18.41" 125º8’50.19" 5.52
17 PAB-14 Finch Rk. 12º32’33.62" 125º12’59.70" 0.80
18 PAB-14A Cube Rk. 12º31’57.45" 125º13’32.37" 4.90
19 PAB-14D NW Manjud Pt. 12º28’36.42" 125º17’12.32" 1.30
20 PAB-15 SE Manjud Pt. 12º27’37.51" 125º18’5.23" 7.69
21 PAB-16A E Sora Cay 12º21’41.64" 125º23’7.41" 5.68
22 PAB-16B Panablijon 12º17’27.17" 125º27’0.12" 5.21
23 PAB-16C Alugon 12º13’21.95" 125º30’19.47" 1.94
24 PAB-16D N Bunga Pt. 12º11’48.16" 125º31’30.88" 0.54
25 PAB-17A E Bunga Pt. 12º11’20.67" 125º31’48.29" 5.71
26 PAB-18A SE Tubabao Is. 12º6’7.00" 125º34’11.94" 83.84
27 PAB-19C Suluan Is. 10º45’16.70" 125º58’8.78" 56.28
28 PAB-19D N Tuason Pt. 9º49’59.58" 126º10’6.39" 57.44
29 PAB-20A Arangasa Is. 8º53’16.62" 126º20’48.81" 40.69
30 PAB-21B Sanco Pt. 8º13’11.53" 126º28’53.25" 30.80
31 PAB-22 Bagoso Is 7º42’45.02" 126º34’29.03" 12.95
32 PAB-22C Languyan 7º29’49.47" 126º35’59.24" 0.54
33 PAB-23 Languyan 7º29’16.93" 126º35’59.50" 0.76
34 PAB-23B Languyan 7º28’30.97" 126º35’57.30" 1.02
35 PAB-23C N Baculin Pt. 7º27’29.42" 126º35’51.71" 10.12
36 PAB-24 Pusan Pt. 7º17’19.80" 126º36’18.16" 1.14
37 PAB-24A S Pusan Pt. 7º16’14.43" 126º35’57.20" 63.28
38 PAB-25B Cape San Agustin 6º17’14.73" 126º12’14.40" 1.28
39 PAB-25 Cape San Agustin 6º16’8.35" 126º11’35.06" 67.55
40 PAB-26 SE Sarangani Is. 5º23’34.20" 125º28’42.11" 0.43
41 PAB-27 Panguil Bato Pt. 5º23’21.80" 125º28’19.59" 3.44
42 PAB-28 Tapundo Pt. 5º21’55.66" 125º25’11.21" 3.31
43 PAB-29 W Calia Pt. 5º21’58.48" 125º21’52.03" 0.87
44 PAB-30 Manamil Is. 5º22’2.91" 125º20’59.73" 1.79
45 PAB-31 Marampog Pt. 5º23’20.18" 125º19’44.29" 78.42
46 PAB-32 Pola Pt. 6º9’8.44" 124º15’42.81" 122.88
47 PAB-33A Kauluan Is 6º26’47.22" 122º13’34.50" 29.44
48 PAB-34A Tongquil Is. 6º2’33.77" 121º56’36.20" 2.38
49 PAB-35 Tongquil Is 6º1’8.15" 121º54’41.45" 1.72
50 PAB-35A Tongquil Is. 6º0’17.88" 121º53’11.17" 85.94
51 PAB-38A Kinapusan Is 5º12’8.70" 120º41’38.14" 55.24
52 PAB-39 Manuk Manka Is. 4º47’39.24" 119º51’58.08" 43.44
53 PAB-40 Frances Reef 4º24’53.84" 119º14’50.71" 0.61
54 PAB-40A Frances Reef 4º25’3.83" 119º14’15.15" 15.48
55 PAB-41A Bajapa Reef 4º36’9.01" 119º3’22.75" 6.88
56 PAB-42A Paguan Is. 4º42’52.07" 119º1’44.04" 3.40
57 PAB-43 Alice Reef 4º45’55.25" 119º3’15.19" 2.28
58 PAB-44 Alice Reef 4º47’5.36" 119º5’12.94" 18.60
59 PAB-45 Omapoy Rk. 4º55’10.45" 119º22’1.30" 23.37
60 PAB-46 Bukut Lapis Pt. 5º2’23.73" 119º44’18.14" 44.20
61 PAB-47 Pearl Bank 5º46’35.15" 119º39’51.77" 75.17
62 PAB-48 Baguan Is. 6º5’58.41" 118º26’57.30" 8.54
63 PAB-48A Taganak Is 6º4’14.08" 118º18’33.33" 13.46
64 PAB-49 Great Bakkungaan Is. 6º11’4.65" 118º6’54.15" 3.97
65 PAB-50 Lihiman Is. 6º13’39.90" 118º3’52.09" 5.53
66 PAB-51 Sibaung Is. 6º17’43.99" 118º0’5.44" 41.60
67 PAB-52 Muligi Is. 6º52’14.53" 118º23’40.49" 75.06
68 PAB-53 South Mangsee Is. 7º30’26.05" 117º18’33.75" 26.00
69 PAB-54 Balabac Is. 7º48’30.69" 116º59’39.18" 6.08
70 PAB-54A Balabac Great Reef 7º51’27.17" 116º54’17.19" 1.18
71 PAB-54B Balabac Great Reef 7º52’19.86" 116º53’28.73" 2.27
72 PAB-55 Balabac Great Reef 7º54’36.35" 116º53’16.64" 7.42
73 PAB-60 Ada Reef 8º2’0.26" 116º54’10.04" 10.85
74 PAB.61 Secam Is. 8º11’18.36" 116º59’51.87" 30.88
75 PAB-62 Latud Pt. 8º37’56.37" 117º15’51.23" 7.91
76 PAB-63 SW Tatub Pt. 8º44’17.40" 117º20’39.37" 11.89
77 PAB-63A W Sicud Pt. 8º53’32.20" 117º28’15.78" 13.20
78 PAB-64 Tarumpitao Pt. 9º2’57.47" 117º37’38.88" 81.12
79 PAB.64B Dry Is. 9º59’22.54" 118º36’53.61" 82.76
80 PAB-65C Binangonan Pt. 11º13’19.82" 119º15’17.74" 74.65
81 PAB-67 Pinnacle Rk. 12º19’35.22" 119º50’56.00" 93.88
82 PAB-68 Cabra Is 13º53’21.45" 120º1’5.86" 115.69
83 PAB-71 Hermana Mayor Is. 15º48’43.61" 119º46’56.09" 9.30
84 PAB-72 Tambobo Pt. 15º57’51.67" 119º44’55.32" 12.06
85 PAB-73B Rena Pt. 16º9’57.90" 119º45’15.76" 0.25
86 PAB-73 Rena Pt. 16º10’12.42" 119º45’11.95" 6.43
87 PAB-74 Rocky Ledge 16º16’34.46" 119º46’19.50" 0.65
88 PAB-74A Piedra Pt. 16º17’12.70" 119º46’28.52" 1.30
89 PAB-75 Piedra Pt. 16º18’29.49" 119º46’44.94" 1.04
90 PAB-75C Piedra Pt. 16º19’28.20" 119º47’7.69" 0.63
91 PAB-75D Piedra Pt. 16º20’4.38" 119º47’20.48" 80.60
92 PAB-76 Dile Pt. 17º34’24.94" 120º20’33.36" 6.86
93 PAB-77 Pinget Is. 17º41’17.56" 120º21’2.02" 14.15
94 PAB-78 Badoc Is. 17º55’4.13" 120º24’40.56" 35.40
95 PAB-79 Cape Bojeador 18º29’32.42" 120º33’42.41" 1.77
96 PAB-79B Bobon 18º30’52.88" 120º34’55.35" 53.23
97 PAB-80 Calagangan Pt. 19º10’14.78" 121º12’52.64" 98.07
98 PAB-82 Itbayat Is. 20º43’15.74" 121º46’57.80" 25.63
99 PAB-83 Amianan Is. 21º7’17.47" 121º56’43.85" 0.08
100 PAB-84 Amianan Is. 21º7’18.41" 121º56’48.79" 0.25
101 PAB-85 Amianan Is. 21º7’12.04" 121º57’3.65" 0.44
  • Note: The Latitude (N) and Longitude (E) of locations are based on the World Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS 84) Coordinates.

Contents

Criticism

Critics claimed that the said law “weakens” the country's territorial claims to parts of the contested Spratly Islands. Because it was said that it redefined the country's internal waters into “archipelagic” waters, University of the Philippines (UP) professors and international law experts Merlin Magallona and Harry Roque Jr. said that the law practically states that foreign vessels have right of innocent passage through “archipelagic” waters. They also raised concerns about the ecological impact of the law since it allows foreign vessels even those that might contain nuclear substances to pass through the Philippine territory.

According to Magallona and Roque, the Baselines Law also changed the boundaries of Philippine territory from a rectangular-shaped one (with 600 by 1,200 nautical miles) to a triangular one. In effect, around 15,000 nautical square miles of the country's territory are left out.

References

External links

Citation

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