Difference between revisions of "Philippines"

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{{about|the country in Southeast Asia|the town in the Netherlands|Philippine (Netherlands)}}
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{{pp-semi|small=yes}}
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{{about|the country in Southeast Asia|the town in the Netherlands|Philippine (Netherlands)}}  
 
{{Infobox Country
 
{{Infobox Country
|native_name = {{lang|fil|Repúbliká ng̃ Pilipinas}}
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|native_name = ''Republika ng Pilipinas''
 
|conventional_long_name = Republic of the Philippines
 
|conventional_long_name = Republic of the Philippines
 
|common_name = the Philippines
 
|common_name = the Philippines
 
|image_flag = Flag of the Philippines.png
 
|image_flag = Flag of the Philippines.png
|image_coat = Coat_of_Arms_of_the_Philippines.png
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|image_coat = Coat of Arms of the Philippines.png
|national_motto = "Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan, at Makabansa"<br /><small>
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|national_motto = ''Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan, at Makabansa''<ref name=ra8491>{{cite web |url=http://www.gov.ph/aboutphil/RA8491.asp |title=Republic Act No. 8491 |accessdate=2008-09-30}}</ref><br /><small>
[[English language|English]]: "For God, People, Nature, and Country" <ref name=ra8491>{{cite web |url=http://www.gov.ph/aboutphil/RA8491.asp |title=Republic Act No. 8491 |accessdate=2008-09-30}}</ref></small>
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("For God, People, Nature, and Country") </small>
 
|image_map = Map_of_Philippines.png
 
|image_map = Map_of_Philippines.png
|national_anthem = "[[Lupang Hinirang]]"<br /><small>(English: "Chosen Land")</small>
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|national_anthem = ''[[Lupang Hinirang]]''<br /><small>("Chosen Land")</small>
|official_languages = [[Filipino language|Filipino]], and [[English language|English]]
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|official_languages = [[Filipino language|Filipino]], [[English language|English]]
|auxiliary_languages = [[Spanish language|Spanish]], [[Arabic language|Arabic]] (see footnote)
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|auxiliary_languages = [[Spanish language|Spanish]], and [[Arabic language|Arabic]].
 
|languages_type = [[National language]]
 
|languages_type = [[National language]]
 
|languages = [[Filipino language|Filipino]]
 
|languages = [[Filipino language|Filipino]]
|regional_languages = [[Tagalog language|Tagalog]], [[Bikol language|Bikol]], [[Cebuano language|Cebuano]], [[Ilokano language|Ilocano]], [[Hiligaynon language|Hiligaynon]], [[Kapampangan language|Kapampangan]], [[Pangasinan language|Pangasinan]], and [[Waray-Waray language|Waray-Waray]] <ref name="About"/>
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|regional_languages = [[Bikol language|Bikol]], [[Cebuano language|Cebuano]], [[Ilokano language|Ilocano]], [[Hiligaynon language|Hiligaynon]], [[Kapampangan language|Kapampangan]], [[Pangasinan language|Pangasinan]], [[Tagalog language|Tagalog]], and [[Waray-Waray language|Waray-Waray]].<ref name="About"/>  
 
|demonym = [[Filipino people|Filipino]], [[Pinoy]] <!---"Philippine" is not a demonym, because it does not refer to the people of the Philippines, only used in a geographic context--->
 
|demonym = [[Filipino people|Filipino]], [[Pinoy]] <!---"Philippine" is not a demonym, because it does not refer to the people of the Philippines, only used in a geographic context--->
|ethnic_groups = [[Aeta]] · [[Ati (tribe)|Ati]] · [[Bajau]] · [[Bicolano people|Bicolano]] · [[Ibanag]] · [[Igorot]] · [[Ilocano people|Ilocano]] · [[Ivatan]] · [[Kapampangan people|Kapampangan]] · [[Lumad]] · [[Mangyan]] · [[Moro (ethnic group)|Moro]] · [[Tribes of Palawan|Palawan tribes]] · [[Pangasinan people|Pangasinan]]· [[Sambal]] · [[Tagalog people|Tagalog]] · [[Visayans]] · [[Filipino Chinese|Chinese]] · [[European ethnic groups|European]] · [[Spanish settlement in the Philippines|Spanish]] · [[Filipino Mestizo|Mestizo]] · [[Chabacano]]/[[Zamboangueño]]
 
 
|capital = [[Manila]]
 
|capital = [[Manila]]
 
|latd=14 |latm=35 |latNS=N |longd=121 |longm=0 |longEW=E
 
|latd=14 |latm=35 |latNS=N |longd=121 |longm=0 |longEW=E
 
|largest_city = [[Quezon City]] <!-- Although [[Davao City]] has the largest land area, the article on [[largest city]] says we should refer to the most populous city, which as of 2006 is [[Quezon City]]. See the discussion page for more information. Changing this information without citation would be reverted.-->
 
|largest_city = [[Quezon City]] <!-- Although [[Davao City]] has the largest land area, the article on [[largest city]] says we should refer to the most populous city, which as of 2006 is [[Quezon City]]. See the discussion page for more information. Changing this information without citation would be reverted.-->
|government_type = [[Unitary]] [[Presidential system|presidential]] [[Constitutional republic|constitutional]] [[republic]]
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|government_type = [[Unitary state|Unitary]] [[Presidential system|presidential]] [[Constitutional republic|constitutional]] [[republic]]
 
|leader_title1 = [[President of the Philippines|President]]
 
|leader_title1 = [[President of the Philippines|President]]
|leader_name1 = [[Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo]]
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|leader_name1 = [[Benigno Simeon Aquino III]]
 
|leader_title2 = [[Vice President of the Philippines|Vice President]]
 
|leader_title2 = [[Vice President of the Philippines|Vice President]]
|leader_name2 = [[Noli de Castro]]
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|leader_name2 = [[Jejomar Binay]]
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|leader_title3= [[President of the Senate of the Philippines|Senate President]]
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|leader_name3=[[Juan Ponce Enrile]]
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|leader_title4=[[Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives|House Speaker]]
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|leader_name4=[[Feliciano Belmonte, Jr.]]
 +
|leader_title5= [[Supreme Court of the Philippines|Supreme Court Chief Justice]]
 +
|leader_name5=[[Renato Corona]]  
 
|area_km2 = 300,000
 
|area_km2 = 300,000
 
|area_footnote = <ref name=CIAfactbook />
 
|area_footnote = <ref name=CIAfactbook />
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|area_magnitude = 1 E11
 
|area_magnitude = 1 E11
 
|percent_water = 0.61%<ref name=CIAfactbook />
 
|percent_water = 0.61%<ref name=CIAfactbook />
|population_estimate = 90.5 million<ref name=population />
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|population_estimate = 92.34 million<ref name=population />
|population_estimate_year = 2008
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|population_estimate_year = 2010
 
|population_estimate_rank = 12th
 
|population_estimate_rank = 12th
|population_census = 88,574,614 <ref>{{Citation
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|population_census = 92,337,852 <ref>{{Citation
|url=http://www.census.gov.ph/data/pressrelease/2008/pr0830tx.html
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|url=http://census.gov.ph/data/pressrelease/2012/pr1227tx.html
 
|title=Official population count reveals...
 
|title=Official population count reveals...
 
|publisher=National Statistics Office, Republic of the Philippines
 
|publisher=National Statistics Office, Republic of the Philippines
 
|year=2008
 
|year=2008
 
|accessdate=2008-04-17}}</ref>
 
|accessdate=2008-04-17}}</ref>
|population_census_year = 2007
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|population_census_year = 2010
 
|population_density_km2 = 295
 
|population_density_km2 = 295
 
|population_density_sq_mi = 765<!--Do not remove per [[WP:MOSNUM]]-->
 
|population_density_sq_mi = 765<!--Do not remove per [[WP:MOSNUM]]-->
 
|population_density_rank = 32nd
 
|population_density_rank = 32nd
|GDP_PPP_year = 2007
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|GDP_PPP_year = 2008
|GDP_PPP = $497.673 billion<ref name=IMF2006 />
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|GDP_PPP = $320.384 billion<ref name=imf2>{{cite web|url=http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=566&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=41&pr.y=18 |title=Philippines|publisher=International Monetary Fund|accessdate=2009-04-22}}</ref> <!--Do not edit!-->
 
|GDP_PPP_rank =
 
|GDP_PPP_rank =
|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $5,102<ref name=IMF2006/>
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|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $3,546<ref name=imf2/> <!--Do not edit!-->
 
|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank =
 
|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank =
|GDP_nominal = $144.062 billion<ref name=IMF2006/>
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|GDP_nominal = $168.580 billion<ref name=imf2/> <!--Do not edit!-->
 
|GDP_nominal_rank =
 
|GDP_nominal_rank =
|GDP_nominal_year = 2007
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|GDP_nominal_year = 2008
|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $1,626<ref name=IMF2006/>
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|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $1,866<ref name=imf2/> <!--Do not edit!-->
 
|GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank =
 
|GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank =
 
|HDI_year = 2007/2008
 
|HDI_year = 2007/2008
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|title=Philippines — The Human Development Index - going beyond income
 
|title=Philippines — The Human Development Index - going beyond income
 
|publisher=United Nations Development Programme
 
|publisher=United Nations Development Programme
|year=2007/2008
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|year=2007/2008  
 
|accessdate=2007-12-14}}</ref>
 
|accessdate=2007-12-14}}</ref>
 
|HDI_rank = 90th
 
|HDI_rank = 90th
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|sovereignty_note = from Spain <br /> from United States
 
|sovereignty_note = from Spain <br /> from United States
 
|established_event1 = [[Spanish East Indies|Established]]
 
|established_event1 = [[Spanish East Indies|Established]]
|established_date1 = 1565
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|established_date1 = April 27, 1565  
 
|established_event2 = [[Philippine Declaration of Independence|Declared]]
 
|established_event2 = [[Philippine Declaration of Independence|Declared]]
|established_date2 = June 12, 1898
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|established_date2 = June 12, 1898  
|established_event3 = [[Tydings-McDuffie Act|Self-government]]
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|established_event3 = [[Tydings-McDuffie Act|Recognized]]
|established_date3 = March 24, 1934
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|established_date3 = March 24, 1934  
|established_event4 = [[Treaty of Manila (1946)|Independence recognized]]
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|established_event4 = [[Treaty of Manila (1946)|Attained]]
 
|established_date4 = July 4, 1946
 
|established_date4 = July 4, 1946
 
|established_event5 = [[Constitution of the Philippines|Current constitution]]
 
|established_event5 = [[Constitution of the Philippines|Current constitution]]
 
|established_date5 = February 2, 1987
 
|established_date5 = February 2, 1987
|currency = [[Philippine peso|Peso]] (Filipino: {{lang|fil|piso}} [[Image:PhilippinePeso.svg|12px]])
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|currency = [[Philippine peso|Peso]] (Filipino: {{lang|fil|peso}} [[Image:PhilippinePeso.svg|12px]])
 
|currency_code = PHP
 
|currency_code = PHP
|time_zone = [[Philippine Time|PHT]]
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|time_zone = [[Philippine Standard Time|PST]]
 
|utc_offset = +8
 
|utc_offset = +8
|time_zone_DST =
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|time_zone_DST = ''not observed''
|utc_offset_DST =
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|utc_offset_DST = +0
|cctld = [[.ph]], [[.edu]], [[.tv]]
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|date_format =
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|drives_on = right<ref>{{Citation
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|url=http://www.brianlucas.ca/roadside/
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|title=Which side of the road do they drive on?
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|accessdate=2009-02-22|publisher=}}</ref>
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|cctld = [[.ph]]
 
|calling_code = 63
 
|calling_code = 63
 
|ISO_3166-1_alpha2 = PH
 
|ISO_3166-1_alpha2 = PH
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|footnote2 = Rankings above were taken from associated Wikipedia pages as of December, 2007, and may be based on data or data sources other than those appearing here.
 
|footnote2 = Rankings above were taken from associated Wikipedia pages as of December, 2007, and may be based on data or data sources other than those appearing here.
 
}}
 
}}
The '''Philippines''' ([[Filipino language|Filipino]]: Pilipinas, officially known as the '''Republic of the Philippines''', Filipino: {{lang|fil|Republika ng Pilipinas}}), is an [[island country]] located in [[Southeast Asia]] with [[Manila]] as its capital city. The Philippines comprises 7,107 islands in the western Pacific Ocean, sharing maritime borders with [[Indonesia]], [[Malaysia]], [[Palau]], the [[Republic of China]] (Taiwan), and [[Vietnam]]. The Philippines is [[List of countries by population|the world's 12th most populous country]] with a population of 90 million people.<ref name=population>{{Citation
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The '''Philippines''', officially known as the '''Republic of the Philippines''', is a country in [[Southeast Asia]] with [[Manila]] as its capital city. It comprises 7,107 islands<ref name=GeneralInfo>[http://www.gov.ph/aboutphil/general.asp Philippines : General Information], Government of the Philippines</ref> in the [[western Pacific Ocean]].
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The Philippines is [[List of countries by population|the world's 12th most populous country]], with a population of about 90 million people.<ref name=population>{{Citation
 
|url=http://www.census.gov.ph/data/sectordata/popproj_tab1r.html
 
|url=http://www.census.gov.ph/data/sectordata/popproj_tab1r.html
 
|title=2000 Census-based Population Projection
 
|title=2000 Census-based Population Projection
 
|publisher=National Statistics Office, Republic of the Philippines
 
|publisher=National Statistics Office, Republic of the Philippines
 
|year=2006
 
|year=2006
|accessdate=2008-04-17}}</ref><ref name=IMF2006>{{cite web|url=http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2008/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=80&pr.y=19&sy=2004&ey=2008&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=566&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a= |title=Philippines|publisher=International Monetary Fund|accessdate=2008-10-09}}</ref> Its national economy is the [[List of countries by GDP (nominal)|46th largest in the world]] with an estimated 2008 [[gross domestic product]] (GDP) of over [[United States dollar|US$]]154.073 billion.<ref name=IMF2006 /> There are more than 11 million [[overseas Filipinos]] worldwide, about 11% of the total population of the Philippines. It is a [[Ethnic groups of the Philippines|multi-ethnic]] country. Ecologically, The Philippines is considered to be among 17 of the most [[megadiverse countries]] in the world.<ref name = "cwlvaj">{{cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=South America Banks on Regional Strategy to Safeguard Quarter of Earth's Biodiversity | date= | publisher= | url =http://www.conservation.org/xp/news/press_releases/2003/091603_andean_eng.xml | archiveurl =http://web.archive.org/web/20050310115345/http://www.conservation.org/xp/news/press_releases/2003/091603_andean_eng.xml | archivedate=2005-03-10 | work =Conservation International | pages = | accessdate = 2007-06-29 | language = }}</ref>
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|accessdate=2008-04-17}}</ref><ref name=IMF2006>{{cite web|url=http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2008/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=80&pr.y=19&sy=2004&ey=2008&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=566&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a= |title=Philippines|publisher=International Monetary Fund|accessdate=2008-10-09}}</ref> Its national economy is the [[List of countries by GDP (nominal)|47th largest in the world]], with an estimated 2008 [[gross domestic product]] (GDP) of over [[United States dollar|US$]] 168.6 billion (nominal).<ref>[http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2008&ey=2008&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=566&s=NGDPD&grp=0&a=&pr.x=92&pr.y=5 The IMF estimate of the total GDP (nominal) of the Philippines]</ref> There are more than 11 million [[overseas Filipinos]] worldwide, about 11% of the total population of the Philippines.
  
Prior to the arrival of Europeans in 1521,<ref>[http://www.asianweek.com/2008/08/26/name-change-for-the-philippines/ "Name Change for the Philippines"]. [[AsianWeek]]. Retrieved on 2008-08-30.</ref> the Philippines was settled by Austronesian (Malayo Polynesian) peoples. The Philippines became a [[Spain|Spanish]] [[Spanish Empire|colony]] in the 16th century, as an extension of the [[Viceroyalty of New Spain]]. In 1896, rebellion led to the [[Philippine Revolution]] that won independence from Spain during the [[Spanish-American War]] of 1898. American occupation led to the [[Philippine-American War]] which ended in 1902. The Philippines became a [[Overseas expansion of the United States|territory]] of the [[United States]] in the 20th century. A [[Commonwealth of the Philippines|Commonwealth]] government was established in 1935, which allowed self-governance. The country gained its independence from the United States on July 4, 1946 after [[World War II]]. [[Martial law]] was declared in 1972 which led to the insurgencies of the [[New People's Army]] and the [[Moro National Liberation Front]]. Liberal parties then led [[People Power Revolution]] of 1986, which would bring the country back to democracy.<ref name=CIAfactbook>{{Citation
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A former colony of [[Spain]], and the [[United States]], the Philippines is one of two predominantly [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] countries in Asia, the other being [[East Timor]]. There are also a number of minority religious groups, including [[Islam in the Philippines|Islam]], [[Buddhism in the Philippines|Buddhism]], and [[Hinduism in the Philippines|Hinduism]]. Multiple [[Ethnic groups in the Philippines|ethnicities]], and [[Culture of the Philippines|cultures]] are found throughout the islands. [[Ecologically]], the Philippines is one of the most diverse countries in the world.
|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html
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|title=World Factbook — Philippines
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|publisher=CIA
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|accessdate=2008-07-24}}</ref>
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The Philippines is one of only two predominantly [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] countries in [[Asia]]-[[Asia Pacific|Pacific]], the other being [[East Timor]]. Pre-Hispanic indigenous rituals still exist; and there are also followers of [[Islam in the Philippines|Islam]].<ref name="encarta">{{cite encyclopedia|last=Steinberg|first=David Joel|title=Philippines|url=http://encarta.msn.com/text_761558570___0/Philippines.html|encyclopedia=[[Encarta]]|year=2007}}</ref> [[Spanish language|Spanish]] was an official language of the Philippines until 1973. Since then, the two official languages are [[Filipino language|Filipino]], and [[English language|English]].<ref name=CIAfactbook />
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==Etymology==
 
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{{main|Name of the Philippines}}
The name Philippines was derived from King [[Philip II of Spain]] in the 16th century. The Spanish explorer [[Ruy López de Villalobos]] used the name Las Islas Filipinas (The Philippine Islands) in honor of the then Crown Prince during his expedition to the Philippines, originally referring to the islands of [[Leyte]] and [[Samar]]. Despite the presence of other names, the name Filipinas (Philippines) was eventually adopted as the name of the entire archipelago
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==History==
 
==History==
{{main|History of the Philippines}}
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{{main|History of the Philippines}}  
Archeological and paleontological discoveries show that [[Human]]s existed in [[Palawan]] around 50,000 BC. The aboriginal people of the Philippines, the [[Negrito]]s, are an Australo-Melanesian people who arrived in the Philippines at least 30,000 years ago. The [[Austronesian peoples|Austronesian]] (Malayo Polynesian) people, originated from populations of [[Taiwanese aborigines]] that migrated from mainland Asia approximately 6000 years ago, who settled in the islands and eventually migrated to [[Indonesia]], [[Malaysia]] and, soon after, to the [[Polynesia|Polynesian islands]] and [[Madagascar]].<ref> [http://web.kssp.upd.edu.ph/linguistics/plc2006/papers/FullPapers/I-2_Solheim.pdf Origins of the Filipinos and their Languages] </ref>  
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===Prehistory===
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[[Image:Traditional Ifugao House.png|thumb|left|190px|A pre-Hispanic indigenous village.]]
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Archeological, and paleontological discoveries show that humans existed in [[Palawan]] around 30,000 to 50,000 BC. An aboriginal people of the Philippine Islands known as the Negritos, are a Melanesian ethnic group who arrived in the Philippines at least 30,000 years ago. Another ethnic group, known as the Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian people, originated from the populations of [[Taiwanese aborigines]] who migrated from mainland [[Asia]] approximately 6,000 years ago. This ethnic group settled in the Philippines, and soon after, migrated to [[Indonesia]], [[Malaysia]], the [[Polynesia|Polynesian Islands]], and [[Madagascar]].<ref>[http://web.kssp.upd.edu.ph/linguistics/plc2006/papers/FullPapers/I-2_Solheim.pdf Origins of the Filipinos and their Languages]</ref>
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The indigenous people of the Philippines traded with other Asian countries during the [[Prehistory|Prehistoric]] period. Before the arrival of Islam; Animism syncretized with Hinduism, and Vajrayna Buddhism.<ref>The Philippines and India - Dhirendra Nath Roy, Manila 1929 and India and The World - By Buddha Prakash p. 119-120.</ref><ref>[http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Cyprus/8446/tara.html Artifacts of Hindu-Buddhist origin in the Philippines]</ref> Those were the religions practiced by various Philippine indigenous kingdoms.
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Islam was brought to the Philippines by traders and [[proselytizer]]s from Malaysia, and Indonesia.<ref>{{Harvnb|Agoncillo|1990|p=22}}</ref> By the [[13th century]], Islam were established in the [[Sulu Archipelago]], and spread to [[Mindanao]], the [[Visayas]], and [[Luzon]] by 1565. Muslims established Islamic communities. By the early 16th century there were native villages (Barangays) ruled by [[Datu]]s, [[Rajah]]s, or [[Sultan]]s.
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There was no unifying political state encompassing the entire Philippine archipelago. Instead, the region were ruled by competing [[Thalassocracy|thalassocracies]] such as the [[Kingdom of Maynila]], [[Kingdom of Namayan|Namayan]], [[Luzon Empire|Dynasty of Tondo]], [[Kalantiao|Madya-as Confederacy]], the Rajahnates of [[Kingdom of Butuan|Butuan]], the Visayas, and sultanates of [[Sultanate of Maguindanao|Maguindanao]], and [[Sulu Sultanate|Sulu]].<ref>[http://traveleronfoot.wordpress.com/2008/05/12/the-kingdom-of-sapa-and-maytime-fiesta-in-sta-ana-of-old-manila/ The Kingdom of Namayan and Maytime Fiesta in Sta. Ana of new Manila], [http://traveleronfoot.wordpress.com Traveler On Foot] [[Self-publishing|self-published]] l journal.</ref><ref>[http://www.lib.kobe-u.ac.jp/directory/sumita/5A-161/volume05.html Volume 5] of  A study of the Eastern and Western Oceans ({{lang-ja|[http://www.lib.kobe-u.ac.jp/directory/sumita/5A-161/  東西洋考]}}) mentions that Luzon first sent tribute to Yongle Emperor in 1406.</ref><ref>http://akeanon.com/index.php?Itemid=2&id=14&option=com_content&task=view</ref><ref>[http://www.royalsulu.com/history.html The Unconquered Kingdom] in [http://www.royalsulu.com/ The official website of the Royal Hashemite Sultanate of Sulu and the Royal Hashemite Sultanate of Sabah]</ref> Some of these indigenous tribes were part of the Malayan empires of [[Srivijaya]], [[Majapahit]], and [[Brunei]].<ref name="end">{{cite book |last=Munoz|first=Paul Michel|title=Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula|publisher=Editions Didier Millet|date=2006|location=Singapore|url= |doi= |pages=171|isbn= 9814155675}}</ref><ref>[http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2700.htm Background Note: Brunei Darussalam], U.S. State Department.</ref>
  
The Islands were known as Mayi or Lu sung to Asian countries, and Chryse to the [[Greeks]], as described by the [[geographer]] [[Ptolemy]]. <ref>[http://vedicempire.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=21&Itemid=26 Vedic Empire]. Retrieved on 2008-10-11.</ref> The Philippines had cultural ties with Malaysia, Indonesia, [[India]] during ancient times, and trade relations with southern [[China]] and other neighbouring countries as early as the 9th century.
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===Colonial period===
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In 1521, [[Portugal|Portuguese]] explorer [[Ferdinand Magellan]] arrived in the Philippines, and claimed the islands for Spain.<ref name="etymology">{{Citation |author= Gregorio F. Zaide, Sonia M. Zaide|title=Philippine History and Government, Sixth Edition |publisher=All-Nations Publishing Company |year= 2004}}</ref><ref name="etymology" />
  
The [[Islam]]ic religion was brought to the Philippines by traders and [[proselytizer]]s from Malaysia, Indonesia, and [[Arabian Peninsula|Arabia]].<ref>{{Harvnb|Agoncillo|1990|p=22}}</ref> By the 13th century, Islam was established in the [[Sulu Archipelago]] and spread from there to [[Mindanao]]; it had reached parts of the [[Visayas]] and [[Luzon]] region by 1565. Muslim converts established Islamic communities and states ruled by [[Datu]]s, [[Rajah]]s or [[Sultan]]s. When the [[Spanish people|Spaniards]] arrived in the 16th century, the majority of the estimated 500,000 people in the islands lived in independent settlements.
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Colonization began when Spanish explorer [[Miguel López de Legazpi]] arrived from [[Mexico]] in 1565, and formed the first European settlements in [[Cebu]]. In 1571, the Spaniards established [[Manila]] as the capital of the [[Spanish East Indies]].<ref>Kurlansky, Mark. 1999. ''The Basque History of the World''. Walker & Company, New York. ISBN 0-8027-1349-1, p. 64</ref>
  
[[Image:Rice Terraces Banaue.jpg|thumb|left|150px|The [[Banaue Rice Terraces]], they are part of the Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras, ancient sprawling man-made structures from 2,000 to 6,000 years old, which are a UNESCO World Heritage Site.]]
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Spanish rule brought political unification to a group of islands and communities that later became the Philippines, and introduced elements of [[Western culture|western civilisation]].<ref>Joaquin, Nick. 1988. ''Culture and History: Occasional Notes on the Process of Philippine Becoming''. Solar Publishing, Metro Manila</ref> The Philippines was governed as a territory of the [[Viceroyalty of New Spain]] from 1565 to 1821, and administered directly from Spain from 1821 to 1898. During that period, towns, cities, and provinces were founded, and trade flourished. The [[Manila Galleon]] which linked Manila to [[Acapulco]] carried spices, porcelain and silk to the [[Americas]], and silver from Mexico on the return voyage to the Philippines. Spain fought indigenous rebels, pirates, and invasions from European powers such as Portugal, Britain, and Netherlands. Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the inhabitants to Christianity and founded schools, hospitals and universities. European immigration to the Philippines created a new class of Criollo (Spaniard born in the Philippines), and Mestizo (mixed Spaniard, and Malayan). In 1863 the colonial government established free public education in Spanish.<ref>[http://countrystudies.us/philippines/53.htm US Country Studies: Education in the Philippines]</ref> The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1878. The country's population as of December 31, 1877 was recorded at 5,567,685 persons.<ref>[http://www.nscb.gov.ph/secstat/d_popn.asp Population of the Philippines Census Years 1799 to 2007]. ''National Statistical Coordination Board''.</ref> 
  
In the service of Spain, [[Portugal|Portuguese]] explorer [[Ferdinand Magellan]] and his crew started their voyage on September 20, 1519. Magellan sighted [[Samar]] on March 17, 1521, on the next day, they reached [[Homonhon]]. They reached the island of [[Mazaua]] on March 28, 1521 where the [[first mass in the Philippines]] was celebrated on March 31, 1521.<ref name="etymology">{{Citation |author= Gregorio F. Zaide, Sonia M. Zaide|title=Philippine History and Government, Sixth Edition |publisher=All-Nations Publishing Company |year= 2004}}</ref> Magellan arrived at [[Cebu]] on April 7, 1521, befriending Rajah [[Humabon]] and converting his family and other nearby islanders to Christianity.<ref name="etymology" /> However, Magellan would later be killed in the [[Battle of Mactan]] by native warriors led by Rajah [[Lapu-Lapu]], a rival of Rajah Humabon.
+
In the 1700s, the Philippines opened its forts to world trade. The economy increased, and many criollos, and mestizos in the Philippines became wealthy. In the 1800s, the [[Suez Canal]] was opened, dramatically reducing travel time between Spain and the Philippines. The influx of Spaniards secularized churches, and government positions traditionally held by the criollos. The ideals of revolution began to spread to the Philippines in the second half of the century. Criollo insurgency resulted in the [[Novales]], and the revolt in [[Cavite El Viejo]] in 1872. Colonial authorities suppressed these uprisings which were led by three priests: [[Mariano Gómez]], [[José Burgos]], and [[Jacinto Zamora]] who would be remembered in Philippine history as the [[Gomburza]]. The execution of these priests laid the foundation for the [[Philippine Revolution]].<ref>Joaquin, Nick. ''A Question of Heroes''.</ref>
  
The beginnings of colonization started to take form when [[Philip II of Spain]] ordered successive expeditions. [[Miguel López de Legazpi]] arrived from [[Mexico]] in 1565 and formed the first Spanish settlements in Cebu. In 1571 he established [[Manila]] as the capital of the [[Spanish East Indies]]. <ref>Kurlansky, Mark. 1999. ''The Basque History of the World''. Walker & Company, New York. ISBN 0-8027-1349-1, p. 64</ref>
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[[Image:Mapa de Filippinas Formosa y costa de China para el Galeon de Manila .JPG|thumb|left|220px|Facsimile of the map found aboard the "Na SA de Covadonga" after it was taken by Commodore Anson in 1743, showing the route of the Manila-Acapulco galleon through the maze of the Philippines Islands.]]
  
Spanish rule brought political unification to an archipelago of previously independent islands and communities which later became the Philippines, and introduced elements of [[Western culture|western civilization]] such as the [[code of law]], [[printing]] and the Gregorian [[Gregorian calendar|calendar]].<ref>Joaquin, Nick. 1988. ''Culture and History: Occasional Notes on the Process of Philippine Becoming''. Solar Publishing, Metro Manila</ref> The Philippines was ruled as a territory of the [[Viceroyalty of New Spain]] from 1565 to 1821, and administered as a province of Spain from 1821 to 1898. During that time numerous towns were founded, infrastructures built, new crops and livestock introduced, and trade flourished. The [[Manila Galleon]] which linked Manila to [[Acapulco]] carried silk, spices, ivory and porcelain to the [[Americas]] and silver from Mexico on the return voyage to the Philippines. The Spanish military fought off various indigenous revolts and several external threats, especially from the [[England|British]], Chinese pirates, [[Netherlands|Dutch]], and Portuguese. Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the inhabitants to [[Christianity]], and founded numerous schools, universities and hospitals. In 1863 a Spanish decree introduced [[public education]], creating free public schooling in Spanish.<ref>[http://countrystudies.us/philippines/53.htm US Country Studies: Education in the Philippines]</ref>
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The migration of Filipinos to [[Europe]] created a community of expatriates. The propaganda movement, which included Filipino patriot [[José Rizal]], was founded in Spain. The propagandists clamored for political reforms, which included representation in the Spanish [[Cortes]] for Filipinos. The propagandists lobbied for their causes through the paper La Solidaridad (The Solidarity). They were able to gain some support from Spanish liberals. Unable to gain complete reforms, Rizal returned to the Philippines, and established [[La Liga Filipina]] (The Philippine League) to organize patriots in Manila and produce funds for La Solidaridad. Rizal was soon arrested and deported to Dapitan. Radical members of La Liga Filipina, under the leadership of [[Andrés Bonifacio]], established the [[Katipunan]] in 1896. The objective was Philippine independence from Spain.  
  
The [[Propaganda Movement]], which included Philippine nationalist [[José Rizal]], then a student studying in Spain, soon developed on the Spanish mainland. The propagandists clamored for political and social reforms, which included demands for greater representation in Spain. Unable to gain the reforms, Rizal returned to the Philippines, and pushed for the reforms. Rizal was arrested, tried, and executed for [[treason]] on December 30, 1896. Earlier that year, the [[Katipunan]], led by [[Andrés Bonifacio]], had already started a revolution, which was eventually continued by [[Emilio Aguinaldo]], who established a revolutionary government, although the Spanish governor general [[Fernando Primo de Rivera]] proclaimed the revolution over in May 17, 1897.<ref>{{Citation
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Rizal was executed for inspiring the Philippine revolution on December 30, 1896.<ref>Ocampo, Ambeth. ''Rizal without the Undercoat''.</ref> The revolution in Cavite El Viejo was a success, and the leadership of the revolution eventually passed from Bonifacio to [[Emilio Aguinaldo]]. A ceasefire was agreed at the Treaty of Biak-na-Bato, and Filipino leaders agreed to exile in Hong Kong. Governor General [[Fernando Primo de Rivera]] proclaimed the revolution over in May 17, 1897.<ref>{{Citation
 
|title=The Filipino Americans (1763-Present): Their History, Culture and Traditions
 
|title=The Filipino Americans (1763-Present): Their History, Culture and Traditions
 
|url=https://bookhaus2.securesites.net/philnewscentral/cgi-bin/redirect.cgi?url=filipino_am.html
 
|url=https://bookhaus2.securesites.net/philnewscentral/cgi-bin/redirect.cgi?url=filipino_am.html
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|author=Veltisezar Bautista
 
|author=Veltisezar Bautista
 
|chapter=3. The Philippine Revolution (1896-1898)
 
|chapter=3. The Philippine Revolution (1896-1898)
|chapter-url=https://bookhaus2.securesites.net/philnewscentral/cgi-bin/redirect.cgi?url=philrev.html}}</ref>
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|chapter-url=https://bookhaus2.securesites.net/philnewscentral/cgi-bin/redirect.cgi?url=philrev.html
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|year=2002
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|publisher=Bookhaus Pub.
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|location=Naperville, IL}}</ref>
  
The [[Spanish-American War]] began in [[Cuba]] in 1898 and soon reached the Philippines when Commodore [[George Dewey]] defeated the Spanish squadron at the [[Battle of Manila Bay|Manila Bay]]. Aguinaldo declared the independence of the Philippines on June 12, 1898, and was proclaimed head of state. As a result of its defeat, Spain ceded the Philippines, together with [[Cuba]], [[Puerto Rico]], and [[Guam]] to the [[United States]] during the [[Treaty of Paris (1898)|Treaty of Paris]] in 1898. In 1899 the [[First Philippine Republic]] was proclaimed in [[Malolos]], [[Bulacan]] but was later dissolved by the US Army, leading to the [[Philippine-American War]] between the United States and the Philippines, which continued the violence of the previous years. The US proclaimed the war ended when Aguinaldo was captured by American troops on March 23, 1901, but the struggle continued until 1913 claiming almost a million casualties.<ref> {{cite web
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The [[Spanish-American War]] began in [[Cuba]] in 1898, and soon spread to the Philippines when Commodore [[George Dewey]] and Emilio Aguinaldo defeated the Spanish squadron at the [[Battle of Manila Bay]]. The Philippines declared independence from Spain on June 12, 1898. In 1899, the Primera República Filipina or the [[First Philippine Republic]] was proclaimed in [[Malolos]], [[Bulacan]]. In the [[Treaty of Paris (1898)|Treaty of Paris]], Spain ceded the Philippines, together with [[Cuba]], [[Puerto Rico]], and [[Guam]] to the United States. As a result of the treaty, and a manifesto by the United States declaring American intentions to colonize the Philippines, a conflict began between the Filipinos, and the Americans. Aguinaldo tried to ease the tensions, but the Americans were determined to make the Philippines a United States colony.
|url=http://www.selvesandothers.org/article9315.html
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|title=U.S. Genocide in the Philippines: A Case of Guilt, Shame, or Amnesia?
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The [[Philippine-American War]] began when an American soldier killed a Filipino soldier at the bridge of San Juan. The United States proclaimed the war ended when Aguinaldo was captured by American soldiers on March 23, 1901. However, the struggle continued until 1913 claiming almost a million lives. The United States suppressed Philippine independence by establishing an American government. The Philippines' status as a colony changed when it became the [[Commonwealth of the Philippines]] in 1935. Plans for independence over the next decade were interrupted by [[World War II]] when [[Japan]] invaded the Philippines. United States, and Philippine troops defeated Japan in 1944. On July 4, 1946, the Philippines gained independence from the United States. <ref name=CIAfactbook>{{Citation
|author=[[E. San Juan, Jr.]]
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|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html
|date=March 22, 2005
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|title=World Factbook — Philippines
|accessdate=2007-10-03}}
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|publisher=CIA
</ref><ref>{{Harvnb|San Miguel|2007}}</ref> The country's status as a territory changed when it became the [[Commonwealth of the Philippines]] in 1935, which provided self-governance. Plans for independence over the next decade were interrupted during [[World War II]] when [[Imperial Japan|Japan]] [[Battle of the Philippines (1941-42)|invaded]] and occupied the islands. After the Japanese were defeated in 1945 and control returned to the Philippine, and American forces in the Liberation of the Philippine Islands from 1944 to 1945, the Philippines was granted independence from the United States on July 4, 1946.<ref name=CIAfactbook />
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|accessdate=2008-07-24}}</ref>
  
[[Image:B155.jpg|thumb|right|140px|A 19th century photograph of leaders of the Propaganda Movement: [[José Rizal]], [[Marcelo del Pilar]], and [[Mariano Ponce]].]]
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===Contemporary era===
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[[Image:Manuel Quezon inauguration.JPG|thumb|right|190px|Former President of the Philippines, [[Manuel L. Quezon]], during his inauguration in the American period.]]
 +
The Philippines faced political instability that plagued the country. Since 1946, remnants of the [[Hukbalahap]] rebel army continued to roam the rural regions of the Philippines, disgruntled after the Philippine government had rejected their contribution during World War II.  
  
Since 1946, the newly independent Philippine state has faced political instability. The late 1960s and early 1970s saw economic development that was second in Asia, next to Japan. [[Ferdinand Marcos]] was, then, the elected president. Barred from seeking a third term, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972, under the guise of increased political instability and resurgent Communist and Muslim insurgencies, and ruled the country by [[rule by decree|decree]].
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Attempts of reconciliation were formed by former Philippine president, [[Ramón Magsaysay]]. In the 1960s, the Philippine national policies were initiated by [[Diosdado Macapagal]], that included recognition of the [[Philippine Declaration of Independence]], and the President legacy of Emilio Aguinaldo, and [[José P. Laurel]].  
  
Upon returning from exile in the United States, opposition leader [[Benigno Aquino, Jr.]], was assassinated on August 21, 1983. In January 1986, Marcos allowed for a [[Philippine presidential election, 1986|snap election]], after large protests. [[Corazon Aquino]], the widow of Benigno Aquino, Jr., was the recognized winner of the election. She took over the Philippine government, and called for a constitutional convention to draft a new constitution, after the [[People Power Revolution]]. Marcos, his family, and his allies fled to Hawaii.<ref name="marcos-exile">{{cite news |first=Jane|last=Gross |title= Ferdinand Marcos, Ousted Leader Of Philippines, Dies at 72 in Exile |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DEED71E3AF93AA1575AC0A96F948260 |publisher=New York Times|date=September 29, 1989 |accessdate=2008-01-25 }}</ref>
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The 1960s were a period of economic growth for the Philippines which developed to be one of the wealthiest in Asia. [[Ferdinand Marcos]] was elected president. Barred from seeking a third term, he declared [[Martial law]] on September 21, 1972, under the guise of political conflict, and resurgent Communist, and Islamic insurgencies, and governed the Philippines by [[rule by decree|decree]], along with his wife [[Imelda Marcos]].  
  
The return of democracy and government reforms after the events of 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts, a communist insurgency, and a Islamic separatist movement. The Philippine economy improved during the administration of [[Fidel V. Ramos]], who was elected in 1992.<ref name="lastlaugh">{{cite news |first=Edward A.|last=Gargan|title= Last Laugh for the Philippines; Onetime Joke Economy Avoids Much of Asia's Turmoil |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9901E7DA133CF932A25751C1A961958260 |publisher=New York Times|date=December 11, 1997 |accessdate=2008-01-25 }}</ref> However, the economic improvements were negated at the onset of the [[East Asian financial crisis]] in 1997. The [[2001 EDSA Revolution]] led to the downfall of the following president, [[Joseph Estrada]]. [[Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo]] took Philippine leadership in 2001 following the impeachment of the Estrada government.
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Returning from exile in the United States, Philippine opposition leader [[Benigno Aquino, Jr.]], was assassinated at the Manila International Airport (also called the Ninoy Aquino International Airport) on August 21, 1983. In 1986, the [[People Power Revolution]] occurred. The people gathered, and protested in EDSA, upon the organization of the [[Archbishop of Manila]] founded by Priest [[Jaime Cardinal Sin]]. It was to oppose the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos. After losing the election to [[Corazón Aquino]], who became the first female President of the Philippines (and the first in Asia), Marcos, and his allies departed to Hawaii in exile.
 +
 
 +
The return of [[democracy]], and government reforms after the events of 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts, a Communist insurgency, and an Islamic separatist organization. The Philippine economy improved during the administration of [[Fidel V. Ramos]], who was elected in 1992.<ref name="lastlaugh">{{cite news |first=Edward A.|last=Gargan|title= Last Laugh for the Philippines; Onetime Joke Economy Avoids Much of Asia's Turmoil |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9901E7DA133CF932A25751C1A961958260 |publisher=New York Times|date=December 11, 1997 |accessdate=2008-01-25 }}</ref> However, the economic improvements were negated at the onset of the [[East Asian financial crisis]] in 1997. The [[2001 EDSA Revolution]] led to the downfall of the erstwhile Philippine president, [[Joseph Estrada|Joseph Ejercito Estrada]]. [[Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo]] took Philippine leadership in 2001 following the impeachment of the Estrada government.
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 +
==Politics and government==
 +
{{main|Politics of the Philippines}}
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{{see also|Foreign relations of the Philippines|President of the Philippines|Constitution of the Philippines}}
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{{further|[[Armed Forces of the Philippines]]}}
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 +
[[Image:noynoy.jpg|150px|thumb|left|[[Benigno "Noynoy" Aquino III]], the current President of the Philippines.]]
 +
[[Image:Malacanang Palace.jpg|thumb|right|250px|[[Malacañang Palace]], the official residence for the [[President of the Philippines]].]]
 +
 
 +
The Philippines has a [[Presidential system|presidential]], [[Unitary state|unitary]] form of government (with some modification; there is [[Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao|one]] [[autonomous area|autonomous region]] largely free from the national government), where the [[President of the Philippines|President]] functions as both [[head of state]], and [[head of government]], and is [[commander-in-chief]] of the [[Armed Forces of the Philippines|armed forces]]. The president is elected by popular vote to a single six year term, during which time she or he appoints, and presides over the [[Cabinet (government)|cabinet]].<ref name="About"/>
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 +
The [[bicameral]] [[Congress of the Philippines|Congress]] is composed of a [[Senate of the Philippines|Senate]], serving as the [[upper house]] whose members are elected to a six year term, and a [[House of Representatives of the Philippines|House of Representatives]] serving as the [[lower house]] whose members are elected to a three year term, and are elected from both [[Legislative districts of the Philippines|legislative districts]], and through sectoral representation.<ref name="About"/>
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 +
The [[judiciary|judicial]] power is vested in the [[Supreme Court of the Philippines|Supreme Court]], composed of a [[Chief Justice of the Philippines|Chief Justice]] as its presiding officer, and fourteen [[Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines|associate justices]], all appointed by the Philippine President from nominations submitted by the [[Judicial and Bar Council]].<ref name="About"/> Attempts to amend the constitution to either a [[federal government|federal]], [[unicameral]] or [[parliamentary government|parliamentary]] form of government have been satisfactory since the [[Fidel V. Ramos|Ramos]] administration. <ref>[http://www.inwent.org/ez/articles/077943/index.en.shtml Civil service reform: Whose service?], inwent.org, Retrieved on 2008-11-30.</ref>
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The Philippines is a founding, and active member of the [[United Nations]] since its inception on October 24, 1945, and is a founding member of the [[Association of Southeast Asian Nations]] (ASEAN). The Philippines is also a member of the [[East Asia Summit]] (EAS), the [[Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation]] (APEC), the [[Latin Union]], and a member of the [[Group of 24]]. The Philippines is a [[major non-NATO ally]] of the United States, but also a member of the [[Non-Aligned Movement]].<ref name="About"/>
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 +
==Administrative divisions==
 +
{{main|Administrative divisions of the Philippines}}
 +
[[Image:Ph regions and provinces.png|250px|thumb|Provinces, and regions of the Philippines.]]
 +
The Philippines is divided into three island groups: [[Luzon]], [[Visayas]], and [[Mindanao]]. These are divided into 17 [[Regions of the Philippines|regions]], 80 [[Provinces of the Philippines|provinces]], 120 [[Cities of the Philippines|cities]], 1,511 [[Municipalities of the Philippines|municipalities]], and 42,008 [[barangays]].<ref>[http://www.nscb.gov.ph/activestats/psgc/NSCB_PSGC_SUMMARY_DEC08.pdf NCSB PSGC summary]</ref> In addition, the Section 2 of Republic Act No. 5446 asserts that the Philippines has acquired islands from [[Sabah]], North Borneo.<ref>{{Citation
 +
|url=http://www.chanrobles.com/republicacts/republicactno5446.html
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|title=AN ACT TO AMEND SECTION ONE OF REPUBLIC ACT NUMBERED THIRTY HUNDRED AND FORTY-SIX, ENTITLED "AN ACT TO DEFINE THE BASELINES OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA OF THE PHILIPPINES"
 +
|date=September 18, 1968
 +
|accessdate=2008-07-24|publisher=Chanrobles Law Library}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 +
|-
 +
! Region !! Designation !! Regional center
 +
|-
 +
| [[Ilocos Region]] || Region I || [[San Fernando City, La Union|San Fernando]], [[La Union]]
 +
|-
 +
| [[Cagayan Valley]] || Region II || [[Tuguegarao City|Tuguegarao]], [[Cagayan]]
 +
|-
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| [[Central Luzon]] || Region III || [[City of San Fernando, Pampanga|San Fernando]], [[Pampanga]]
 +
|-
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| [[CALABARZON]] || Region IV-A || [[Calamba City|Calamba]], [[Laguna (province)|Laguna]]
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|-
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| [[MIMAROPA]] || Region IV-B || [[Calapan City|Calapan]], [[Oriental Mindoro]]
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|-
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| [[Bicol Region]] || Region V || [[Legazpi City|Legazpi]], [[Albay]]
 +
|-
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| [[Western Visayas]]|| Region VI || [[Iloilo City]]
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|-
 +
| [[Central Visayas]] || Region VII || [[Cebu City]]
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|-
 +
| [[Eastern Visayas]] || Region VIII || [[Tacloban City|Tacloban]]
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|-
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| [[Zamboanga Peninsula]] || Region IX || [[Pagadian City|Pagadian]], [[Zamboanga del Sur]]
 +
|-
 +
| [[Northern Mindanao]] || Region X || [[Cagayan de Oro City|Cagayan de Oro]]
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|-
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| [[Davao Region]] || Region XI || [[Davao City]]
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|-
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| [[SOCCSKSARGEN]] || Region XII || [[Koronadal City|Koronadal]], [[South Cotabato]]
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|-
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| [[Caraga]] || Region XIII || [[Butuan City|Butuan]]
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|-
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| [[Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao]] || ARMM || [[Cotabato City]]
 +
|-
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| [[Cordillera Administrative Region]] || CAR || [[Baguio City|Baguio]]
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|-
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| [[Metro Manila|National Capital Region]] || NCR || [[Manila]]
 +
|}
  
 
==Geography==
 
==Geography==
 
{{main|Geography of the Philippines}}
 
{{main|Geography of the Philippines}}
[[Image:MountApo1.jpg|thumb|right|150px|[[Mount Apo]], the highest mountain in the Philippines, [[Mindanao]].]]
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[[Image:MountApo1.jpg|thumb|right|190px|[[Mount Apo]] in [[Mindanao]].]]
[[Image:Chocolate Hills.jpg|thumb|left|150px|The [[Chocolate Hills]] in [[Bohol]].]]
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[[Image:Chocolate Hills.jpg|thumb|left|175px|[[Chocolate Hills]] in [[Bohol]].]]
[[Image:El nido.jpg|thumb|right|150px|The limestone islands of [[El Nido, Palawan]].]]
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[[Image:Mt.Mayon tam3rd.jpg|thumb|left|150px|[[Mayon Volcano]], the most active volcano in the Philippines.]]
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The Philippines constitutes an [[archipelago]] of 7,107 islands with a total land area of approximately 300,000 square kilometers (116,000&nbsp;[[square mile|sq&nbsp;mi]]). It is located between 116° 40' and 126° 34' E. longitude, and 4° 40' and 21° 10' N. latitude, and borders the [[Philippine Sea]] on the east, the [[South China Sea]] on the west, and the [[Celebes Sea]] on the south. The island of [[Borneo]] is located a few hundred kilometers southwest and [[Taiwan]] directly north. The [[Moluccas]] and [[Sulawesi]] are to the south-southwest, and [[Palau]] is to the east beyond the [[Philippine Sea]].<ref name="About">{{cite web
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The Philippines constitutes an [[archipelago]] of 7,107 islands<ref name=GeneralInfo /> with a total land area of approximately 300,000 square kilometers (116,000&nbsp;[[square miles]]). It is located between 116° 40', and 126° 34' E. longitude, and 4° 40', and 21° 10' N. latitude, and borders the [[Philippine Sea]] on the east, the [[South China Sea]] on the west, and the [[Celebes Sea]] on the south. The island of [[Borneo]] is located a few hundred kilometers southwest, and [[Taiwan]] directly located to the north. The [[Moluccas]], and [[Sulawesi]] are located to the south-southwest, and [[Palau]] is located to the east of the [[Philippine Sea]].<ref name="About">{{cite web
 
|url=http://www.gov.ph/aboutphil/general.asp
 
|url=http://www.gov.ph/aboutphil/general.asp
 
|title=General information
 
|title=General information
Line 169: Line 257:
 
|accessdate=2007-10-01}}</ref>
 
|accessdate=2007-10-01}}</ref>
  
The islands are commonly divided into three island groups: [[Luzon]] (Regions I to V, NCR and CAR), [[Visayas]] (VI to VIII), and [[Mindanao]] (IX to XIII and ARMM). The busy port of [[Manila]], on [[Luzon]], is the national [[Capital (political)|capital]] and second largest [[city]] after its suburb [[Quezon City]].<ref name="About"/>
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The Philippines are divided into three island groups: [[Luzon]] (Regions I to V, NCR and CAR), [[Visayas]] (VI to VIII), and [[Mindanao]] (IX to XIII and ARMM). The busy port of [[Manila]], on [[Luzon]], is the capital city of the Philippines, and the second largest city after [[Quezon City]].<ref name="About"/>
  
The local [[climate]] is hot, humid, and [[tropical]]. The average yearly temperature is around 26.5 °[[Celsius|C]] (79.7 °[[Fahrenheit|F]]). There are three recognized seasons: "Tag-init" or "Tag-araw" (the hot season or summer from March to May), "Tag-ulan" (the rainy season from June to November), and "Tag-lamig" (the cold season from December to February). The southwest [[monsoon]] (from May to October) is known as the "Habagat" and the dry winds of the northeast monsoon (from November to April) as the "Amihan".<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/cab/climate.htm |title=Climate of the Philippines |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20080201191955/http://www.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/cab/climate.htm |archivedate=2008-02-01}} at [http://www.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/ PAGASA]. Accessed September 30, 2006</ref>
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[[Image:Mt.Mayon tam3rd.jpg|thumb|left|175px|[[Mayon Volcano]] in [[Luzon]].]]
  
Most of the mountainous islands used to be covered in [[tropical rainforest]] and are volcanic in origin. The highest mountain is [[Mount Apo]] located in Mindanao measuring at 2,954 metres (9,692&nbsp;ft) above sea level. There are many active [[volcano]]s such as [[Mayon Volcano]], [[Mount Pinatubo]], and [[Taal Volcano]]. The country also lies within the [[typhoon]] belt of the Western Pacific and approximately 19 typhoons strike per year.<ref>{{Citation
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Most of the mountainous islands were covered in [[tropical rainforest]], and are volcanic in origin. The highest mountain is [[Mount Apo]] located in Mindanao measuring at 2,954 meters (9,692&nbsp;ft) above sea level. There are many active [[volcano]]s such as [[Mayon Volcano]], [[Mount Pinatubo]], and [[Taal Volcano]]. The Philippines is also located within the [[typhoon]] belt of the Western Pacific, and approximately 19 typhoons strike per year.<ref>{{Citation
 
|url=http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/80346e/80346E00.htm
 
|url=http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/80346e/80346E00.htm
 
|title=Economics of the Philippine Milkfish Resource System
 
|title=Economics of the Philippine Milkfish Resource System
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|isbn=928083468}}</ref>
 
|isbn=928083468}}</ref>
  
Lying on the northwestern fringes of the [[Pacific Ring of Fire]], the Philippine Islands experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activities. Some 20 [[earthquake]]s are registered daily in the Philippines, though most are too weak to be felt. The last great earthquake was the [[1990 Luzon earthquake]].<ref>[http://www.cityofpines.com/baguioquake/quake.html The 1990 Baguio City Earthquake] at [http://www.cityofpines.com/ City of Baguio]. Accessed October 3, 2006</ref>
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Located on the northwestern fringes of the [[Pacific Ring of Fire]], the Philippine Islands have experienced frequent seismic, and volcanic activities. Around 20 [[earthquake]]s are registered daily in the Philippines, though most are too weak to be felt. The last earthquake was the [[1990 Luzon earthquake]].<ref>[http://www.cityofpines.com/baguioquake/quake.html The 1990 Baguio City Earthquake] at [http://www.cityofpines.com/ City of Baguio]. Accessed October 3, 2006</ref>
  
The longest river is the [[Cagayan River]] in northern Luzon. [[Manila Bay]] is connected to [[Laguna de Bay]] by means of the [[Pasig River]]. [[Subic Bay]], the [[Davao Gulf]] and the [[Moro Gulf]] are some of the important bays. Transversing the [[San Juanico Strait]] is the [[San Juanico Bridge]] (considered a point of vital national infrastructure and capacity), that connects the islands of [[Samar (island)|Samar]] and [[Leyte (island)|Leyte]].<ref>[http://www.tourism.gov.ph/explore_phil/place_details.asp?content=famousefor&province=44 Leyte is Famous For...] Accessed September 30, 2006</ref>
+
The longest river is the [[Cagayan River]] in northern Luzon. [[Manila Bay]] is connected to [[Laguna de Bay]] by means of the [[Pasig River]]. [[Subic Bay]], the [[Davao Gulf]], and the [[Moro Gulf]] are some of the important bays. Transversing the [[San Juanico Strait]] is the [[San Juanico Bridge]] (considered a point of vital national infrastructure, and capacity), that connects the islands of [[Samar (island)|Samar]], and [[Leyte (island)|Leyte]].<ref>[http://www.tourism.gov.ph/explore_phil/place_details.asp?content=famousefor&province=44 Leyte is Famous For...] Accessed September 30, 2008</ref>
 +
 
 +
===Natural resources===
 +
{{see|Ecoregions in the Philippines}}
 +
[[Image:PhilippineEagleDavao99.jpg|right|thumb|190px|[[Philippine Eagle]], one of the Philippines' most recognized bird species.]]
 +
 
 +
The Philippines provides a high environment of natural resources in areas such as agriculture, nature, and minerals. It has fertile lands, diverse flora and fauna, extensive coastlines, and rich mineral deposits.<ref name="etravel">[http://www.etravelpilipinas.com/about_philippines/philippine_natural_resources.htm E-Travel Pilipinas: The Philippine Natural Resources]. Accessed January 22, 2009.</ref> 
 +
 
 +
[[Endemic]] species include the [[tamaraw]] of [[Mindoro]], and the [[tarsier]] of [[Bohol]]. The Philippines have a lack of predators, with the exception of [[snakes]], such as [[Pythonidae|python]]s, and [[cobra]]s, and [[birds of prey]], such as the [[national bird]], known as the [[Philippine eagle]].<ref>{{IUCN2006|assessors=BirdLife International|year=2004|id=144490|title=Pithecophaga jefferyi|downloaded=2009-1-7}}</ref> Other native animals include the palm [[civet cat]],<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4896230.stm BBC report In the Philippines]</ref> the [[Mouse deer]], the [[Visayan warty pig]],<ref>[http://www.pawb.gov.ph/programs/wartypig.htm/ Visayan Warty Pig Conservation Programme]</ref> and several species of [[bat]]s.
 +
 
 +
[[Rainforests]] boasts an array of flora, including several types of [[orchids]], and [[rafflesia]].<ref>[http://www.gmanews.tv/story/134682/Rare-flower-species-found-only-in-northern-Philippines  Rare flower species found only in northern Philippines]</ref> The [[narra]] is considered as the most important type of [[hardwood]] while [[banyan tree]]s or the ''balete''.<ref>Ellayn De Vera & Charrissa M. Luci, "Balete Drive:White Lady, Haunted houses and other myths"</ref> The Philippines' major crops include rice, corn, sugarcane, coconut, abaca, and tobacco. [[Rice]] is the most important source of food along with [[Maize|corn]]. The [[coconut]], [[mango]], [[watermelon]], and other native fruits are an important source of Philippine income.
 +
 
 +
Due to the [[volcanic]] nature of the islands, mineral deposits are abundant. This also allows the Philippines to become a [[powerhouse]] with regards to [[geothermal energy]].<ref>[http://geothermal.marin.org/map/phil.html Geothermal Education Office - The Philippines]</ref><ref name="GEO">Birsic, R.J. [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980GeoE....8...35B The Philippines geothermal success story] ''Geothermal Energy'' (vol. 8, Aug.-Sept. 1980, p. 35-44)</ref>
 +
 
 +
The Philippine territorial waters measure as much as 1.67 million square kilometers, producing a unique, and diverse marine life. Of the 2,400 fish species found in the Philippines, 65 have good commercial value. Other marine products include corals, pearls, crabs, and seaweeds.<ref name="etravel"/><ref name="resources">[http://www.philippine-history.org/about-philippines.htm About the Philippines]. Accessed January 22, 2009.</ref> The rain forests offer prime habitat for more than 530 species of birds, including the [[Philippine eagle]], some 800 species of orchids, and some 8,500 species of flowering plants.<ref name="biodiverse">[http://www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/Hotspots/philippines/Pages/biodiversity.aspx Biodiversity Hotspots: Philippines]. Accessed January 22, 2009.</ref>
 +
 
 +
===Climate===
 +
{{main|Climate of the Philippines}}
 +
[[Image:El nido.jpg|thumb|right|190px|Limestone islands of [[El Nido, Palawan|El Nido]] in [[Palawan]].]]
 +
The Philippines has a tropical marine [[climate]], and is usually hot, humid, and [[tropical]]. The average yearly temperature is around 26.5°[[Celsius|C]] (79.7°[[Fahrenheit|F]]). There are three recognized seasons: "Tag-init" or "Tag-araw" (the hot season or summer from March to May), "Tag-ulan" (the rainy season from June to November), and "Tag-lamig" (the cold season from December to February). The southwest [[monsoon]] (from May to October) is known as the "Habagat", and the dry winds of the northeast monsoon (from November to April) as the "Amihan".<ref>[http://www.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/cab/climate.htm PAGASA: Climate]</ref> The coolest month is January, and the warmest is May. Both temperature, and humidity levels reach the maximum in April and May.<ref name="About"/> Manila, and most of the lowland areas are hot, and dusty from March to May.<ref>[http://www.lonelyplanet.com/philippines/weather Lonely Planet: Weather in the Philippines]. Accessed January 23, 2009.</ref> Even at this time, however, temperatures rarely rise above 37°C. Mean annual sea-level temperatures rarely fall below 27°C. Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters in the mountainous east coast section of the Philippines, but less than 1,000 millimeters in some of the sheltered valleys. Sitting astride the [[Typhoons in the Philippines|typhoon belt]], most of the Philippines experiences annual torrential rains, and thunderstorms from July to October.<ref>[http://www.photius.com/countries/philippines/climate/philippines_climate_the_climate.html Photius: The Philippine Climate]</ref>
  
 
==Economy==
 
==Economy==
 
{{main|Economy of the Philippines}}
 
{{main|Economy of the Philippines}}
The Philippines is a [[newly industrialized country]] with an economy anchored on [[agriculture]] but with substantial contributions from [[manufacturing]], [[mining]], [[remittances]] from overseas Filipinos and [[Tertiary sector of economic activity|service]] industries such as [[tourism]] and, increasingly, [[business process outsourcing]].<ref name="encarta"/><ref>[http://business.inquirer.net/money/topstories/view_article.php?article_id=24405 As India gets too costly, BPOs turn to Philippines] [http://www.inq.net/ Philippine Daily Inquirer]. Accessed October 2, 2006</ref> The Philippines is listed in the roster of the "[[Next Eleven]]" economies.
 
  
[[Image:Makatiskyline.jpg|thumb|left|150px|[[Makati City]] is the main central business district of Metro Manila.]]
+
The Philippines is a [[newly industrialized country]], with an economy anchored on [[agriculture]] but with substantial contributions from [[manufacturing]], [[mining]], [[remittances]] from overseas Filipinos, and [[Tertiary sector of economic activity|service]] industries such as [[tourism]], and [[business process outsourcing]].<ref name="encarta">{{cite encyclopedia|last=Steinberg|first=David Joel|title=Philippines|url=http://encarta.msn.com/text_761558570___0/Philippines.html|encyclopedia=[[Encarta]]|year=2007}}</ref><ref>[http://business.inquirer.net/money/topstories/view_article.php?article_id=24405 As India gets too costly, BPOs turn to Philippines] [http://www.inq.net/ Philippine Daily Inquirer]. Accessed October 2, 2006</ref> The Philippines is listed in the roster of the "[[Next Eleven]]" economies.
  
Historically, the Philippine economy has largely been anchored on the [[Manila galleon]] during the Spanish period, and bilateral trade with the United States during the American period. Pro-Filipino economic policies were first implemented during the tenure of [[Carlos P. Garcia]] with the "Filipino First" policy. By the 1960s, the Philippine economy was regarded as the second largest in Asia, next to Japan. However, the leardership of Ferdinand Marcos would prove disastrous to the Philippine economy, sliding the country into severe economic [[recession]], only to recover starting in the 1990s with a program of economic liberalization and the breaking of Marcos era monopolies and the system of cronyism under Fidel V. Ramos.<ref name="lastlaugh" />
+
The Philippine economy were largely anchored on the [[Manila galleon|Manila-Acapulco galleon]] during the Spanish period, and bilateral trade with the United States during the American period. Pro-Filipino economic policies were first implemented during the tenure of [[Carlos P. Garcia]] with the "Filipino First" policy. By the 1960s, the Philippine economy was regarded as the second largest in Asia, next to Japan. However, the leardership of Ferdinand Marcos would prove disastrous to the Philippine economy, by transforming the [[market economy]] of the Philippines into a [[centrally planned economy]]. The Philippines suffered severe economic [[recession]], only to recover in the 1990s with a program of economic liberalization, and the impeachment of the Marcos government, and the system of cronyism under the leadership of Fidel V. Ramos. Today, the Philippines have produced a [[mixed economy]].<ref name="lastlaugh" />
  
[[Image:Keppel and innove.jpg|thumb|right|150px|[[Cebu City]] Business Park.]]
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[[Image:Monument To Immortality.jpg|thumb|left|200px|The [[Philippine Stock Exchange]] with the statue of former Philippine politician, [[Benigno S. Aquino, Jr.]].]][[Image:Ortigas Tonight.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Ortigas Center Business District.]]
[[Image:landpryce2.jpg|thumb|right|200px|The Pryce Business Park in Metro [[Davao City|Davao]].]]
+
  
The [[1997 Asian Financial Crisis|Asian Financial Crisis]] affected the Philippine economy to an extent, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the Philippine peso and falls in the stock market, although the extent to which it was affected was not as severe as that of its Asian neighbors. This is largely due to the fiscal conservatism of the Philippine government partly as a result of decades of monitoring and fiscal supervision from the [[International Monetary Fund]], in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth.<ref name="lastlaugh" /> By 2004, the Philippine economy experienced six percent growth in [[gross domestic product]] and 7.3% in 2007,<ref name="2007-gdp">[http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/topofthehour.aspx?StoryId=107507 RP 2007 GDP grows 7.3%; fastest in 31 yrs]{{dead link|date=October 2008}}, [[ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs]], January 31, 2008</ref> in line with the "7, 8, 9" project of the government to accelerate GDP growth by 2009.<ref>{{Cite web
+
The [[1997 Asian Financial Crisis|Asian Financial Crisis]] affected the Philippine economy to an extent, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the Philippine [[peso]], and falls in the stock market, although the extent to which it was affected was not as severe as that of its Asian neighbors. This is largely due to the fiscal conservatism of the Philippine government partly as a result of decades of monitoring, and fiscal supervision from the [[International Monetary Fund]], in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth.<ref name="lastlaugh" /> By 2004, the Philippine economy experienced six percent growth in [[gross domestic product]], and 7.3% in 2007,<ref name="2007-gdp">[http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/topofthehour.aspx?StoryId=107507 RP 2007 GDP grows 7.3%; fastest in 31 yrs]{{Dead link|date=October 2008}}, [[ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs]], January 31, 2008</ref> in line with the "7, 8, 9" project of the government to accelerate GDP growth by 2009.<ref>{{Cite web
 
|url=http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2007/02/20/ap3443340.html
 
|url=http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2007/02/20/ap3443340.html
 
|archivedate=2007-02-20
 
|archivedate=2007-02-20
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|accessdate=2008-01-09}}</ref>
 
|accessdate=2008-01-09}}</ref>
  
[[Image:Monument To Immortality.jpg‎|thumb|left|130px|The [[Philippine Stock Exchange]].]]
+
In a bid to further strengthen the Philippine economy, Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo pledged to make the Philippines a [[developed country]] by 2020. As part of this goal, she instituted five economic "[[Super regions of the Philippines|super regions]]" to concentrate on the economic strengths of various regions of the Philippines, as well as the implementation of [[tax]] reforms, continued privatization of state assets, and the building-up of [[infrastructure]] in various areas of the Philippines.
  
In a bid to further strengthen the Philippine economy, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo pledged to make the Philippines a [[developed country]] by 2020. As part of this goal, she instituted five economic "[[Super regions of the Philippines|super regions]]" to concentrate on the economic strengths of various regions of the Philippines, as well as the implementation of [[tax]] reforms, continued privatization of state assets, and the building-up of [[infrastructure]] in various areas of the Philippines.
+
The Philippine economy is heavily reliant on remittances as a source of foreign currency, surpassing foreign direct investment. China, and India have emerged as a major economic competitors, siphoning away investors who would otherwise have invested in the Philippines, particularly telecommunications companies. Regional development is also somewhat uneven, with Luzon, and Metro Manila in particular gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions,<ref name="econ-manila">[http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/?page=editorial_july25_2006 Beyond Imperial Manila], [[Manila Standard Today]], accessed July 25, 2006</ref> although the government has taken steps to distribute economic growth by promoting investment in other areas of the Philippines.
  
Despite the growing economy, the Philippines will have to address several chronic tasks in the future. Strategies for streamlining the economy include improvements of infrastructure, more efficient tax systems to bolster government revenues, furthering deregulation and [[privatization]] of the economy, and increasing trade integration within the region and across the world.<ref name="integration">[http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/?page=news4_jan27_2007 Large Swiss Firm offers to invest in Philippines] [http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/ Manila Standard]. Accessed January 27, 2007</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/topofthehour.aspx?StoryId=64812 |title=RP ready for Global Trade |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20071030015015/http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/topofthehour.aspx?StoryId=64812 |archivedate=2007-10-30}}, [[ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs]], accessed February 17, 2007</ref> The Philippine economy is also heavily reliant on remittances as a source of foreign currency, surpassing even foreign direct investment. China and India have emerged as major economic competitors, siphoning away investors who would otherwise have invested in the Philippines, particularly telecommunications companies. Regional development is also somewhat uneven, with Luzon and Metro Manila in particular gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions,<ref name="econ-manila">[http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/?page=editorial_july25_2006 Beyond Imperial Manila], [[Manila Standard Today]], accessed July 25, 2006</ref> although the government has taken steps to distribute economic growth by promoting investment in other areas of the Philippines.
+
The Philippines is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). It is also a member of the [[World Bank]], the [[International Monetary Fund]] (IMF), the [[Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation]] (APEC), the [[World Trade Organization]] (WTO), the [[Colombo Plan]], and the [[Group of 77|G-77]], and other International organization.<ref> [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html#Govt International Organization Participation] [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html CIA World Factbook]</ref>
 
+
The Philippines is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), playing home to its headquarters. It is also a member of the [[World Bank]], the [[International Monetary Fund]] (IMF), the [[Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation]] (APEC), the [[World Trade Organization]] (WTO), the [[Colombo Plan]], and the [[Group of 77|G-77]], among others.<ref> [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html#Govt International Organization Participation] [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html CIA World Factbook]</ref>
+
 
+
==Politics and government==
+
{{main|Politics of the Philippines}}
+
{{see also|Foreign relations of the Philippines|President of the Philippines|Constitution of the Philippines}}
+
{{further|[[Armed Forces of the Philippines]]}}
+
 
+
[[Image:Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Davos.jpg|120px|thumb|left|Philippine President [[Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo]].]]
+
 
+
The Philippines has a [[Presidential system|presidential]], [[Unitary state|unitary]] form of government (with some modification; there is [[Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao|one]] [[autonomous area|autonomous region]] largely free from the national government), where the [[President of the Philippines|President]] functions as both [[head of state]] and [[head of government]], and is [[commander-in-chief]] of the [[Armed Forces of the Philippines|armed forces]]. The president is elected by popular vote to a single six year term, during which time she or he appoints and presides over the [[cabinet]].<ref name="About"/>
+
 
+
The [[bicameral]] [[Congress of the Philippines|Congress]] is composed of a [[Senate of the Philippines|Senate]], serving as the [[upper house]] whose members are elected nationally to a six year term, and a [[House of Representatives of the Philippines|House of Representatives]] serving as the [[lower house]] whose members are elected to a three year term and are elected from both [[Legislative districts of the Philippines|legislative districts]] and through sectoral representation.<ref name="About"/>
+
 
+
The [[judiciary|judicial]] power is vested in the [[Supreme Court of the Philippines|Supreme Court]], composed of a [[Chief Justice of the Philippines|Chief Justice]] as its presiding officer and fourteen [[Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines|associate justices]], all appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the [[Judicial and Bar Council]].<ref name="About"/> Attempts to amend the constitution to either a [[federal government|federal]], [[unicameral]] or [[parliamentary government|parliamentary]] form of government have been satisfactory since the [[Fidel V. Ramos|Ramos]] administration. <ref>http://www.inwent.org/ez/articles/077943/index.en.shtml</ref>
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The Philippines is a founding and active member of the [[United Nations]] since its inception on October 24, 1945 and is a founding member of the [[Association of Southeast Asian Nations]] (ASEAN). The Philippines is also a member of the [[East Asia Summit]] (EAS), an active player in the [[Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation]] (APEC), the [[Latin Union]], and a member of the [[Group of 24]]. The country is a [[major non-NATO ally]] of the United States, but also a member of the [[Non-Aligned Movement]].<ref name="About"/>
+
 
+
==Administrative divisions==
+
{{main|Administrative divisions of the Philippines}}
+
[[Image:Ph regions and provinces.png|150px|thumb|Provinces and regions of the Philippines.]]
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The Philippines is divided into three island groups: [[Luzon]], [[Visayas]], and [[Mindanao]]. These are divided into 17 [[Regions of the Philippines|regions]], 81 [[Provinces of the Philippines|provinces]], 136 [[Cities of the Philippines|cities]], 1,494 [[Municipalities of the Philippines|municipalities]] and 41,995 [[barangay]]s.<ref>[http://www.nscb.gov.ph/pressreleases/2007/13Nov_PR-200711-PP2-01PSGC.asp NCSB Press Release]</ref> In addition, the Section 2 of Republic Act No. 5446 asserts that the Philippines has acquired dominion and sovereignty over [[Sabah]], [[North Borneo]].<ref>{{Citation
+
|url=http://www.chanrobles.com/republicacts/republicactno5446.html
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|title=AN ACT TO AMEND SECTION ONE OF REPUBLIC ACT NUMBERED THIRTY HUNDRED AND FORTY-SIX, ENTITLED "AN ACT TO DEFINE THE BASELINES OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA OF THE PHILIPPINES"
+
|date=September 18, 1968
+
|accessdate=2008-07-24|publisher=Chanrobles Law Library}}</ref>
+
 
+
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
+
|-
+
! Region !! Designation !! Capital
+
|-
+
| [[Ilocos Region]] || Region I || [[San Fernando City, La Union|San Fernando City]], [[La Union]]
+
|-
+
| [[Cagayan Valley]] || Region II || [[Tuguegarao City]], [[Cagayan]]
+
|-
+
| [[Central Luzon]] || Region III || [[City of San Fernando, Pampanga|City of San Fernando]], [[Pampanga]]
+
|-
+
| [[CALABARZON]]'''¹''' '''²''' || Region IV-A || [[Calamba City]], [[Laguna]]
+
|-
+
| [[MIMAROPA]]'''¹''' '''²''' '''³''' || Region IV-B || [[Calapan City]], [[Oriental Mindoro]]
+
|-
+
| [[Bicol Region]] || Region V || [[Legazpi City]], [[Albay]]
+
|-
+
| [[Western Visayas]]|| Region VI || [[Iloilo City]], [[Iloilo]]
+
|-
+
| [[Central Visayas]] || Region VII || [[Cebu City]], [[Cebu]]
+
|-
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| [[Eastern Visayas]] || Region VIII || [[Tacloban City]], [[Leyte]]
+
|-
+
| [[Zamboanga Peninsula]] || Region IX || [[Pagadian City]], [[Zamboanga del Sur]]
+
|-
+
| [[Northern Mindanao]] || Region X || [[Cagayan De Oro City]], [[Misamis Oriental]]
+
|-
+
| [[Davao Region]] || Region XI || [[Davao City]], [[Davao del Sur]]
+
|-
+
| [[SOCCSKSARGEN]]'''¹''' || Region XII || [[Koronadal City]], [[South Cotabato]]
+
|-
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| [[Caraga]] || Region XIII || [[Butuan City]], [[Agusan del Norte]]
+
|-
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| [[Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao]] || ARMM || [[Cotabato City]], [[Maguindanao]]
+
|-
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| [[Cordillera Administrative Region]] || CAR || [[Baguio City]], [[Benguet]]
+
|-
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| [[Metro Manila|National Capital Region]] || NCR || [[Manila]]
+
|}
+
'''¹''' Names are capitalized because they are [[acronym]]s, containing the names of the constituent provinces or cities (''see [[Acronyms in the Philippines]]'').<br />
+
'''²''' These regions formed the former [[Southern Tagalog]] region, or Region IV.<br />
+
'''³''' [[Palawan]] was moved from Region IV-B as known as MIMAROPA to Region VI. But after a few months, Palawan was moved back to Region IV-B due to the Palaweños wish.
+
  
 
==Demographics==
 
==Demographics==
 
<!--Please suggest changes through the talk page. Thanks.-->
 
<!--Please suggest changes through the talk page. Thanks.-->
[[Image:Philippines-demography.png|150px|thumb|Population growth of the Philippines.]]
 
 
{{main|Demographics of the Philippines|Filipino people|Overseas Filipino}}
 
{{main|Demographics of the Philippines|Filipino people|Overseas Filipino}}
The Philippines is the world's 12th most populous country, with a population of over 90 million as of 2008.<ref name=population /><ref name=IMF2006 /> As of 2007, 8% of Filipinos are living abroad as migrant laborers. Roughly half of the country's population resides on the island of [[Luzon]]. [[Manila]], the capital, is the eleventh most populous metropolitan area in the world. The literacy rate was 92.6% in 2003,<ref>{{cite web
+
{{Largest cities of the Philippines}}
 +
[[Image:Philippines-demography.png|175px|thumb|Population growth of the Philippines.]]
 +
The Philippines is the world's 12th most populous country, with a population of over 90 million as of 2008.<ref name=population /><ref name=IMF2006 /> In 2007, 8% of Filipinos are living abroad as migrant laborers. An estimated figure of half of the Philippine population resides on the island of [[Luzon]]. [[Manila]], the capital city, is the eleventh most populous metropolitan area in the world. The literacy rate were 92.6% in 2003,<ref>{{cite web
 
|url=http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2005/pdf/HDR05_HDI.pdf
 
|url=http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2005/pdf/HDR05_HDI.pdf
 
|title=Human Development Indicators
 
|title=Human Development Indicators
Line 298: Line 336:
 
|publisher=CIA World Factbook
 
|publisher=CIA World Factbook
 
|accessdate=2008-01-09
 
|accessdate=2008-01-09
|format={{dead link|date=June 2008}} <sup>[http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=intitle%3AThe+Philippines%3A+People&as_publication=&as_ylo=&as_yhi=&btnG=Search Scholar search]</sup>}}</ref> and about equal for males and females.<ref name=CIAfactbook /> Life expectancy is 71.23 years, with 73.6 years for females and 69.8 years for males. Population growth rate in 1995-2000 is 3.21% but then dramatically fell to 1.59% for 2005-2010.
+
|format={{dead link|date=April 2009}} &ndash; <sup>[http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=intitle%3AThe+Philippines%3A+People&as_publication=&as_ylo=&as_yhi=&btnG=Search Scholar search]</sup>}}</ref> and about equal for males, and females.<ref name=CIAfactbook /> Life expectancy is 71.23 years, with 73.6 years for females and 69.8 years for males. Population growth rate between 1995 to 2000 is 3.21% but has decreased to 1.59% for 2005 to 2010.
  
 
===Ethnic groups===
 
===Ethnic groups===
 
<!--Please suggest changes through the talk page. Thanks.-->
 
<!--Please suggest changes through the talk page. Thanks.-->
 
{{main|Ethnic groups of the Philippines}}
 
{{main|Ethnic groups of the Philippines}}
[[Image:Philippine ethnic groups per province.PNG|150px|thumb|right|Map of the dominant [[Ethnic groups of the Philippines|ethnicities]] of the Philippines by province.]]
+
[[Image:Philippine ethnic groups per province.PNG|175px|thumb|right|Map of the dominant [[Ethnic groups of the Philippines|ethnicities]] of the Philippines by province.]]
 
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The majority of Philippine nationals are descended from the [[Austronesian people|Austronesian]] (Malayo Polynesian) people who settled in over a thousand years ago from southern [[Taiwan]], genetically most closely related to the [[Ami people|Ami]] tribe.<ref name=StanfordStudy>{{cite journal
+
|coauthors = Cristian Capelli, James F. Wilson, Martin Richards, Michael P. H. Stumpf,
+
Fiona Gratrix, Stephen Oppenheimer, Peter Underhill, Vincenzo L. Pascali,
+
Tsang-Ming Ko, and David B. Goldstein1
+
|year = 2001
+
|title = A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian-Speaking Peoples of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania
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|journal = American journal of Human Genetics
+
|format = PDF
+
|volume = 68
+
|pages = 432–443
+
|url = http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/AJHG_2001_v68_p432.pdf
+
|accessdate = 2007-10-29
+
|doi = 10.1086/318205
+
|author = Capelli, C}} (Table 1, p.434)</ref> The [[Malayo-Polynesian languages|Malayo Polynesian-speaking]] peoples, a branch of the [[Austronesian languages|Austronesian-speaking]] peoples, migrated to the Philippines and brought their knowledge of agriculture and ocean-sailing technology. Filipinos to this day are composed of various Malayo Polynesian [[ethnic group]]s, including the [[Visayans]], the [[Tagalog people|Tagalog]], the [[Ilocano people|Ilocano]], the [[Moro people|Moro]], the [[Kapampangan people|Kapampangan]], the [[Bicolano people|Bicolano]], the [[Pangasinan people|Pangasinense]], the [[Igorot]], the [[Lumad]], the [[Mangyan]], the [[Ibanag people|Ibanag]], the [[Bajau|Badjao]], the [[Ivatan people|Ivatan]], and the [[Ethnic Groups of Palawan|Palawan tribes]]. The [[Negritos]], including the [[Aeta]]s and the [[Ati (ethnic group)|Ati]], are considered as the aboriginal inhabitants of the Philippines though they are estimated to be fewer than 30,000 people (0.03%).
+
 
+
Filipinos of [[Chinese Filipino|Chinese]] descent currently form the largest non-Austronesian ethnic group, claiming about 10-30% of the population<ref>{{cite web
+
|url=http://www.ocac.gov.tw/english/public/public.asp?selno=1163&no=1163&level=B
+
|title=The Ranking of Ethnic Chinese Population
+
|publisher=Overseas Compatriate Affairs Commission, R.O.C. (Taiwan)
+
|accessdate=2007-09-26}}</ref> followed by Filipinos of [[Filipinos of Spanish descent|Spanish]] descent. Other significant minorities include [[British Filipino]]s, [[Filipinos of American descent|Americans]], [[European people|Europeans]], [[Filipinos of Japanese descent|Japanese]], [[South Asians in the Philippines|Asian Indians]], [[Koreans in the Philippines|Koreans]], [[Filipinos of Arab descent|Arabs]], and [[Indonesians]].
+
 
+
Throughout the country's history, various ethnic groups as well as immigrants and colonizers have intermarried with the native population, producing [[Filipino mestizo]]s. These mestizos, apart from being of mixed Malayo Polynesian and European ancestry, can be descended from any [[ethnic group|ethnic]] foreign forebears. The official percentage of Filipinos with foreign ancestry is unknown since there are no credible sources for the percentage of Philippine mestizos residing in the Philippines. The number of Filipino mestizos that reside outside the Philippines is also unknown. However, due to major historical factors, such as the Spanish colonization, the American occupation, and Chinese immigration after World War II; most Filipino mestizos that reside in the Philippines are now of Spanish, American, European, Chinese, and other foreign descent.
+
  
 
===Languages===
 
===Languages===
 
{{main|Languages of the Philippines}}
 
{{main|Languages of the Philippines}}
[[Image:Phillanguages.jpg|150px|thumb|right|Map of the dominant [[Ethnolinguistics|ethnolinguistic]] groups of the Philippines.]]
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<div style="font-size: 90%">
According to the [[Constitution of the Philippines|1987 Philippine Constitution]], [[Filipino language|Filipino]], and [[English language|English]] are the official languages. About 180 languages and dialects are also spoken in the islands, almost all of them belonging to the [[Borneo-Philippines languages|Borneo-Philippines]] group of the [[Malayo-Polynesian languages|Malayo-Polynesian language]] branch of the [[Austronesian languages|Austronesian language family]].
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{| class="wikitable" border="1" table cellspacing="0" style="border:1px black; float:right; margin-left:1em;"
 +
! style="background:#F99;" colspan="2"|Native Languages (2000)<ref>Philippine Census, 2000. Table 11. Household Population by Ethnicity, Sex and Region: 2000</ref>
 +
|-
 +
|Tagalog ||22 million
 +
|-
 +
|Cebuano ||20 million
 +
|-
 +
|Ilokano||7.7 million
 +
|-
 +
|Hiligaynon||7 million
 +
|-
 +
|Waray-Waray||3.1 million
 +
|-
 +
|Capampangan||2.9 million
 +
|-
 +
|Chavacano, incl. [[Spanish-based creole languages|Creole]]||2.5 million
 +
|}
 +
</div>
 +
According to the [[Constitution of the Philippines|1987 Philippine Constitution]], [[Filipino language|Filipino]], and [[English language|English]] are the official languages. About 180 languages, and native dialects are also spoken in the Philippine islands. The Philippine indigenous languages belonged to the [[Borneo-Philippines languages|Borneo-Philippines]] group of the [[Malayo-Polynesian languages|Malayo-Polynesian language]] branch of the [[Austronesian languages|Austronesian language]] family.
  
Filipino is the standard version of [[Tagalog language|Tagalog]], spoken mainly in Metro Manila, and other urban regions. Both Tagalog, and English are used in government, education, print and broadcast media, and business.
+
Filipino is the [[de facto]] version of [[Tagalog language|Tagalog]], spoken mainly in Metro Manila, and other urban regions. Both Tagalog, and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business.
  
Other major regional languages include [[Cebuano language|Cebuano]], [[Ilokano language|Ilocano]], [[Hiligaynon language|Hiligaynon]], [[Waray-Waray language|Waray-Waray]], [[Kapampangan language|Kapampangan]], [[Bikol language|Bikol]], [[Pangasinan language|Pangasinan]], [[Kinaray-a language|Kinaray-a]], [[Maranao language|Maranao]], [[Maguindanao language|Maguindanao]], and [[Tausug language|Tausug]].
+
Other major regional languages include [[Cebuano language|Cebuano]], [[Ilokano language|Ilocano]], [[Hiligaynon language|Hiligaynon]], [[Waray-Waray language|Waray-Waray]], [[Kapampangan language|Kapampangan]], [[Bikol language|Bicolano]], [[Pangasinan language|Pangasinan]], [[Kinaray-a language|Kinaray-a]], [[Maranao language|Maranao]], [[Maguindanao language|Maguindanao]], [[Tausug language|Tausug]], and [[Chavacano]].
  
Other languages include [[Spanish language|Spanish]], and [[Arabic language|Arabic]] which are recognized as [[auxiliary languages]] in the Philippine Constitution. The use of Spanish is prevalent among Hispanic mestizos; and Arabic are used by [[Filipino Muslim|Filipino muslims]], and taught in [[madrasah]] (Muslim) schools.
+
Other languages include [[Spanish language|Spanish]], and [[Arabic language|Arabic]], both recognized as [[auxiliary languages]] in the Philippine Constitution.
  
 
===Religion===
 
===Religion===
 
{{main|Religion in the Philippines}}
 
{{main|Religion in the Philippines}}
 
<!--Please suggest changes through the talk page. Thanks.-->
 
<!--Please suggest changes through the talk page. Thanks.-->
[[Image:Sschurch1.jpg|thumb|150px|Basilica Minore de San Sebastián, [[Manila]].]]
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[[Image:Sschurch1.jpg|thumb|left|155px|The [[Basilica Minore de San Sebastian|Basilica Minore de San Sebastián]], one of many Christian churches in the Philippine Islands.]]
The Philippines is one of two countries in Asia, and the Asia-Pacific region with Roman Catholic majorities; the other being [[East Timor]]. The Philippines is separated into [[diocese]]s of which the [[Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila|Archdiocese of Manila]] is the main primacy. About 90% of Filipinos identify themselves as Christians, with 81% belonging to the [[Roman Catholic Church]]. 2% are composed of Protestant denominations and 11% either to the [[Philippine Independent Church]], [[Iglesia ni Cristo]], and others.<ref name=2006census>{{Cite web
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The Philippines is one of two countries in Asia, and the Asia-Pacific region with [[Roman Catholic]] as the major religion, the other being [[East Timor]]. The Philippines is separated into different [[archdiocese]]s, and [[diocese]]s. About 90% of Filipinos identify themselves as Christians, with 81% belonging to the [[Roman Catholic Church]] and 5% composing of Protestant denominations, and 4% comprising of [[The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints]], [[Iglesia Ni Cristo]], [[Philippine Independent Church]], [[Seventh Day Adventist]], [[United Church of Christ]], and other Christian religion.<ref name=2006census>{{Cite web
 
|url=http://www.census.gov.ph/data%5cpressrelease%5c2003%5cpr0323tx.html
 
|url=http://www.census.gov.ph/data%5cpressrelease%5c2003%5cpr0323tx.html
 
|archivedate=2007-04-09
 
|archivedate=2007-04-09
Line 351: Line 384:
  
 
{{bar box
 
{{bar box
|title=Philippines religiosity
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|title=Religion in the Philippines
 
|titlebar=#ddd
 
|titlebar=#ddd
|left1=religion
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|left1=Religion
|right1=percent
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|right1=Percent
|float=left
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|float=right
 
|bars=
 
|bars=
 
{{bar percent|Christianity|blue|90}}
 
{{bar percent|Christianity|blue|90}}
 
{{bar percent|Islam|green|5}}
 
{{bar percent|Islam|green|5}}
{{bar percent|Others|gray|5}}
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{{bar percent|Buddhism|yellow|2}}
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{{bar percent|Hinduism|red|1}}
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{{bar percent|Others|gray|2}}
 
}}
 
}}
The Philippines is also well-known for its [[Baroque]]-style churches. They are a part of the long list of [[UNESCO World Heritage Sites]]. These churches are: [[San Agustin Church, Manila|San Agustin Church]] in Intramuros, Manila; Paoay Church in Paoay, Ilocos Norte; Nuestra Señora de la Asuncion (Santa María) Church in Santa María, Ilocos Sur; and the Santo Tomas de Villanueva Church in Iloilo.
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The Philippines is known for its [[Baroque]] churches. They are a part of the long list of [[UNESCO World Heritage Sites]]. These churches include the [[San Agustin Church, Manila|San Agustín Church]] in Intramuros, Manila; Paoay Church in Paoay, Ilocos Norte; Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (Santa María) Church in Santa María, Ilocos Sur; and the Santo Tomás de Villanueva Church in Iloilo, and the [[Basilica Minore del Santo Niño]] in Cebu.  
  
Approximately 5% of Filipinos are [[Muslim]]s,<ref name=2006census/> and are locally known as Moros, having been dubbed this by the Spaniards due to their sharing Islam with the [[Moors]] of North Africa. They primarily settle in parts of [[Mindanao]], [[Palawan]], and the [[Sulu archipelago]], but are now found in most urban areas of the country. Most lowland Muslim Filipinos practice [[Islam]], although the practices of some Mindanao's highland Muslim populations reflect a mixture with [[Animism]]. There are also small populations of [[Buddhism in the Philippines|Buddhists]], [[Bahá'í]], [[Hinduism in the Philippines|Hindus]], [[Sikhs]], and animists, which, along with other non-Christians, non-Muslims and those with no religion, collectively comprise 2.5% of the population.<ref name=factbookRPpeople/>
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Approximately 5% of Filipinos are [[Muslim]]s.<ref name=2006census/> They settled in parts of [[Mindanao]], [[Palawan]], and the [[Sulu archipelago]], but are now found in most urban areas of the Philippines. Most lowland Muslim Filipinos practice [[Islam]], although the practices of some Mindanao's highland Muslim populations reflect a mixture with [[Animism]]. There are also a number of minority religious groups such as [[Buddhism in the Philippines|Buddhists]], [[Bahá'í]], [[Hinduism in the Philippines|Hindus]], [[Sikhs]], and [[animist]]s. Along with other non-Christians, non-Muslims, and those with no religion, they collectively comprise 2% of the population.<ref name=factbookRPpeople/>
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 +
===Education===
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{{main|Education in the Philippines}}
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[[Image:UST Main Bldg Facade.jpg|thumb|right|200px|The [[University of Santo Tomas]].]]
 +
<!--Please suggest changes through the talk page. Thanks. OTHER RELATED DETAILS AND INFO SUCH AS LEAGUE TABLES AND ACADEMIC RANKINGS OF UNIVERSITIES AS WELL AS OTHER TRIVIAL INFORMATION ARE ALREADY PART OF THE MAIN ARTICLE ENTITLED [[Education in the Philippines]]. PLEASE BE REMINDED THAT THE INFORMATION THAT SHOULD BE WRITTEN IN THIS SECTION SHOULD RATHER PRESENT OVERVIEW OF THE ENTIRE PHILIPPINE EDUCATION SYSTEM.-->
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 +
The general pattern of Philippine formal education follows six stages:
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* Preschool
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* Elementary school
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* High school
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* Post-secondary education
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* Graduation education
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* Adult education
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 +
The Philippines spends 2.5% of its GDP for education.<ref name=CIAfactbook /> In 2003, the Philippines has an average literacy rate of 93.4%.<ref name="quickstats">[http://www.census.gov.ph/data/quickstat/index.html National Statistics Office QuickStat Index Page]. Accessed January 24, 2009.</ref> In 2008, there are 42,152 elementary schools, 8,455 high schools, and a few thousand colleges and universities registered all over the country.<ref>[http://www.deped.gov.ph/cpanel/uploads/issuanceImg/factsheet2008(May12).pdf Department of Education: Basic Education Fact Sheets]. Accessed January 24, 2009.</ref>
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 +
Classes in Philippine schools start in June, and end in March. The majority of colleges, and universities follow the semestral calendar from June to October, and November to March. There are a number of foreign schools with study programs.<ref name="About"/>
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 +
Education in the Philippines has evolved in several stage of development from the colonial period to the present. In meeting the needs of the Philippine society, education serves as an important part of the leadership at certain educational programs.
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 +
The Philippines adopts a European, and American education system as mandated by the Philippine government. The [[Department of Education (Philippines)|Department of Education]] (DepEd) former (DECS) covers elementary, secondary, and non-formal education. The [[Technical Education and Skills Development Authority]] (TESDA) administers the post-secondary, middle-level education training, and development while the [[Commission on Higher Education (Philippines)|Commission on Higher Education]] (CHEd) supervises the college as well as graduate academic programs, and degrees as well as regulate standards in higher education.<ref>[http://www.deped.gov.ph/ Department of Education of the Philippines]</ref>
 +
 
 +
==Infrastructure==
 +
===Transportation===
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{{further|[[Transportation in the Philippines]]}}
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[[Image:Jeepney Benz.jpg|thumb|190px|right|[[Jeepney|Philippine jeepney]] is one of the Philippines' most popular transportation.]]
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In spite of the mountainous terrain, approximately 14 percent of the 158,810 kilometers (98,110 miles) of roads in the Philippines are paved.<ref name="transpo">[http://www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/philippines/pro-transportation.htm Asian Info: The Philippine Transportation System]. Accessed January 22, 2009.</ref> Buses, jeepneys, taxis, and motorcycles are available when getting around the major cities, and towns. In 2007, there are about 5.53 million registered motor vehicles in the Philippines, and an average annual registration rate of 4.55%.<ref>[http://www.lto.gov.ph/Stats2007/no_of_mv_registered_byMVType_2.htm Land Transportation Office: Number of Motor Vehicles Registered]. Accessed January 22, 2009.</ref>
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 +
Train service is provided by the [[Strong Republic Transit System]], which unified the three main railway networks that provide service of different areas of Metro Manila, and parts of Luzon, that includes the [[Manila Light Rail Transit System]] (LRT), the [[Manila Metro Rail Transit System]] (MRT), and the [[Philippine National Railways]] (PNR).
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 +
[[Image:PAL 747&320.jpg|left|thumb|190px|[[Philippine Airlines]], the Philippines' [[national airline]].]]
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 +
Seaports can be found throughout the Philippine Islands. The busiest seaports are Manila, Cebu, Iloilo, Davao, Cagayan de Oro, and Zamboanga, which are parts of the 3,219 kilometer of waterways, and seaports.<ref name=CIAfactbook /><ref name="transpo"/> Inter-island passenger ships and other sea vessels such as [[Superferry]], [[Negros Navigation]], and [[Sulpicio Lines]] serves Manila, with links to various cities, and towns. In 2003, the 919-kilometer [[Strong Republic Nautical Highway]] (SRNH) was established, and this is an integrated set of highway segments, and ferry routes covering 17 cities all over the Philippines.<ref>[http://www.macapagal.com/gma/initiatives/roro.php Macapagal Official website: Strong Republic Nautical Highway]. Accessed January 22, 2009.</ref>
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 +
Rivers, such as the [[Pasig River]], and [[Marikina River]], have air-conditioned commuter ferries run by the [[Pasig River Ferry Service]], connecting their numerous tributaries in Manila, Makati City, Mandaluyong City, Pasig City, and Marikina City.<ref>[http://www.gmanews.tv/story/30644/Govt-revives-Pasig-River-ferry-service Government revives Pasig River ferry service]. ''GMA News.TV''. February 14, 2007.</ref>
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 +
There are 262 airports in the Philippines, 75 of which have runways.<ref name="transpo"/> The [[Ninoy Aquino International Airport]] (NAIA) is the main airport of the Philippines. Other important airports include the [[Diosdado Macapagal International Airport]], [[Mactan-Cebu International Airport]], and [[Francisco Bangoy International Airport]]. The [[Philippine Airlines]], Asia's first commercial airline, and [[Cebu Pacific]], the Philippine's leading domestic airline, are the major airlines serving most domestic, and international destinations.
 +
 
 +
===Communications===
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{{further|[[Communications in the Philippines]]}}
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 +
The Philippines has one of the most sophisticated cellular phone industry in the world, and one of the highest concentration of users.<ref name="pldt"/> The telecommunications company is dominated by the [[Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company]], which is also the largest company in the country.<ref name="pldt">[http://www.forbes.com/lists/2008/37/biz_asiafab08_PLDT-Philippine-Long-Distance-Telephone_YIW4.html Forbes Magazine]. September 03, 2008.</ref><ref>http://www.forbes.com/lists/2008/18/biz_2000global08_The-Global-2000_Counrty_10.html Forbes Global 2000 List]. March 02, 2008.</ref> [[Globe Telecom]], [[Smart Communications]], and [[Sun Cellular]] on the other hand, are three of its largest cellular service providers.
 +
 
 +
There is an estimated 41 million cellular phone users in the Philippine Islands, the reason that the Philippines has been named as the "Texting Capital of the World",<ref name="txt">[http://www.usatoday.com/tech/wireless/phones/2007-09-29-philippines-cell-phones_N.htm Cell phones double as electronic wallets in Philippines]. Teves, Oliver. ''USA Today''. September 29, 2007.</ref> and the ownership rate is increasing.<ref name="pldt"/> [[Text messaging]] have fostered a culture of quick greetings, and forwarded jokes among the Filipinos. Out of these growing number of avid texters, 5.5 million of them use their cellular phones as virtual wallets, making the Philippines a leader among developing nations in providing financial transactions over cellular networks.<ref name="txt"/> In 2007, The Philippines sent an average of 1 billion [[Short message service|SMS]] messages per day.<ref>[http://technology.inquirer.net/infotech/infotech/view/20080304-122775/Filipinos-sent-1-billion-text-messages-daily-in-2007/ Filipinos sent 1 billion text messages daily in 2007]. Francisco, Rosemarie. ''The Philippine Daily Inquirer''. March 03, 2008.</ref>
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 +
Radio, television, and internet is used frequently in the Philippines. There are approximately 381 AM, and 628 FM stations, and 250 national, and 1,501 cable TV stations broadcasting throughout the Philippines.<ref name=CIAfactbook /> The Philippines has 14 million Internet users, 16% of the total population, being served by almost 100 Internet providers.<ref>[http://www.internetworldstats.com/asia/ph.htm Internetworld Stats]. Accessed January 22, 2009.</ref>
  
 
==Culture==
 
==Culture==
 
<!--Please suggest changes through the talk page. Thanks.-->
 
<!--Please suggest changes through the talk page. Thanks.-->
{{main|Culture of the Philippines|Music of the Philippines}}
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{{main|Culture of the Philippines|Literature of the Philippines|Music of the Philippines}}
[[Image:Ifugao sculpture Louvre 70-1999-4-1.jpg|thumb|right|150px|An [[Ifugao]] (Malayo Polynesian) sculpture.]]
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[[Image:Ifugao sculpture Louvre 70-1999-4-1.jpg|thumb|left|175px|An [[Ifugao]] (Malayo-Polynesian) sculpture.]]
Philippine culture is a fusion of pre-Hispanic [[Austronesian people|Austronesian]] (Malayo Polynesian) civilizations mixed with [[Hispanic culture|Hispanic]], and [[Culture of the United States of America|American]]. It has also been influenced by [[Chinese culture|Chinese]], [[Arab culture|Arab]], and [[Indian culture|Indian]] cultures.<ref name="encarta"/>
+
  
The Hispanic influences in Philippine culture are derived from the [[culture of Spain]]. These Hispanic influences are most evident in [[literature]], [[folk music]], [[folk dance]], [[language]], [[food]], [[art]], and [[religion]].<ref name="encarta"/>
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Philippine culture is a mixture of [[Eastern culture|Eastern]], and [[Western culture]]. The Hispanic influences in Philippine culture are derived from the [[culture of Spain]], and [[culture of Mexico|Mexico]]. These Hispanic influences are most evident in [[literature]], [[folk music]], [[folk dance]], [[language]], [[food]], [[art]], and [[religion]].<ref name="encarta"/>
Spanish colonialists introduced Iberian, and Mexican dishes, such as arroz valenciana, to those of the Mexican cuisines (adobo preparation is the only exception as Philippine [[adobo]] is made with soy sauce, vinegar, garlic, bay leaves, and peppercorns unlike the tomato, corn, avocado, and potato in Mexican adobo). [[Cuisine of the Philippines|Philippine cuisine]] is a mixture of [[Asian cuisine|Asian]], [[Oceanian cuisine|Oceanian]], [[European cuisine|European]], and [[American cuisine|American]] dishes.
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Spanish settlers introduced [[Iberian Peninsula|Iberian]]-Mexican customs, traditions, and cuisines. [[Cuisine of the Philippines|Philippine cuisine]] is a mixture of Asian, and European dishes.
  
[[Filipino people|Filipinos]] hold festivities known as barrio [[Festival|fiestas]] to commemorate their patron [[saint]]s. One of the most visible Hispanic legacies is the prevalence of [[Catálogo Alfabético de Apellidos|Spanish surnames]] and names among Filipinos. This peculiarity, unique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial decree, the Clavería edict, for the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of the [[Spanish naming customs|Spanish naming system]] on the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands. A Spanish name and surname among the majority of Filipinos does not always denote Spanish ancestry.
+
Philippine tradition exhibits festivities known as [[Barrio]] [[Festival|fiestas]] (district festivals) to commemorate their patron [[saint]]s. One of the most visible Hispanic legacies is the prevalence of [[Catálogo Alfabético de Apellidos|Spanish surnames]], and names among Filipinos. This peculiarity, unique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial decree, the Clavería edict, for the systematic distribution of family names, and implementation of the [[Spanish naming customs|Spanish naming system]] on the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands. A Spanish name, and surname among the majority of Filipinos does not always denote Spanish ancestry.
[[Image:Kulintang 06.jpg|thumb|right|150px|The five instruments of gongs and a drum that make up the Philippine [[kulintang]] ensemble, an example of pre-Hispanic (Islamic) musical tradition present in southern Philippines.]]
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Many of street names, towns and provinces are in Spanish. [[Spanish architecture]] also made a major imprint in the Philippine Islands. This can be seen especially in the country's churches, government buildings, and universities. Many Hispanic style houses and buildings are being preserved, like the town in [[Vigan City]], for protection and conservation. The [[kalesa]] is a horse-driven carriage were a major mode of transportation during the colonial times. It is still being used today.  
+
  
The use of English language in the Philippines is contemporaneous and is America's visible legacy. The most commonly played sports in the Philippines are [[basketball]], and [[billiards]]. There is also a wide influence of [[Pop culture|American Pop cultural trends]], such as the love of [[fast-food]] and [[Film|movies]]; many street corners boast fast-food outlets. Aside from the American commercial giants such as [[McDonald's]], [[Pizza Hut]], [[Burger King]], [[KFC]], [[Starbucks]] and [[Shakey's Pizza]], local fast-food chains have also sprung up, including [[Goldilocks Bakeshop|Goldilocks]], [[Jollibee]], [[Greenwich Pizza]] (acquired by Jollibee in 1994),<ref name=Jollibee>{{Citation
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[[Image:Kulintang 06.jpg|thumb|right|175px|Islamic instruments of gongs, and a drum that make up the Philippine [[kulintang]] ensemble, an example of pre-Hispanic musical tradition.]]
 +
 
 +
The majority of street names, towns, and provinces are in Spanish. [[Spanish architecture]] made a significant imprint in the Philippine Islands. This can be seen in the country's churches, government buildings, and universities. Many Hispanic houses, and buildings are preserved, like the towns in [[Vigan]], and among others. The [[kalesa]]s, horse-driven carriages, were a mode of transportation during the Spanish period. They are still being used today.
 +
 
 +
The use of English language in the Philippines is contemporaneous, and is the United States' visible legacy. There is also an influence of [[Pop culture|American Pop cultural trends]], such as the love of [[fast-food]], [[film]] and [[music]]. Many street corners exhibits fast-food outlets. Aside from the American commercial industries such as [[California Pizza Kitchen]], [[McDonald's]], [[Pizza Hut]], [[Burger King]], [[KFC]], [[Starbucks]], [[TGI Fridays]], and [[Shakey's Pizza]], local fast-food chains have emerged, including [[Goldilocks Bakeshop|Goldilocks]], [[Jollibee]], [[Greenwich Pizza]] (acquired by Jollibee in 1994),<ref name=Jollibee>{{Citation
 
|url=http://www.jollibee.com.ph/corporate/phenomenon.htm
 
|url=http://www.jollibee.com.ph/corporate/phenomenon.htm
 
|archivedate=2007-06-23
 
|archivedate=2007-06-23
Line 385: Line 467:
 
|publisher=Jollibee, Inc.
 
|publisher=Jollibee, Inc.
 
|accessdate=2008-01-09
 
|accessdate=2008-01-09
|format={{dead link|date=June 2008}} <sup>[http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=intitle%3AThe+Jollibee+Phenomenon&as_publication=&as_ylo=&as_yhi=&btnG=Search Scholar search]</sup>}})</ref> and [[Chowking]] (acquired by Jollibee in 2000).<ref name=Jollibee /> Modern day Filipinos also listen to contemporary American music and watch American movies. However, Original Pilipino Music (also known as OPM) and [[Cinema in the Philippines|Philippine movies]] are also widely appreciated.
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|format={{dead link|date=April 2009}} &ndash; <sup>[http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=intitle%3AThe+Jollibee+Phenomenon&as_publication=&as_ylo=&as_yhi=&btnG=Search Scholar search]</sup>}})</ref> and [[Chowking]] (acquired by Jollibee in 2000).<ref name=Jollibee /> Modern day Filipinos also listen, and watch contemporary European, and American music, and film. However, Original Pilipino Music (also known as OPM), and [[Cinema in the Philippines|Philippine films]] are also appreciated.
 +
 
 +
Philippine culture has also received influence from various [[Indigenous culture]], and other [[Culture of Asia|Cultures of Asia]]. This includes the Malayo-Polynesian, [[Islamic culture|Islamic]], [[Chinese culture|Chinese]], and other cultures.
 +
 
 +
===Mythology and literature===
 +
[[Literature of the Philippines|Philippine literature]], and [[Philippine mythology|mythology]] are literatures that focus on a collection of various topics of the Philippine life-style, nature, and spiritual beliefs. This include the [[paranormal]] stories of ghost and monster, such as the [[Aswang]] (Vampire), the [[Diwata]] (Spirit), and Nature. The most recognized Philippine mythology includes the [[Ibong Adarna]], [[Bernardo Carpio]], [[Biag ni Lam-Ang|Lam-Ang]], and [[Urduja]].
 +
 
 +
[[Francisco Balagtas]] is recognized as one of the Philippines most famous writers. His works include "[[Florante at Laura]]" (Florante and Laura). Other writers include [[José Rizal]] who have produced "[[Noli Me Tangere (novel)|Noli Me Tangere]]" (Touch Me Not), and "[[El Filibusterismo]]" (The Reign of Greed). Modern literature, such as "[[Dekada '70]]", and "[[Bayan Ko]]" (My Country), have also received Philippine recognition, that illustrates the [[Martial law]] period in the 1970s, and the Pre-colonial period.
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===Media===
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{{further|[[Cinema of the Philippines]], [[Television in the Philippines]], [[Internet in the Philippines]], [[Social networking in the Philippines]], and [[Philippine drama]]}}
 +
 
 +
[[Media in the Philippines|Philippine media]] is based on [[Filipino language|Filipino]] (a [[de facto]] standard version of [[Tagalog language|Tagalog]]), and [[English language|English]]. Other Philippine languages, including various [[Visayan languages]], are also used in the Philippine media. [[Radio]] is currently the most accessible type of media due to the remoteness of certain rural locations, and most [[Philippine languages]] are broadcasted in this format.
 +
 
 +
The Philippine entertainment industry is vibrant with scandals, and issues among Philippine [[List of Filipino actors|celebrities]], and are the main subject in Philippine media, such as [[Newspapers in the Philippines|broadsheets, and tabloids]].<ref name = "BBC Pilipinas" >{{Cite web
 +
|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/country_profiles/1262783.stm#media
 +
|title=Country profile: The Philippines
 +
|publisher=[[BBC News]]
 +
|accessdate=2008-01-06}}</ref> [[Philippine drama|Drama]], and [[Fantaserye|fantasy shows]] are anticipated in major [[Television in the Philippines|television]] networks such as [[ABS-CBN]], [[GMA Network]], and [[Associated Broadcasting Company|TV5]], so are [[Hispanic|Latin]] [[telenovelas]], [[Asianovela]]s, and [[anime]]. Daytime television is dominated by game shows, variety shows, and talk shows such as [[Eat Bulaga]], [[Game KNB?]], and [[Wowowee]]. [[Cinema of the Philippines|Philippine cinema]], is also appreciated, but have faced competition from [[Cinema of the United States|American]] and [[Cinema of Europe|European films]]. Despite this, critically praised directors, and actors remain active, including [[Mike de Leon]], [[Lino Brocka]], [[Judy Ann Santos]], [[Vilma Santos]], and [[Nora Aunor]] (notable for her role in [[Himala]], the most critically acclaimed film in the Philippine Entertainment industry).<ref>[http://www.ebroadcast.com.au/enews/movies/ASIA-PACIFIC-SCREEN-AWARDS-WINNERS-ANNOUNCED-121108.html  ASIA PACIFIC SCREEN AWARDS WINNERS ANNOUNCED], ebroadcast.com.au.</ref><ref>Michael Bodey, [http://in.reuters.com/article/lifestyleMolt/idINTRE4AA2RG20081111?sp=true Kazakh comedy wins Asia-Pacific best movie award], Reuters India, November 11, 2008.</ref><ref>[http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,24897,24640516-7582,00.html Balloon Grabs Asia-Pac Screen Award], The Australian, November 12, 2008.</ref><ref>[http://www.gmanews.tv/story/132967/Himala-hailed-as-best-Asia-Pacific-film-of-all-time Himala is CNN best film of all time in Asia-Pacific], GMA News, November 12, 2008.</ref>
 +
 
 +
The [[Internet in the Philippines|Internet]] has gained popularity in recent years including [[Social networking in the Philippines|Social networking]], and [[MMORPG]]s, which are the most frequent internet activities, and has lead a Philippine-based company known as "Level Up! Games" to emerge in the Philippine industry.<ref name=Power>{{cite web |url=http://www.universalmccann.com/Assets/wave_3_20080403093750.pdf| title=Power To The People: Social Media Tracker, Wave3| accessdate=2008-06-22| date=March 2008| publisher=Universal McCann}}</ref><ref name=Capital>{{cite news| first=Jerry| last=Liao| title=The Philippines - Social Networking Capital of the World| url=http://www.mb.com.ph/issues/2008/05/20/TECH20080520124703.html| publisher=Manila Bulletin| date=[[May 20]], [[2008]]| accessdate=2008-06-23}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
===Cuisine===
 +
{{main|Filipino cuisine}}
 +
[[Image:Halo_halo1.jpg|thumb|right|The [[Halo-halo]] is a dessert made of ice, milk, various fruits, and ice cream.]]
 +
<!--Please suggest changes through the talk page. Thanks.-->
 +
 
 +
Philippine cuisine is Malayo-Polynesian in origin with a predominant [[Hispanic]] base, and has received varying degrees of influence from [[Chinese cuisine|Chinese]], [[Cuisine of the United States|American]], and other [[Asian cuisine]].
 +
 
 +
Filipinos traditionally eat three main meals a day. This include ''agahan'' ''(breakfast)'', ''tanghalían'' ''(lunch)'', and ''hapúnan'' ''(dinner)'', plus an afternoon snack called ''meriénda'' (another variant is ''minandál'' or ''minindál''). Dishes range from a simple meal of seafoods, pork, vegetable, and rice, to ''[[paella]]s'', and ''cocidos''. Popular dishes include ''[[lechón]]'', ''[[chorizo]]'', ''[[Tapa (Filipino cuisine)|tapa]]'', ''[[adobo]]'', ''kaldereta'' ''[[kare-kare]]'', ''crispy pata'', ''[[sinigang]]'', ''[[pancit]]'', and ''[[lumpia]]''.
 +
 
 +
Today, Philippine cuisine continues to evolve in techniques, and styles of cooking dishes, in both traditional Filipino, and modern cuisines. Fast food is also popular.
 +
American chef, and television personality [[Anthony Bourdain]] has hailed Filipino pork cuisine, and named the country at the top of his ''"Hierarchy of Pork"''.<ref>{{cite web |author=[[Anthony Bourdain]] |title=Hierarchy of Pork |work=Anthony Bourdain's No Reservations |url=http://anthony-bourdain-blog.travelchannel.com/read/hierarchy-of-pork |publisher=Travel Channel |date=2009-02-16 |accessdate=2009-02-17 }}</ref>
 +
 
 +
===Sports and recreation===
 +
{{further|[[Sports in the Philippines]], [[Basketball in the Philippines]]}}
 +
[[Image:Sepak takraw.jpg|upright|thumb|A child demonstrating [[sipa]].]]
 +
Various [[Sport in the Philippines|sports]] are played in the Philippines including [[Basketball in the Philippines|basketball]], [[boxing]], [[volleyball]], [[badminton]], [[billiards]], [[football (soccer)]], [[ten-pin bowling]], and [[sipa]].
 +
 
 +
[[Traditional games in the Philippines|Traditional Filipino sports]] are popular,<ref name=Hagonoy>[http://www.hagonoy.com/lbcorpus/halbc010.html Mga Larong Kinagisnan], Hagonoy.com</ref><ref name=Seasite>[http://www.seasite.niu.edu./Tagalog/Filipino_Games/mga_larong_pilipino.htm Mga Larong Pilipino], Seasite.niu.edu</ref> among the youth, primarily as [[children's games]], such as luksung baka, patintero, piko, and tumbang preso. [[Sungka]], while not as popular as it once was, is still viewed as a significant part of the traditional native Filipino games. Native [[card games]] are popular during festivities and among the poor, with some, including Pusoy, and Tong-its, being used as a form of [[illegal gambling]]. [[Majhong]] is played in some Filipino communities.
  
Various [[Sport in the Philippines|sports]] are also enjoyed, including [[boxing]], [[Basketball in the Philippines|basketball]], [[badminton]], [[billiards]], [[football (soccer)]] and [[ten-pin bowling]] being popular games in the country.
+
Basketball is played at both amateur, and professional level, and is considered to be the most popular [[spectator sport]] in the Philippines.<ref>[http://www.cp-pc.ca/english/philippines/sports.html Philippine Sports and Recreation]. Accessed January 22, 2009.</ref><ref>[http://www.asiarooms.com/travel-guide/philippines/sports-in-philippines/index.html Asiarooms: Travel Guide to the Philippines]. Accessed January 22, 2009.</ref> In almost every corner of the Philippines, there is a basketball court as it is the favorite recreational activity by Filipinos.<ref name="goabroad">[http://www.goabroad.info/Philippines.html?gID=3439 Go Abroad website: Travel Information and Guide for the Philippines]. Accessed January 24, 2009.</ref>
  
==Transportation and Communications==
+
Basketball, boxing, billiards, football (soccer), horse racing, chess, and ten-pin bowling are the most watched sports.<ref name="philsports">[http://www.yankeesabroad.com/sports-in-the-philippines/ Yankees abroad: Sports in the Philippines]. Accessed January 22, 2009.</ref> Philippine sports have produced several sports heroes, such as [[Flash Elorde]], and [[Manny Pacquiao]] in boxing,<ref name="goabroad"/> [[Paulino Alcántara]] in football (soccer), [[Efren Reyes]] in billiards,<ref>[http://home.bca-pool.com/displaycommon.cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr=30 Billiards Congress of America: Hall of Fame Inductees]. Accessed January 24, 2009.</ref> [[Eugene Torre]] in chess,<ref>[http://ratings.fide.com/card.phtml?event=5200016 Fide Chess Player Information]. Accessed January 24, 2009.</ref> and [[Rafael Nepomuceno]] in bowling.<ref>[http://members.cox.net/rvd/paeng/ Rafael Nepomuceno Official website]. Accessed January 24, 2009.</ref> [[Motocross]], [[figure skating]], [[cycling]], and [[mountaineering]] have become popular.
{{further|[[Transportation in the Philippines]]|[[Communications in the Philippines]]}}
+
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
* [[List of Philippine-related topics]]
+
{{portal|Philippines|Flag of the Philippines.png}}
* [[List of wettest tropical cyclones by country#Philippines|Wettest-known tropical cyclones in the Philippines]]
+
*[[List of Philippines-related topics]]
<!--Although this is a free informational encyclopedia, we do not condone spam. If you want your website to be included, suggest it at the discussion page. Failure to do so will have the links continually removed.-->
+
*[[Outline of the Philippines]]
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
{{reflist|2}}
 
{{reflist|2}}
  
==External links==
+
== External links ==
<!--Do not add commercial links or your website. Suggest them via the discussion page. Failure to do so will mean the deletion of your websites as spam.-->
+
{{sisterlinks}}
{{sisterlinks|Philippines}}
+
; Government
{{portal}}
+
 
+
; Official
+
 
* [http://www.gov.ph/ Official website of the Philippine Government] - Portal to governmental sites
 
* [http://www.gov.ph/ Official website of the Philippine Government] - Portal to governmental sites
 +
* [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/world-leaders-1/world-leaders-p/philippines.html Chief of State and Cabinet Members]
 +
 +
; General information
 +
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/country_profiles/1262783.stm BBC Country Profile on the Philippines]
 +
*{{CIA World Factbook link|rp|Philippines}}
 +
* [http://www.state.gov/p/eap/ci/rp/ Philippines] from the [[United States Department of State]] includes Background Notes, Country Study and major report
 +
* [http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/govpubs/for/philippines.htm Philippines] at ''UCB Libraries GovPubs''
 +
* {{dmoz|Regional/Oceania/Philippines}}
 +
* {{wikiatlas|Philippines}}
 +
* {{wikia|Philippines|Philippines}}
 +
* [http://www.aer.ph/ See [[Action For Economic Reforms]] to know about economic and social issues in the Philippines]
  
 
; Maps
 
; Maps
* [http://www.wikimapia.org/#y=12554564&x=122915039&z=6&l=0&m=a WikiSatellite view of Philippines at WikiMapia]
+
* [http://www.wikimapia.org/#y=12554564&x=122915039&z=6&l=0&m=a WikiSatellite view of Philippines] at [[WikiMapia]]
 
<!--Do not add commercial links or your website. Suggest them via the discussion page. Failure to do so will mean the deletion of your websites as spam.-->
 
<!--Do not add commercial links or your website. Suggest them via the discussion page. Failure to do so will mean the deletion of your websites as spam.-->
  
 
; Other
 
; Other
 
<!--Do not add commercial links or your website. Suggest them via the discussion page. Failure to do so will mean the deletion of your websites as spam.-->
 
<!--Do not add commercial links or your website. Suggest them via the discussion page. Failure to do so will mean the deletion of your websites as spam.-->
* [http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=1QgTdk6fLAk WOW Philippines Tourism Ad]
 
* [http://journeyphilippines.net/ Around Philippines PHOTOS]
 
 
* [http://newsweek.washingtonpost.com/postglobal/america/philippines/ Washington Post's: How the Philippines Sees America]
 
* [http://newsweek.washingtonpost.com/postglobal/america/philippines/ Washington Post's: How the Philippines Sees America]
* {{wikitravel}}
 
* {{wikia|Philippines|Philippines}}
 
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/country_profiles/1262783.stm BBC Country Profile on the Philippines]
 
* [https://cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rp.html CIA World Factbook: Philippines]
 
* [http://countrystudies.us/philippines/ U.S. Country Studies: Philippines]
 
 
* [http://philippinesdailyphotos.com/ Philippines Daily Photos]
 
* [http://philippinesdailyphotos.com/ Philippines Daily Photos]
 
* [http://web.kssp.upd.edu.ph/linguistics/plc2006/papers/FullPapers/I-2_Solheim.pdf Origins of the Filipinos and Their Languages by Wilhelm G. Solheim II] ([[Portable Document File|PDF]])
 
* [http://web.kssp.upd.edu.ph/linguistics/plc2006/papers/FullPapers/I-2_Solheim.pdf Origins of the Filipinos and Their Languages by Wilhelm G. Solheim II] ([[Portable Document File|PDF]])
 
* [http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/b#a2296 History of the Philippine Islands] in many volumes, from [[Project Gutenberg]] (and indexed under [[Emma Helen Blair]], the general editor)
 
* [http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/b#a2296 History of the Philippine Islands] in many volumes, from [[Project Gutenberg]] (and indexed under [[Emma Helen Blair]], the general editor)
 
* [http://wiki.answers.com/Q/FAQ/2802 WikiAnswers: Q&A about the Philippines]
 
* [http://wiki.answers.com/Q/FAQ/2802 WikiAnswers: Q&A about the Philippines]
 +
* [http://asiaphilippines.net/ Asia Philippines PHOTOS]
 
* [http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADM408.pdf USAID country health statistical report : Philippines ] (May 2008)
 
* [http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADM408.pdf USAID country health statistical report : Philippines ] (May 2008)
 +
* {{wikitravel}}
 +
* [http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=1QgTdk6fLAk WOW Philippines Tourism Ad]
 +
* [http://journeyphilippines.net/ Around Philippines PHOTOS]
 
<!--Do not add commercial links or your website. Suggest them via the discussion page. Failure to do so will mean the deletion of your websites as spam.-->
 
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; Wikipedia
+
; Wikimedia
* [http://www.tl.wikipedia.com/ Tagalog Wikipedia]
+
* [http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikimedia_Philippines Wikimedia Philippines]
  
 
{{Template group
 
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[[Category:Philippines]]
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[[Category:Philippines| ]]
 
[[Category:Association of Southeast Asian Nations member states]]
 
[[Category:Association of Southeast Asian Nations member states]]
 
[[Category:English-speaking countries and territories]]
 
[[Category:English-speaking countries and territories]]
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[[Category:Former Spanish colonies]]
 
[[Category:Former Spanish colonies]]
 
[[Category:Island countries]]
 
[[Category:Island countries]]
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[[Category:States and territories established in 1946]]

Latest revision as of 08:13, 11 April 2012

History

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Prehistory

File:Traditional Ifugao House.png
A pre-Hispanic indigenous village.

Archeological, and paleontological discoveries show that humans existed in Palawan around 30,000 to 50,000 BC. An aboriginal people of the Philippine Islands known as the Negritos, are a Melanesian ethnic group who arrived in the Philippines at least 30,000 years ago. Another ethnic group, known as the Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian people, originated from the populations of Taiwanese aborigines who migrated from mainland Asia approximately 6,000 years ago. This ethnic group settled in the Philippines, and soon after, migrated to Indonesia, Malaysia, the Polynesian Islands, and Madagascar.<ref>Origins of the Filipinos and their Languages</ref>

The indigenous people of the Philippines traded with other Asian countries during the Prehistoric period. Before the arrival of Islam; Animism syncretized with Hinduism, and Vajrayna Buddhism.<ref>The Philippines and India - Dhirendra Nath Roy, Manila 1929 and India and The World - By Buddha Prakash p. 119-120.</ref><ref>Artifacts of Hindu-Buddhist origin in the Philippines</ref> Those were the religions practiced by various Philippine indigenous kingdoms.

Islam was brought to the Philippines by traders and proselytizers from Malaysia, and Indonesia.<ref>Template:Harvnb</ref> By the 13th century, Islam were established in the Sulu Archipelago, and spread to Mindanao, the Visayas, and Luzon by 1565. Muslims established Islamic communities. By the early 16th century there were native villages (Barangays) ruled by Datus, Rajahs, or Sultans.

There was no unifying political state encompassing the entire Philippine archipelago. Instead, the region were ruled by competing thalassocracies such as the Kingdom of Maynila, Namayan, Dynasty of Tondo, Madya-as Confederacy, the Rajahnates of Butuan, the Visayas, and sultanates of Maguindanao, and Sulu.<ref>The Kingdom of Namayan and Maytime Fiesta in Sta. Ana of new Manila, Traveler On Foot self-published l journal.</ref><ref>Volume 5 of A study of the Eastern and Western Oceans (Template:Lang-ja) mentions that Luzon first sent tribute to Yongle Emperor in 1406.</ref><ref>http://akeanon.com/index.php?Itemid=2&id=14&option=com_content&task=view</ref><ref>The Unconquered Kingdom in The official website of the Royal Hashemite Sultanate of Sulu and the Royal Hashemite Sultanate of Sabah</ref> Some of these indigenous tribes were part of the Malayan empires of Srivijaya, Majapahit, and Brunei.<ref name="end">{{

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Colonial period

In 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines, and claimed the islands for Spain.<ref name="etymology">{{

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Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565, and formed the first European settlements in Cebu. In 1571, the Spaniards established Manila as the capital of the Spanish East Indies.<ref>Kurlansky, Mark. 1999. The Basque History of the World. Walker & Company, New York. ISBN 0-8027-1349-1, p. 64</ref>

Spanish rule brought political unification to a group of islands and communities that later became the Philippines, and introduced elements of western civilisation.<ref>Joaquin, Nick. 1988. Culture and History: Occasional Notes on the Process of Philippine Becoming. Solar Publishing, Metro Manila</ref> The Philippines was governed as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1565 to 1821, and administered directly from Spain from 1821 to 1898. During that period, towns, cities, and provinces were founded, and trade flourished. The Manila Galleon which linked Manila to Acapulco carried spices, porcelain and silk to the Americas, and silver from Mexico on the return voyage to the Philippines. Spain fought indigenous rebels, pirates, and invasions from European powers such as Portugal, Britain, and Netherlands. Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the inhabitants to Christianity and founded schools, hospitals and universities. European immigration to the Philippines created a new class of Criollo (Spaniard born in the Philippines), and Mestizo (mixed Spaniard, and Malayan). In 1863 the colonial government established free public education in Spanish.<ref>US Country Studies: Education in the Philippines</ref> The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1878. The country's population as of December 31, 1877 was recorded at 5,567,685 persons.<ref>Population of the Philippines Census Years 1799 to 2007. National Statistical Coordination Board.</ref>

In the 1700s, the Philippines opened its forts to world trade. The economy increased, and many criollos, and mestizos in the Philippines became wealthy. In the 1800s, the Suez Canal was opened, dramatically reducing travel time between Spain and the Philippines. The influx of Spaniards secularized churches, and government positions traditionally held by the criollos. The ideals of revolution began to spread to the Philippines in the second half of the century. Criollo insurgency resulted in the Novales, and the revolt in Cavite El Viejo in 1872. Colonial authorities suppressed these uprisings which were led by three priests: Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora who would be remembered in Philippine history as the Gomburza. The execution of these priests laid the foundation for the Philippine Revolution.<ref>Joaquin, Nick. A Question of Heroes.</ref>

File:Mapa de Filippinas Formosa y costa de China para el Galeon de Manila .JPG
Facsimile of the map found aboard the "Na SA de Covadonga" after it was taken by Commodore Anson in 1743, showing the route of the Manila-Acapulco galleon through the maze of the Philippines Islands.

The migration of Filipinos to Europe created a community of expatriates. The propaganda movement, which included Filipino patriot José Rizal, was founded in Spain. The propagandists clamored for political reforms, which included representation in the Spanish Cortes for Filipinos. The propagandists lobbied for their causes through the paper La Solidaridad (The Solidarity). They were able to gain some support from Spanish liberals. Unable to gain complete reforms, Rizal returned to the Philippines, and established La Liga Filipina (The Philippine League) to organize patriots in Manila and produce funds for La Solidaridad. Rizal was soon arrested and deported to Dapitan. Radical members of La Liga Filipina, under the leadership of Andrés Bonifacio, established the Katipunan in 1896. The objective was Philippine independence from Spain.

Rizal was executed for inspiring the Philippine revolution on December 30, 1896.<ref>Ocampo, Ambeth. Rizal without the Undercoat.</ref> The revolution in Cavite El Viejo was a success, and the leadership of the revolution eventually passed from Bonifacio to Emilio Aguinaldo. A ceasefire was agreed at the Treaty of Biak-na-Bato, and Filipino leaders agreed to exile in Hong Kong. Governor General Fernando Primo de Rivera proclaimed the revolution over in May 17, 1897.<ref>{{

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The Spanish-American War began in Cuba in 1898, and soon spread to the Philippines when Commodore George Dewey and Emilio Aguinaldo defeated the Spanish squadron at the Battle of Manila Bay. The Philippines declared independence from Spain on June 12, 1898. In 1899, the Primera República Filipina or the First Philippine Republic was proclaimed in Malolos, Bulacan. In the Treaty of Paris, Spain ceded the Philippines, together with Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the United States. As a result of the treaty, and a manifesto by the United States declaring American intentions to colonize the Philippines, a conflict began between the Filipinos, and the Americans. Aguinaldo tried to ease the tensions, but the Americans were determined to make the Philippines a United States colony.

The Philippine-American War began when an American soldier killed a Filipino soldier at the bridge of San Juan. The United States proclaimed the war ended when Aguinaldo was captured by American soldiers on March 23, 1901. However, the struggle continued until 1913 claiming almost a million lives. The United States suppressed Philippine independence by establishing an American government. The Philippines' status as a colony changed when it became the Commonwealth of the Philippines in 1935. Plans for independence over the next decade were interrupted by World War II when Japan invaded the Philippines. United States, and Philippine troops defeated Japan in 1944. On July 4, 1946, the Philippines gained independence from the United States. <ref name=CIAfactbook>{{

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Contemporary era

File:Manuel Quezon inauguration.JPG
Former President of the Philippines, Manuel L. Quezon, during his inauguration in the American period.

The Philippines faced political instability that plagued the country. Since 1946, remnants of the Hukbalahap rebel army continued to roam the rural regions of the Philippines, disgruntled after the Philippine government had rejected their contribution during World War II.

Attempts of reconciliation were formed by former Philippine president, Ramón Magsaysay. In the 1960s, the Philippine national policies were initiated by Diosdado Macapagal, that included recognition of the Philippine Declaration of Independence, and the President legacy of Emilio Aguinaldo, and José P. Laurel.

The 1960s were a period of economic growth for the Philippines which developed to be one of the wealthiest in Asia. Ferdinand Marcos was elected president. Barred from seeking a third term, he declared Martial law on September 21, 1972, under the guise of political conflict, and resurgent Communist, and Islamic insurgencies, and governed the Philippines by decree, along with his wife Imelda Marcos.

Returning from exile in the United States, Philippine opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr., was assassinated at the Manila International Airport (also called the Ninoy Aquino International Airport) on August 21, 1983. In 1986, the People Power Revolution occurred. The people gathered, and protested in EDSA, upon the organization of the Archbishop of Manila founded by Priest Jaime Cardinal Sin. It was to oppose the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos. After losing the election to Corazón Aquino, who became the first female President of the Philippines (and the first in Asia), Marcos, and his allies departed to Hawaii in exile.

The return of democracy, and government reforms after the events of 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts, a Communist insurgency, and an Islamic separatist organization. The Philippine economy improved during the administration of Fidel V. Ramos, who was elected in 1992.<ref name="lastlaugh">{{

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Politics and government

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Further information: Armed Forces of the Philippines
Benigno "Noynoy" Aquino III, the current President of the Philippines.
Malacañang Palace, the official residence for the President of the Philippines.

The Philippines has a presidential, unitary form of government (with some modification; there is one autonomous region largely free from the national government), where the President functions as both head of state, and head of government, and is commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president is elected by popular vote to a single six year term, during which time she or he appoints, and presides over the cabinet.<ref name="About"/>

The bicameral Congress is composed of a Senate, serving as the upper house whose members are elected to a six year term, and a House of Representatives serving as the lower house whose members are elected to a three year term, and are elected from both legislative districts, and through sectoral representation.<ref name="About"/>

The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice as its presiding officer, and fourteen associate justices, all appointed by the Philippine President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council.<ref name="About"/> Attempts to amend the constitution to either a federal, unicameral or parliamentary form of government have been satisfactory since the Ramos administration. <ref>Civil service reform: Whose service?, inwent.org, Retrieved on 2008-11-30.</ref>

The Philippines is a founding, and active member of the United Nations since its inception on October 24, 1945, and is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The Philippines is also a member of the East Asia Summit (EAS), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Latin Union, and a member of the Group of 24. The Philippines is a major non-NATO ally of the United States, but also a member of the Non-Aligned Movement.<ref name="About"/>

Administrative divisions

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