Philippine printmaking became accepted as an art in the 1960s. This art form involves transferring images made by an artist onto paper. Many copies can be made of the image. Usually a limited number of copies is produced by the artist.
Printmaking in the Philippines did not gain popularity as an art form until the early 1960s. Manuel Rodriguez Sr. and Rodolfo Paras-Perez were responsible for the development of interest in contemporary printmaking techniques. Rodriguez in particular became known as the Father of Philippine Printmaking.
Printmaking was soon taught in several schools. Rodriguez taught at the Philippine Women’s University, making it the unofficial center of printmaking in the country. He helped organize the Philippine Association of Printmakers. The majority of the first young printmakers were taught by Rodriguez either in PWU or in his workshops. Among these are Virgilio Aviado, Lucio Martinez, Lamberto Hechanova, Restituto Embuscado, Mario Parial, Adiel Arevalo, Petite Calaguas, Emet Valente, Brenda Fajardo, Nelfa Querubin, Ivi Avellana-Cosio, and Nonon Padilla as well as his own sons Manuel Jr., Marcelino, and Ray Rodriguez.
Some of the methods used in printmaking in the Philippines are the following:
- Intaglio is a process in which images are printed from a plate that holds ink in recessed areas. Some intaglio methods are aquatint, engraving, etching, mezzotint.
- In aquatint, an acid-resistant powder is used to coat the plate, which is then immersed in acid so only the uncoated areas are etched. This gives the print a grainy appearance.
- In engraving, lines are incised into the plate.
- In etching, the plate is covered with acid-resistant coating and the design scratched into this. The plate is then immersed in acid to create lines in the uncoated areas.
- In mezzotint, the whole plate is roughened to hold the ink, which creates a dark background. The artist smoothens some areas so they will hold less ink allowing tonal gradations to be produced.
- Linoleum block or Linocut is a method of printing in which the image to be printed is carved into a block of linoleum.
- Lithography is a method of printing in which an image is drawn on a smooth plate that has been treated to accept ink but repel water. A greasy ink or special crayons are used for drawing on this. A coating of acid and gum arabic is used to fix the drawing onto the surface of the printing plate, to lightly etch the plate, and to help the parts of the plate that were not drawn on to hold water. Oil-based ink is spread on the wet surface and the wet areas repel the ink so it sticks only to the drawing. The image is printed from this plate with the use of a press.
- Serigraph or Silk Screen is a method of printing in which a design is created on a stretched mesh fabric using a resist. Ink is then pressed through the fabric to produce the print.
- Woodblock or Woodcut is a form of printing in which a carved woodblock covered with ink is used.
- Drypoint is a method of printing in which a sharp point is used to draw directly on a copper plate, creating rough-ridged etched lines. The ink coats the raised areas, which are printed.
http://www.contemprints.org/Explore_Glossary.cfm Printmaking Terms