Pact of Biak-na-Bato
The Pact of Biak-na-Bato signed on 14 December 1897 created a truce between the Spanish Government and the Philippine revolutionary government led by Emilio Aguinaldo, to end the Philippine Revolution. The pact involved the signing of three documents: a program, an act of agreement, and financial stipulation. Pedro Paterno represented the revolutionaries and Gov. Primo de Rivera represented the Spanish government in the signing of the pact.
The terms of the pact
The terms of the pact of Biak-na-Bato sipulated the payment of P800,000 to Aguinaldo and other leaders of the revolution in exchange for their voluntary exile in Hong Kong, the payment of P900,000 by Spain for civil damages done during their colonization of the country, the laying down and surrender of arms by the revolutionaries, general amnesty for all, and a verbal promise of reforms.
After the pact was signed, Spanish generals Celestino Tejero and Ricardo Monet were turned over to the Filipino leaders as hostages. On 27 December 1897, Aguinaldo and 25 other leaders of the revolution left the Philippines for voluntary exile in Hong Kong. Spain deposited the first check for P400,000 into the Bank of Hong Kong, but Aguinaldo refused to divide the amount among his followers and himself, with the idea of keeping the money to buy arms and munitions, should continue the struggle if Spain failed to keep its end of the pact. On 31 December 1897, some Filipinos started surrendering their arms although some still refused.
Pact of Biak-na-Bato fails
Since the Filipinos and Spaniards did not trust each other enough, periodic clashes between the two groups still took place and the Spaniards did not pay the entire amount agreed upon.
- Cagawas, Virginia et. al..Our Nation,Our World. Quezon City: SIBS Publishing House, 2007.
- “Pact of Biak-na-Bato” Philippine-history.org (Accessed 2 December 2009)
- “Truce of Biak-na-Bato” Philippine-revolution.110mb.com (Accessed 2 December 2009)
- “Pact of Biak-na-Bato” Bookrags.com (Accessed 2 December 2009)