From WikiPilipinas: The Hip 'n Free Philippine Encyclopedia
- Main article: Nueva Vizcaya was also a province of New Spain, compromising the modern Mexican states of Chihuahua and Durango
Nueva Vizcaya is a province of the Philippines located in the Cagayan Valley region in Luzon. Its capital is Bayombong. It is bordered by, clockwise from the north, Ifugao, Isabela, Quirino Province, Aurora, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, and Benguet.
|Region||Cagayan Valley (Region II)|
|Area|| 3,903.9 km²|
|Total (2000)|| 366,962|
 History, People and Culture
The province of Nueva Vizcaya used to be a territory of the vast Cagayan Valley which was once an integral political unit with one governor. In 1839, then Governor Luis Lardizabal issued an order transforming Nueva Vizcaya into a politico-militar province upon the advice the alcalde mayor of Cagayan. The order was approved by a Royal Decree on April 10, 1841. The province had its first taste of civil governance in 1902 when it was organized by the Philippine Commission.
Since Nueva Vizcaya's birth as a province, traces of the culture and customs of its early settlers--the Ilongots (Bugkalots), Igorots, Ifugaos, Isinays, and the Gaddangs--can still be seen. The influx of civilization and the infusion of modern technology to the life stream of the province induced many immigrants from adjacent provinces to migrate to this province.
The history of organized religion in the province of Nueva Vizcaya dates back to the year 1607 when the Dominican Order arrived at the hinterlands of the province to preach their beliefs. It was not until 1609, however, that the first settlement of a religious order was established in the southern half of the province. In 1702, a covenant was erected in Burubur at the foot of the Caraballo mountains in Sta. Clara, which is now a barangay of the town of Aritao. It was on this site that the first mass in Nueva Vizcaya was celebrated and the first baptism of a Christian convert was held.
Every last week of May, Nueva Vizcaya celebrates the Panagyaman festival.
The province has a total land area of 4,378.80 square kilometers, which accounts for 16.30% of the total land area of Region II. It is composed of 15 municipalities, with Bayombong as the provincial capital, Bambang and Solano as the major commercial centers, and Kayapa as the summer capital and "vegetable bowl." Bayombong lies approximately 268 kilometers north of Metro Manila and can be reached by land via the Cagayan Valley Road (Maharlika Highway).
With forest land, agricultural areas and grasslands occupying a wide swath of the province, it does not come as a surprise that Nueva Vizcaya is an ideal site for extensive agricultural activity. Its main crops are rice, corn, vegetables, pineapple, banana, coffee, coconut, oranges and other fruit trees.
In mining, the province faces bright prospects. According to the Bureau of Mines and Geo-Sciences, deposits of metallic minerals which can be exploited are copper, gold, molybdenum and pyrite. Non-metallic deposits include red clay, white clay and limestone. Sand and gravel are the most abundant deposits in the province.
Nueva Vizcaya is within the influence of the typhoon belt in Northern Luzon. However, it is not in the direct path of cyclones that visit the region.
The province falls under the third type of climate characterized by rainfall pattern that is relatively wet from May to October and gradually becomes dry during November to February. March and April are considered dry.
December and January are considered as the coldest months while March and April are the hottest.
The present territory of Nueva Vizcaya was the result of changes emanating from the formal creation of the province of Isabela in May 1856, when a large portion of its northern territory was ceded to the newly formed province.
The organization in 1908 of the province of Ifugao further reduced the area of Nueva Vizcaya which was forced to give up its northwest territory. The survey executed by the Bureau of Lands in 1914 caused the further diminution of its area, which was reduced once more with the enactment of the Administrative Code in 1917. Finally, in 1971, Quirino was transformed from a subprovince of Nueva Vizcaya into an autonomous province under Republic Act 6394. Yet even after these slices of land had been given away to new and emerging territories, the province of Nueva Vizcaya continues to occupy a vast area.
Nueva Vizcaya has one congressional district, although there has been a longtime proposal to divide the province into two congressional districts: "North District," comprising the northern municipalities; and "South District," composed of the southern towns.
Nueva Vizcaya is subdivided into 15 municipalities.