Difference between revisions of "Music of the Philippines"

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'''[[Philippines|Filipino]] [[music]]''' is a mixture of European, American and indigenous sounds. Much of the music of the Philippines have been influenced by the 377 year-long colonial legacies of [[Spain]], Western [[rock and roll]], [[Hip hop music|hip-hop]] and [[pop music]] from the [[United States]], the indigenous [[Austronesian Languages|Austronesian]] population and Indo-Malayan [[Gamelan]] music.
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'''[[Philippines|Filipino]] music''' is a mixture of European, American and indigenous sounds. Much of the music of the Philippines have been influenced by the 377 year-long colonial legacies of [[Spain]], Western rock and roll, Hip hop music|hip-hop and pop music from the [[United States]], the indigenous Austronesian Languages|Austronesian population and Indo-Malayan Gamelan music.
  
 
==Indigenous musical styles==
 
==Indigenous musical styles==
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Among the Tausug of the Sulu Archipelago, The ''Sindil'' (sung verbal jousts) is a musical lighthearted style that is sung by a duo of both sexes sung in front of an audience. Teasing, jokes, and innuendos flow into the verses, the better ones being applauded by the audience. The ''gabbang'' [[xylophone]] and ''biyula'' traditional [[violin]] are the instruments mainly used. Although Sindil is a particular genre of music, the verbal jousting musical type is also found in many other parts of the country, especially among the [[Visayan]] peoples, who are ethnically related to the Tausug. Sindil are normally used at weddings and other festive events.
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Among the Tausug of the Sulu Archipelago, The ''Sindil'' (sung verbal jousts) is a musical lighthearted style that is sung by a duo of both sexes sung in front of an audience. Teasing, jokes, and innuendos flow into the verses, the better ones being applauded by the audience. The ''gabbang'' xylophone and ''biyula'' traditional violin are the instruments mainly used. Although Sindil is a particular genre of music, the verbal jousting musical type is also found in many other parts of the country, especially among the [[Visayan]] peoples, who are ethnically related to the Tausug. Sindil are normally used at weddings and other festive events.
  
 
Other musical traditions of this region are those of the serenade form [[Kapanirong]] and the outdoor "loud" music repertoire called [[Tagonggo]].
 
Other musical traditions of this region are those of the serenade form [[Kapanirong]] and the outdoor "loud" music repertoire called [[Tagonggo]].
  
 
===Northern styles===
 
===Northern styles===
Among the [[Igorot|indigenous peoples]] of the Central Cordilleras of the northern island of [[Luzon]], music is also played with gongs, but unlike those of southern repertoires, these gongs, called ''Gangsa'', are unbossed and have their origins in mainland Asia. Music is usually played to accompany dance, and because of this is mostly percussion based. Gong ensembles are normally accompanied by drums. The music is [[polyphonic]], and uses highly interlocking repeated patterns.
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Among the [[Igorot|indigenous peoples]] of the Central Cordilleras of the northern island of [[Luzon]], music is also played with gongs, but unlike those of southern repertoires, these gongs, called ''Gangsa'', are unbossed and have their origins in mainland Asia. Music is usually played to accompany dance, and because of this is mostly percussion based. Gong ensembles are normally accompanied by drums. The music is polyphonic, and uses highly interlocking repeated patterns.
  
 
===Other styles===
 
===Other styles===
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==Spanish influence==
 
==Spanish influence==
Spanish and Mexican colonizers left their musical mark on the Philippines, introducing a rich [[culture]], [[Christianity]] and its attendant [[religious music]].  The [[guitar]] and other instruments, as well as [[zarzuela]] (a form of [[operetta]]) were popular and soon became an important part of the customs and traditional elements of the [[culture of the Philippines]].
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Spanish and Mexican colonizers left their musical mark on the Philippines, introducing a rich culture, [[Christianity]] and its attendant religious music.  The guitar and other instruments, as well as [[zarzuela]] (a form of operetta) were popular and soon became an important part of the customs and traditional elements of the [[culture of the Philippines]].
  
 
===Harana===
 
===Harana===
The Harana first gained popularity in the early part of the Spanish Period. It's influence comes from folk [[Music of Spain]] and the [[Mariachi]] sounds of [[Mexico]]. It is a traditional form of [[courtship]] music in which a man woos a woman by singing underneath her window at night. It is widely practiced in many parts of the Philippines with a set of protocols, a code of conduct, and a specific style of music. Harana itself uses mainly [[Hispanic]] protocols in music, although its origins lie in the old pre-colonial Philippine musical styles which still practiced around the country (See Also [[Kapanirong]] style of the [[Maguindanao]] of [[Mindanao]]). The main instrument used for Harana is the [[Guitar]], played by the courter, although other string instruments such as the [[Ukulele]] and less frequently, the [[Violin]] and [[Trumpet]]s are also used.
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The Harana first gained popularity in the early part of the Spanish Period. It's influence comes from folk Music of Spain and the Mariachi sounds of [[Mexico]]. It is a traditional form of courtship music in which a man woos a woman by singing underneath her window at night. It is widely practiced in many parts of the Philippines with a set of protocols, a code of conduct, and a specific style of music. Harana itself uses mainly Hispanic protocols in music, although its origins lie in the old pre-colonial Philippine musical styles which still practiced around the country (See Also [[Kapanirong]] style of the [[Maguindanao]] of [[Mindanao]]). The main instrument used for Harana is the Guitar, played by the courter, although other string instruments such as the Ukulele and less frequently, the Violin and Trumpets are also used.
  
 
===Kundiman===
 
===Kundiman===
 
The ''[[Kundiman]]'' is a lyrical song made popular in the Philippines in the early 19th century, but having origins in older pre-colonial indigenous styles.  Composed in the Western idiom, the song is characterized by a minor key at the beginning and shifts to a major key in the second half. Its lyrics depict a romantic love, usually portraying the forlorn pleadings of a lover willing to sacrifice everything on behalf of his beloved. In many others, it is a plaintive call of the rejected lover or the broken-hearted. In others, it is a story of unrequited love. Almost all traditional Filipino love songs in this genre are heavy with poetic emotion. One such Kundiman that tells about unrequited love is the [[Visayan]] song ''Matud Nila''.
 
The ''[[Kundiman]]'' is a lyrical song made popular in the Philippines in the early 19th century, but having origins in older pre-colonial indigenous styles.  Composed in the Western idiom, the song is characterized by a minor key at the beginning and shifts to a major key in the second half. Its lyrics depict a romantic love, usually portraying the forlorn pleadings of a lover willing to sacrifice everything on behalf of his beloved. In many others, it is a plaintive call of the rejected lover or the broken-hearted. In others, it is a story of unrequited love. Almost all traditional Filipino love songs in this genre are heavy with poetic emotion. One such Kundiman that tells about unrequited love is the [[Visayan]] song ''Matud Nila''.
  
In the [[1920s]] Kundiman became a much more mainstream musical style, with many popular performers including [[Diomedes Maturan]] and [[Ruben Tagalog]].
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In the 1920s Kundiman became a much more mainstream musical style, with many popular performers including [[Diomedes Maturan]] and [[Ruben Tagalog]].
  
 
===Rondalla===
 
===Rondalla===
Spain brought the [[rondalla]] to the Philippines in the 1800’s. An ensemble of plectrum instruments, the early Philippine rondalla repertoire consisted primarily of Western European symphonic overtures and arias from operas.  Its compatibility with native Philippine music allowed the rondalla to figure prominently in Filipino rural community life, providing accompaniment to folk dancing and singing as well as the featured ensemble.
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Spain brought the rondalla to the Philippines in the 1800’s. An ensemble of plectrum instruments, the early Philippine rondalla repertoire consisted primarily of Western European symphonic overtures and arias from operas.  Its compatibility with native Philippine music allowed the rondalla to figure prominently in Filipino rural community life, providing accompaniment to folk dancing and singing as well as the featured ensemble.
  
 
[[Image: PCR-NJ Pic.jpeg|thumb|200px|As proof of the rondalla’s natural fit with Philippine music, it has been brought to other parts of the world wherever Filipinos can be found.  In the United States, the Philippine Chamber Rondalla of New Jersey, Inc. is a leading proponent of Philippine rondalla music in the North Eastern seaboard.]]
 
[[Image: PCR-NJ Pic.jpeg|thumb|200px|As proof of the rondalla’s natural fit with Philippine music, it has been brought to other parts of the world wherever Filipinos can be found.  In the United States, the Philippine Chamber Rondalla of New Jersey, Inc. is a leading proponent of Philippine rondalla music in the North Eastern seaboard.]]
  
The standard Philippine rondalla consists of the pear-shaped [[piccolo bandurria]], [[bandurria]], and [[Laud|la-ud]], and the guitar-shaped [[octavina]] and [[mandola]], guitarra, and [[bajo de unas]] (which has been supplanted by the double bass).  Fashioned from common Philippine wood such as langka, narra, kamagong, and mahogany, the instruments are played with a plectrum of turtle shell.  The fourteen strings of the rondalla instruments, except for the guitarra, are grouped into six tuning units – viz., F#, B, E, A, D, G.  The doubling or tripling of strings produces better sound quality and volume.
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The standard Philippine rondalla consists of the pear-shaped piccolo bandurria, bandurria, and Laud|la-ud, and the guitar-shaped octavina and mandola, guitarra, and bajo de unas (which has been supplanted by the double bass).  Fashioned from common Philippine wood such as langka, narra, kamagong, and mahogany, the instruments are played with a plectrum of turtle shell.  The fourteen strings of the rondalla instruments, except for the guitarra, are grouped into six tuning units – viz., F#, B, E, A, D, G.  The doubling or tripling of strings produces better sound quality and volume.
  
 
==Philippine choral music==
 
==Philippine choral music==
The Philippine [[choral music]] scene has been developed and popularized by the [[Philippine Madrigal Singers]]. This [[choir]] is the country's premier chorale and has been an award-winning chorale through its existence. Also from the same homefront, i.e. the [[University of the Philippines]], are the [[The University of the Philippines Singing Ambassadors|University of the Philippines Singing Ambassadors]] (or UPSA) and the [[The University of the Philippines Concert Chorus|University of the Philippines Concert Chorus]] (or UPCC), two of the most sought-after and multi-awarded groups in the country. Also, [[Kundirana]], a high-school choral group from [[La Salle Green Hills]], became popular as well.
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The Philippine choral music scene has been developed and popularized by the [[Philippine Madrigal Singers]]. This choir is the country's premier chorale and has been an award-winning chorale through its existence. Also from the same homefront, i.e. the [[University of the Philippines]], are the [[The University of the Philippines Singing Ambassadors|University of the Philippines Singing Ambassadors]] (or UPSA) and the [[The University of the Philippines Concert Chorus|University of the Philippines Concert Chorus]] (or UPCC), two of the most sought-after and multi-awarded groups in the country. Also, [[Kundirana]], a high-school choral group from [[La Salle Green Hills]], became popular as well.
  
 
==Philippine Popular Music==
 
==Philippine Popular Music==
  
 
===North American influences===  
 
===North American influences===  
The [[United States]] occupied the Islands in [[1898]] until [[1935]] and introduced American [[blues]], [[folk music|folk]], [[R&B]] and [[rock and roll]] became popular.
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The [[United States]] occupied the Islands in [[1898]] until 1935 and introduced American blues, [[folk music|folk]], R&B and rock and roll became popular.
  
 
For many years, even after the Republic of Philippines became an independent nation, most popular Filipino musicians recorded "covers" of American hit songs.  Many visitors to the RP came away believing that there was no unique Filipino music sound, because they were only exposed to lounge and bar singers who were told to "sing Kano."
 
For many years, even after the Republic of Philippines became an independent nation, most popular Filipino musicians recorded "covers" of American hit songs.  Many visitors to the RP came away believing that there was no unique Filipino music sound, because they were only exposed to lounge and bar singers who were told to "sing Kano."
  
However, this American influence taught the Filipinos how to create and market their own performers, and led to the emergence of superstars such as [[Sharon Cuneta]], [[Gary Valenciano]], [[Lea Salonga]] and [[Regine Velasquez]], as well as the "[[Pinay]] girl group" phenomenon which brought [[Kikay]], [[Sex bomb]], [[Viva Hot Babes]], [[Jaboom Twins]] and others.
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However, this American influence taught the Filipinos how to create and market their own performers, and led to the emergence of superstars such as [[Sharon Cuneta]], [[Gary Valenciano]], [[Lea Salonga]] and [[Regine Velasquez]], as well as the "Pinay girl group" phenomenon which brought Kikay, Sex bomb, Viva Hot Babes, Jaboom Twins and others.
  
 
As a result, much original Pilipino music ("OPM") is reminiscent of earlier American popular music, which has led to a certain popularity among North American audiences who have burned out on overplayed "oldies" but still enjoy the sound.  Thus Filipino performers are paying back the debt with interest.
 
As a result, much original Pilipino music ("OPM") is reminiscent of earlier American popular music, which has led to a certain popularity among North American audiences who have burned out on overplayed "oldies" but still enjoy the sound.  Thus Filipino performers are paying back the debt with interest.
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''Main article: [[Filipino rock]]''
 
''Main article: [[Filipino rock]]''
  
In the late [[1950s]], native performers wrote [[Tagalog language|Tagalog]] lyrics for North American rock n'roll music, resulting in the beginnings of [[Filipino rock]].  
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In the late 1950s, native performers wrote [[Tagalog language|Tagalog]] lyrics for North American rock n'roll music, resulting in the beginnings of [[Filipino rock]].  
  
 
The most notable achievement in Filipino rock of the 1960s was the hit song "Killer Joe," which propelled the group "Rocky Fellers" to #16 on the American radio charts.  However, despite the Fellers family (father and four sons) being of Manila origin, the song itself was written by US musicians Bert Russell (Bert Berns), Bob Elgin, and Phil Medley, so some critics contend that it wasn't truly Filipino rock.
 
The most notable achievement in Filipino rock of the 1960s was the hit song "Killer Joe," which propelled the group "Rocky Fellers" to #16 on the American radio charts.  However, despite the Fellers family (father and four sons) being of Manila origin, the song itself was written by US musicians Bert Russell (Bert Berns), Bob Elgin, and Phil Medley, so some critics contend that it wasn't truly Filipino rock.
  
In the early [[1970s]], Tagalog and [[English language|English]] lyrics were both used, within the same song, in songs like "Ang Miss Universe Ng Buhay Ko," which helped innovate the [[Manila sound]]. The mixing of the two languages (known as "Taglish"), while common in casual speech in the Philippines, was seen as a bold move, but the success of Taglish in popular songs, including [[Sharon Cuneta]]'s first hit, "Mr DJ," broke the barrier forevermore.
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In the early 1970s, Tagalog and [[English language|English]] lyrics were both used, within the same song, in songs like "Ang Miss Universe Ng Buhay Ko," which helped innovate the [[Manila sound]]. The mixing of the two languages (known as "Taglish"), while common in casual speech in the Philippines, was seen as a bold move, but the success of Taglish in popular songs, including [[Sharon Cuneta]]'s first hit, "Mr DJ," broke the barrier forevermore.
 
[[Image:Freddie Aguilar.jpg|thumb|200px|Freddie Aguilar, popular Filipino folk musician whose music came to symbolise the [[People Power]] struggles of the 1980's]]
 
[[Image:Freddie Aguilar.jpg|thumb|200px|Freddie Aguilar, popular Filipino folk musician whose music came to symbolise the [[People Power]] struggles of the 1980's]]
Soon, Filipino rock musicians added [[folk music]] and other influences, helping to lead to the [[1978]] breakthrough success of [[Freddie Aguilar]].  Aguilar's ''Anak'', his debut recording, is the most commercially successful Filipino recording in history, and was popular throughout Asia and Europe, and has been translated into numerous language by singers worldwide. [[Asin (band)|Asin]] also broke into the music scene at the same time and were very popular.
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Soon, Filipino rock musicians added [[folk music]] and other influences, helping to lead to the 1978 breakthrough success of [[Freddie Aguilar]].  Aguilar's ''Anak'', his debut recording, is the most commercially successful Filipino recording in history, and was popular throughout Asia and Europe, and has been translated into numerous language by singers worldwide. [[Asin (band)|Asin]] also broke into the music scene at the same time and were very popular.
  
[[Rock music]] became the music of Filipino protesters in the [[1980s]], and Aguilar's "Bayan Ko" became especially popular as an anthem during the [[1986]] revolution.  At the same time, a subculture rejected the rise of socially aware lyrics.  In [[Manila]], a [[Punk Rock]] scene developed, led by bands like [[Betrayed]], [[The Jerks]] and [[Urban Bandits]]. The influence of [[New Wave music|New Wave]] was also felt during these years, spearheaded by [[The Dawn (band)|The Dawn]].
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Rock music became the music of Filipino protesters in the 1980s, and Aguilar's "Bayan Ko" became especially popular as an anthem during the [[1986]] revolution.  At the same time, a subculture rejected the rise of socially aware lyrics.  In [[Manila]], a Punk Rock scene developed, led by bands like Betrayed, [[The Jerks]] and [[Urban Bandits]]. The influence of New Wave music|New Wave was also felt during these years, spearheaded by [[The Dawn (band)|The Dawn]].
  
 
Later Filipino rock stars include [[Yano]], [[Eraserheads]], [[Parokya ni Edgar]], [[Rivermaya]], [[Cocojam]], and [[Grace Nono]], each of which adopts a variety of rock subgenres into their style.
 
Later Filipino rock stars include [[Yano]], [[Eraserheads]], [[Parokya ni Edgar]], [[Rivermaya]], [[Cocojam]], and [[Grace Nono]], each of which adopts a variety of rock subgenres into their style.
 
[[Image:Joey-ayala.jpg|thumb|250px|Joey Ayala, popular Filipino Neo-Traditional Artist, has been partly responsible for the rediscovery of indigenous genres in modern Filipino music.]]
 
[[Image:Joey-ayala.jpg|thumb|250px|Joey Ayala, popular Filipino Neo-Traditional Artist, has been partly responsible for the rediscovery of indigenous genres in modern Filipino music.]]
  
Filipino rock has also developed to include some [[hard rock]] and [[heavy metal]] such as [[Wolfgang (Filipino band)|Wolfgang]], [[Razorback (band)|Razorback]], [[Greyhounds (band)|Greyhounds]],[[Queso (band)|Queso]] and the progressive band [[Fuseboxx]].
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Filipino rock has also developed to include some hard rock and heavy metal such as [[Wolfgang (Filipino band)|Wolfgang]], [[Razorback (band)|Razorback]], Greyhounds (band)|Greyhounds,Queso (band)|Queso and the progressive band [[Fuseboxx]].
  
 
The Neo-Traditional genre in Filipino music is gaining popularity, with artists such as [[Joey Ayala]], [[Grace Nono]] and [[Bayang Barrios]] enjoying relative popularity within the Philippines for including the traditional musical traditions of the many ethnic minorities of the country.  
 
The Neo-Traditional genre in Filipino music is gaining popularity, with artists such as [[Joey Ayala]], [[Grace Nono]] and [[Bayang Barrios]] enjoying relative popularity within the Philippines for including the traditional musical traditions of the many ethnic minorities of the country.  
  
Today, the Philippines is perhaps Asia's most vibrant music-obsessed country, with home spawned bands such as [[Aegis]], [[Bamboo]], [[Urbandub]],[[Imago]], [[Kitchie Nadal]], [[Moonstar 88]], [[MYMP]], and [[Sponge Cola]], among others.
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Today, the Philippines is perhaps Asia's most vibrant music-obsessed country, with home spawned bands such as Aegis, [[Bamboo]], [[Urbandub]],[[Imago]], [[Kitchie Nadal]], [[Moonstar 88]], [[MYMP]], and [[Sponge Cola]], among others.
  
 
There has always been a blend of rock and easy-listening styles in OPM, so it is not unusual for a single artist or group to have a wide repertoire and an equally wide range of fans.  A retired businessman may find himself seated next to a teen girl at an appearance of [[APO Hiking Society]] or the latest girl group from Makati, and outcheering her after a favorite song.
 
There has always been a blend of rock and easy-listening styles in OPM, so it is not unusual for a single artist or group to have a wide repertoire and an equally wide range of fans.  A retired businessman may find himself seated next to a teen girl at an appearance of [[APO Hiking Society]] or the latest girl group from Makati, and outcheering her after a favorite song.
  
 
===Filipino Hip-Hop and R&B===
 
===Filipino Hip-Hop and R&B===
''Main Article: [[Filipino hip hop]], [[Filipino R&B]]''
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''Main Article: Filipino hip hop, Filipino R&B''
  
The [[Philippines]] is said to have developed the first [[Hip hop culture|hip-hop]] scene in all of [[Asia]] and the [[Pacific islands]]. The birth of Filipino hip-hop music or ''Pinoy Rap'' as it is commonly called, occurred in the early 1980s with songs by Dyords Javier ("Na Onseng Delight") and Vincent Dafalong ("Nunal"). The genre developed slowly during the 1980s but soon hit the mainstream with [[Francis Magalona]]'s debut album, ''Yo''! which included the nationalistic hit "Mga Kababayan" (My countrymen). Magalona, who rapped in both English and Tagalog became a pioneer in the genre and a superstar as a result.  
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The [[Philippines]] is said to have developed the first Hip hop culture|hip-hop scene in all of [[Asia]] and the Pacific islands. The birth of Filipino hip-hop music or ''Pinoy Rap'' as it is commonly called, occurred in the early 1980s with songs by Dyords Javier ("Na Onseng Delight") and Vincent Dafalong ("Nunal"). The genre developed slowly during the 1980s but soon hit the mainstream with [[Francis Magalona]]'s debut album, ''Yo''! which included the nationalistic hit "Mga Kababayan" (My countrymen). Magalona, who rapped in both English and Tagalog became a pioneer in the genre and a superstar as a result.  
  
The 1990s were known as the "Golden Age" of Pinoy rap and saw the beginning of rapid stylistic innovation with Francis M.'s second album released in [[1992]] ''Rap is Francis M.'' which is considered to be one of the greatest Pinoy rap albums. In [[1994]], [[Death Threat]] released the first Filipino [[gangsta rap]] album titled ''Gusto Kong Bumaet'' (I Want to be Good). Another associate of Magalona who emerged as a leading pioneer of the hip hop scene is DJ MOD a.k.a as Noel Macanaya.
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The 1990s were known as the "Golden Age" of Pinoy rap and saw the beginning of rapid stylistic innovation with Francis M.'s second album released in 1992 ''Rap is Francis M.'' which is considered to be one of the greatest Pinoy rap albums. In [[1994]], Death Threat released the first Filipino gangsta rap album titled ''Gusto Kong Bumaet'' (I Want to be Good). Another associate of Magalona who emerged as a leading pioneer of the hip hop scene is DJ MOD a.k.a as Noel Macanaya.
  
 
Another [[Philippines|Filipino]] hip-hop artist who achieved promence in the 1990s was formerly Los Angeles based-[[Andrew E.]] who went on to found his own record label, Dongalo Wreckords as well as the successful rap group [[Salbakuta]].  
 
Another [[Philippines|Filipino]] hip-hop artist who achieved promence in the 1990s was formerly Los Angeles based-[[Andrew E.]] who went on to found his own record label, Dongalo Wreckords as well as the successful rap group [[Salbakuta]].  
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==See Also==
 
==See Also==
 
*[[Traditional Filipino Music]]
 
*[[Traditional Filipino Music]]
 
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*[[Ilocano folk songs]]
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
<div class="references-small">
 
 
*Clewley, John. "Pinoy Rockers". 2000.  In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark  with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), ''World Music, Vol. 2: Latin & North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific'', pp 213-217. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0
 
*Clewley, John. "Pinoy Rockers". 2000.  In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark  with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), ''World Music, Vol. 2: Latin & North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific'', pp 213-217. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0
<references/>
+
 
</div>
+
# ^ Mercurio, Philip Dominguez (2006). [http://www.pnoyandthecity.blogspot.com/ Traditional Music of the Southern Philippines] (html). PnoyAndTheCity: A center for Kulintang - A home for Pasikings. Retrieved on February 25, 2006.
  
 
==External links==  
 
==External links==  
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* [http://www.philmusic.com] - '''PhilMusic.com''' : the multiawarded Philippine music site. Articles, Features, Reviews, Musician's Forum
 
* [http://www.philmusic.com] - '''PhilMusic.com''' : the multiawarded Philippine music site. Articles, Features, Reviews, Musician's Forum
 
* [http://www.soundclick.com/player/stations_player.cfm?q=hi&folderID=498177&shuffle=true&ref=9 Paring Bol-anon Music Station]
 
* [http://www.soundclick.com/player/stations_player.cfm?q=hi&folderID=498177&shuffle=true&ref=9 Paring Bol-anon Music Station]
 +
* [http://planetangpapel.blogspot.com/2009/08/first-wave-of-pinoy-punk.html The First Wave of Pinoy Punk (1976-1990)]
  
{{SoutheastAsianmusic}}
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{{wikipedia source|Music of the Philippines}}
 
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[[Category:Filipino music| ]]
 
[[Category:Filipino music| ]]
  
 
[[tl:Musika ng Pilipinas]]
 
[[tl:Musika ng Pilipinas]]

Revision as of 08:32, 10 March 2011