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Other Common Names: Leban (Malaya), Kulim Papa (Sabah), Teen-nok (Thailand), Milla
(India); Bitum (New Guinea), Gupasa (Indonesia).
Distribution: Throughout the Indo-Malayan region including Western Pacific islands.
The Tree:The Tree:The Tree:
A small to large tree reaching a height of 120 ft, boles clear to 50 ft, straight a
cylindrical, often fluted and irregular; trunk diameters up to 6 to 7 ft over
moderately large buttresses.
The Wood:The Wood:The Wood:
General Characteristics: Wood light yellow, yellow brown, olive- or pinkish gray,
reddish brown to brown; sapwood lighter in color, not distinctly differentiated.
Texture fine to medium fine; grain straight, slightly crossed, or wary; dull to
somewhat lustrous; without characteristic odor or taste; wood chips color water
yellow to yellow green.
Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varying with species
0.58 to 0.72; air-dry density 45 to 55 pcf.
Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)
Moisture content Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength
(%) (Psi) (1,000 psi) (Psi)
Green (34) 12,500 1,350 6,600
12% 17,300 2,000 9,400
Green (7) 11,600 1,710 6,100
12% 16,400 1,970 9,240
12% (47) 14,760 1,615 6,990
Janka side hardness 1,155 lb for green material and 1,255 lb for dry. Forest
Products Laboratory toughness 405 in.-lb for green wood and 330 in.-lb for dry (2-c
Drying and Shrinkage: Seasons well with little or no degrade, some fine surface
checking may develop. No information available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green
to ovendry: radial 4.5%; tangential 6.5%. Small to medium movement in service is
Working Properties: Generally saws and machines well and dresses to a good finish.
Durability: Heartwood reported as very durable; Indian species, though, are
Preservation: No information available.
Uses: Durable construction, boatbuilding, furniture and cabinetwork, flooring,
Additional Reading: (7), (34), (47), (48) M 150 282-3Logs are delivered to a sawmill in southern Nigeria. African mahogany
(mostly Khaya ivorensis) is in high demand on overseas markets. Export of logs fro
this region, as well as from most other tropical areas, is being restricted.
M 150 282-2Band mills in Ghana are designed to handle logs 5 feet and more in
diameter. Obeche or Wawa (Triplochiton scleroxylon) logs yield lumber favored for
joinery and millwork. M 150 273-14In many areas of the tropics, fast-growing species are being introduced
future supplies of fuel wood and industrial wood. Batai (Albizia falcataria) is
a favored plantation species in the Philipines. M 150 273-13 Shores spp. is still the major timber group harvested in Southeast
Asia. With modern chain saws, fellers no longer need scaffolding to get above larg
M 150 281 Felling of white lauan or almon (Shorea a;mon) with axes in the early
1900s in the Philippines. Most hardwood plywood now imported into the USA is
produced from species of Shorea.
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