Makabayan education

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The Makabayan subject was introduced in 2002 as part of the Revised Basic Education Curriculum. Makabayan is considered as one of the five key learning areas in the newly-revised curriculum. The other four are English, Filipino, Science, and Mathematics. Public schools are required to teach the subject, but private schools were given the freedom to integrate it into their own curriculum or not, according to the needs of their students.

Teachers of the component subjects of Makabayan are asked to teach the components separately. Each Makabayan subject, except for values education, is taught for one hour daily for four days a week, or a total of 240 minutes a week.


History and objectives of the subject

Makabayan was drafted and proposed by the late Senator Raul Roco who also became the Department of Education secretary. Because of the lack of funds for the education sector, Roco and DepEd decided to create this solution to provide the highest quality education within the available budget. The introduction of Makabayan was a major feature of the restructuring of the Basic Education Curriculum in 2002.

Before the revision, basic education in the country consisted of eight subjects: English, Filipino, Science, Mathematics, MAPE (Music, Arts, and Physical Education)/PEHM (Physical Education, Health, and Music), Values Education/GMRC, Social Studies, and Home Economics. MAPE/PEHM, Values Education/GMRC and Social Studies were lumped together to form Makabayan, with Social Studies being the subject's main component.


The rationale behind the revision of the education curriculum and the introduction of Makabayan is to:

  • Connect related subjects from the different learning areas;
  • Increase the time allotted for Science, English, and Mathematics;
  • Create multi-faceted basic education teachers;
  • Reduce congestion of subjects offered in basic education;
  • Reduce the hiring of teachers if one is able to teach different learning areas (particularly in the elementary level);
  • Improve the positive outlook towards work to increase productivity and lead to a peaceful country;
  • Increase each individual's ability to cope in a fast changing world;
  • Increase the importance of the arts, music, sports, dance, and other aspects of Philippine culture; and
  • Develop nationalism among the Filipinos and increase individual responsibility as a citizen.

Curriculum in the elementary level

The components of Makabayan in the elementary level are:

  • Araling Panlipunan (Social Studies)/Geography
  • Edukasyong Pantahanan (Home Economics)
  • Musika (Music)
  • Sining (Art)
  • Edukasyong Pangkatawan (Health Education)
  • Good Manners and Right Conduct

Curriculum in the secondary level

For high schools, the Makabayan components are:

  • Social Studies
  • Teknolohiya at Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (Education Technology at Home and Work)
  • Musika, Sining at Edukasyong Pangkatawan at Pangkalusugan
  • Edukasyong Pagpapahalaga (Values Education)

Grading system and subject credit

Students earn four unit credits for Makabayan. subjects are counted as one Grades in the component, with values education having a unit credit of 0.4 and the other component subjects having a unit credit of 1.2 each.

See also




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