Philippine National Anthem

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Lupang Hinirang
Chosen Land
Lupang Hinirang.png
Sheet music for Lupang Hinirang
National anthem of Flag of the Philippines Philippines
Lyrics José Palma
1899
Music Julián Felipe
1898
Adopted 1898
Until present


Lupang Hinirang is the national anthem of the Philippines. Its music was composed in 1898 by Julian Felipe in Spanish, with lyrics adapted from the poem Filipinas, written by a young poet-soldier named Jose Palma in 1899.

Originally written as incidental music, it did not have words when it was adopted as the National Anthem of the Philippines and subsequently played during the proclamation of Philippine independence on June 12, 1898. During the American occupation of the Philippines, the colonial government banned the song from being played with the passage of the Flag Law. The law was repealed in 1919 and the song was translated into English and would be legalized as the "Philippine Hymn." It was then translated into Filipino beginning in the 1940s with a 1966 version serving as the present anthem. Its use is governed by Republic Act No. 8491 or the Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines of 1998. The national anthem however is known to many Filipinos simply as Bayang Magiliw ("beloved country"), from the first line of the anthem.

Contents

Official lyrics

Lupang Hinirang means "Chosen Land" in Filipino. Jose Palma's Filipinas was translated into Tagalog by Julian Cruz Balmaceda, Ildefonso Santos, and Francisco Caballo. The final version was written in 1966 by the composer-songwriter Felipe Padilla De Leon.

The following are the lyrics to the National Anthem in Tagalog, as it appears in R.A. 8491 (for the English translation, see "Translations", below):

Filipino Español English <ref>This translation is not intended to be sung, as the words do not correspond with the music. However, it is recommended for accurate translation of the current and only official Filipino version of the Philippine national anthem into other language editions of Wikipedia.

In addition, this text differs from that of the Philippine Hymn of 1938, since the latter is a direct translation from the original Spanish version Filipinas.</ref>

Bayang Magiliw
Perlas ng Silanganan,
Alab ng puso
Sa dibdib mo'y buhay.

Lupang hinirang,
Duyan ka ng magiting,
Sa manlulupig,
'Di ka pasisiil.

Sa dagat at bundok,
Sa simoy at sa langit mong bughaw,
May dilag ang tula at awit
Sa paglayang minamahal.

Ang kislap ng watawat mo'y
Tagumpay na nagniningning,
Ang bituin at araw niya
Kailan pa ma'y 'di magdidilim.

Lupa ng araw, ng luwalhati't pagsinta,
Buhay ay langit sa piling mo;
Aming ligaya, na 'pag may mang-aapi
Ang mamatay nang dahil sa 'yo.

Tierra adorada
Hija del sol de Oriente,
Su fuego ardiente
en ti latiendo está.

¡Tierra de amores!
Del heroísmo cuna,
Los invasores
No te hollarán jamás.

En tu azul cielo, en tus auras,
En tus montes y en tu mar
Esplende y late el poema
De tu amada libertad.

Tu pabellón, que en las lides
La victoria iluminó,
No verá nunca apagados
Sus estrellas y su sol.

Tierra de dichas, del sol y de amores,
En tu regazo dulce es vivir.
Es una gloria para tus hijos,
Cuando te ofenden, por ti morir.

Beloved Country,
Pearl of the Orient,
The heart's fervor
In your bosom is ever alive.

Chosen land,
You are the cradle of the brave.
To the conquerors
You shall never surrender.

Through the seas and mountains,
Through the air and your azure skies,
There is splendor in the poem
And song for dear freedom.

The sparkle of your flag
Is shining victory.
Its stars and sun
Forever will never dim.

Land of the morning, of glory, of our affection,
Life is heaven in your arms;
When someone oppresses you, it is our pleasure
To die for you.

The final translation of Lupang Hinirang was used by de Leon as his inspiration for Awit sa Paglikha ng Bagong Pilipinas, commissioned by the government of the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines during World War II, and adapted during the Martial Law period.

History

When the national anthem was first played, this was the flag displayed to the Filipino people.

The Lupang Hinirang began as an instrumental march which General Emilio Aguinaldo commissioned for use in the proclamation of Philippine independence. This task was given to Julian Felipe and was to replace a march, which Aguinaldo did not find to be satisfactory. The title of the new march was Marcha Filipina Magdalo ("Magdalo Philippine March") and was later changed to Marcha Nacional Filipina ("Philippine National March") upon its adoption as the national anthem of the First Philippine Republic on June 11, 1898, a day before the date when Philippine independence was to be proclaimed. It was played by the San Francisco de Malabon marching band during the proclamation on June 12, 1898.

In August 1899, José Palma wrote the poem Filipinas in Spanish. It became the lyrics of the national hymn.

In the 1920s, the time signature was changed to 4/4 to facilitate its singing and the key was changed from the original C major to G.<ref name="ambeth">The right way to sing the National Anthem Written by Ambeth R. Ocampo, published in the Philippine Daily Inquirer</ref>

During the 1920s, with the repeal of the Flag Law which banned the use of all Filipino national symbols, the American colonial government decided to translate the national hymn from Spanish to English. The first translation was written around that time by Paz Marquez Benitez of the University of the Philippines, who was also a famous poet during that time. The most popular translation, called the "Philippine Hymn", was written by Senator Camilo Osias and an American, Mary A. Lane. The "Philippine Hymn" was legalized by an act of the Philippine Congress in 1938.

Filipino translations started appearing during the 1940s, the most popular being O Sintang Lupa ("O Beloved Land") by Julian Cruz Balmaceda, Ildefonso Santos, and Francisco Caballo. O Sintang Lupa was approved as the national anthem in 1948. Finally, during the term of President Ramon Magsaysay, Education Secretary Gregorio Hernandez formed a commission to revise the Tagalog words. On May 26, 1956, the National Anthem, Lupang Hinirang, was finally sung in Filipino. Minor revisions were made in 1966, and it is this final version which is in use today. The Filipino lyrics have been confirmed by a new national symbols law (Republic Act No. 8491 or the Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines) in 1998, but not the English and Spanish words.

In the late 1990s, the Chief Executive Officer of the GMA Network, Menardo Jimenez, proposed that various recording artists record their respective versions of the National Anthem; this is, however, prohibited by law.<ref name="ambeth" />

Usage and legal regulation

Article XVI, Section 2 of the present Philippine Constitution specifies that "The Congress may, by law, adopt a new name for the country, a national anthem, or a national seal, which shall be truly reflective and symbolic of the ideals, history, and traditions of the people. Such law shall take effect only upon its ratification by the people in a national referendum."<ref name="consti">[1] Article XVI General Provisions. From the official web site of the Philippine government</ref> At present, the 1998 Republic Act (R.A.) 8491<ref name="ra8491">[2] Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines. From the official website of the Philippine government</ref> (the Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines) regulates the usage of the Philippine national anthem. It also contains the complete lyrics of Lupang Hinirang.

R.A. 8491 specifies that Lupang Hinirang "shall be in accordance with the musical arrangement and composition of Julian Felipe." However, when followed literally, this means that the national anthem should only be performed by a pianist or by a brass band, as these were the only versions that were produced by Julian Felipe. Moreover, because the original version was composed in duple time (i.e. in a time signature of 2/4) as compared to the present quadruple time (4/4), it is uncertain if this will either slow down or even double the music's speed, making it difficult for singers to keep up with the music.<ref name="ambeth" /> Regardless of this, the national anthem is still sung with the lyrics.

R.A. 8491 also states that Lupang Hinirang "shall always be sung in the national language within or without the country," which would exclude English, Spanish, and all other regional languages. However, the English and original Spanish texts are recognized as the canonical lyrics to the national anthem in those languages.

The National Anthem is usually played during public gatherings in the Philippines or in foreign countries where the Filipino audience is sizeable. R.A. 8491 prohibits its playing or singing for mere recreation, amusement, or entertainment except during the following occasions:

  1. International competitions where the Philippines is the host or has a representative;
  2. Local competitions;
  3. During the "signing off" and "signing on" of radio broadcasting and television stations; and
  4. Before the initial and last screening of films and before the opening of theater performances.

R.A. 8491 also provides that it be played at other occasions as may be allowed by the National Historical Institute.

Any public or government official or employee who fails to observe the regulations of R.A. 8491 may face administrative sanctions, besides the penalties imposed by the same law. This warning also applies to persons connected with government-held corporations, public schools, and state colleges and universities.

The original Spanish text: Filipinas

by José Palma; became official in 1899

Tierra adorada
Hija del sol de Oriente,
Su fuego ardiente,
En ti latiendo está.

¡Tierra de amores!
Del heroísmo cuna,
Los invasores
No te hollarán jamás.

En tu azul cielo, en tus auras,
En tus montes y en tu mar
Esplende y late el poema
De tu amada libertad.

Tu pabellón, que en las lides
La victoria iluminó,
No verá nunca apagados
Sus estrellas ni su sol.

Tierra de dichas, del sol y de amores,
En tu regazo dulce es vivir.
Es una gloria para tus hijos,
Cuando te ofenden, por ti morir.

Translations

Some English sources erroneously translate Lupang Hinirang as "Beloved Land"; however, "Beloved Land" is a translation of the first line of Filipinas, which would be "Tierra adorada".

English: The Philippine Hymn

This translation was made by Senator Camilo Osias and Mary A. Lane and was made official by an act of the Philippine Congress in 1938. As such, it is the canonical English translation of Filipinas and is being taught in Philippine schools (along with the official Filipino text and the original Spanish lyrics.

Land of the morning,
Child of the sun returning,
With fervor burning,
Thee do our souls adore.

Land dear and holy,
Cradle of noble heroes,
Ne'er shall invaders,
Trample thy sacred shores.

Even within thy skies and through thy clouds,
And o'er thy hills and seas.
Do we behold the radiance,
Feel the throb of glorious liberty.

Thy banner, dear to all our hearts,
Its sun and stars alight.
O, never shall its shining fields,
Be dimmed by tyrant's might!

Beautiful land of love, O land of light,
In thine embrace 'tis rapture to lie.
But it is glory ever, when thou art wronged,
For us, thy sons, to suffer and die.

Diwang Bayan original lyrics by Julian Cruz Balmaceda and Ildefonso Santos, 1948

O sintang lupa, Perlas ng Silanganan; Diwang apoy kang Sa araw nagmula.

Lupang magiliw Pugad ng kagitingan, Sa manlulupig 'Di ka papaslang.

Sa iyong langit, simoy, parang Dagat at kabundukan, Laganap ang tibok ng puso Sa paglayang walang hanggang.

Sagisag ng watawat mong mahal. Ningning at tagumpay; Araw't bituin niyang maalab Ang s'yang lagi naming tanglaw.

Sa iyo Lupa ng ligaya't pagsinta, Tamis mabuhay na yakap mo, Datapwa't langit ding kung ikaw ay apihin Ay mamatay nang dahil sa 'yo.

Previous national anthem

Lupang Hinirang is by no means the first national anthem of the Filipino people. Julio Nakpil, a composer who was also a katipunero, composed what could be called the first Filipino national anthem. Entitled "Marangal na Dalit ng Katagalugan" (Honorable Hymn of Katagalugan), it became the official anthem of the Katipunan independence movement (the unrecognized government of Andres Bonifacio known as the Republika Ng Katagalugan). The anthem, later renamed Himno Nacional, was never adopted by Aguinaldo for unspecified reasons. It should be noted that Katagalugan, in its usage in the anthem, meant the Philippines and not just the Tagalog Filipinos.

Notes

<references />

External links

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