Presidents of the Philippines

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Seal of the President of the Philippines.

(Also see the knowledge database on Philippine Presidents)

Contents

History of Philippine Heads of State

Before Spaniards arrived in the Philippines, the archipelago was not a unified nation. Rather, it was splintered into different barangays headed by a datu. These barangays were independent of one another, although some barangays united to form a confederation. In the barangays, the datu was leader, lawmaker, and judge. Although he often had a council of elders as his advisers, the datu’s word was law. After the Spanish conquest, the King of Spain became the de jure head of state of the country, represented by his Governor-General. After Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States of America for 20 million dollars, the head of state became the President of the United States, also represented by the American Governor-General. When the Filipinos fought for and achieved their independence, they elected their own Presidents.

Constitutional Succession

Counting of the order of terms and constitutional succession to the presidency starts with Manuel L. Quezon, the first President of the Philippine Commonwealth, although he led a nation still under American sovereignty. Two Presidents were deposed by EDSA Revolutions, but their successors are counted in the order of terms.

Emilio Aguinaldo was the first to assume the title of President, but his Malolos Republic was not recognized by other nations at the time of its existence, so he is not considered to be in the line of Constitutional succession and not counted in the order of terms. Neither is Jose P. Laurel, who was considered to have been a puppet president of a puppet government of the Japanese occupation. Nevertheless, they are still recognized as Philippine Presidents, especially Aguinaldo, whom most Filipinos consider the first Filipino president.

The colors indicate the political party or coalition of each President on the day of election.

List of Presidents

# President Took office Left office Party Vice President Term Era
1 Emilio Aguinaldo Ph pres aguinaldo.jpg January 23, 1899<ref name="test1">Term started when he was inaugurated as president with the promulgation of the Malolos Constitution. The Philippine Presidency Project. Entry on Emilio Aguinaldo (accessed November 21, 2007).</ref> April 1, 1901<ref name="test2">Term ended when Aguinaldo pledged allegiance to the United States after his capture at Palanan, Isabela. The Philippine Presidency Project. Entry on Emilio Aguinaldo (accessed November 21, 2007).</ref> none
(Magdalo faction of the Katipunan)
none
(The 1899 Constitution did not provide for a Vice President)
- First Dictatorship
First Republic
2 Manuel L. Quezon Ph pres quezon.jpg November 15, 1935 August 1, 1944<ref name="test3">Died of tuberculosis at Saranac Lake, New York. Succeeded by his Vice-President. The Philippine Presidency Project. Entry on Manuel L. Quezon (accessed November 21, 2007).</ref> Nacionalista Party Sergio Osmeña 1 Commonwealth
2
3 José P. Laurel Ph pres laurel.jpg October 14, 1943 August 14, 1945<ref name="test4">Term ended when he dissolved the Philippine Republic in the wake of the surrender of Japanese forces to the Americans during World War II. The Philippine Presidency Project. Entry on Jose P. Laurel (accessed November 21, 2007).</ref> KALIBAPI<ref name="test5">Originally a Nacionalista, but was elected by the National Assembly under Japanese control. All parties were merged under Japanese auspices to form KALIBAPIi, to which all officials belonged.The Philippine Presidency Project. Entry on Jose P. Laurel (accessed November 21, 2007).</ref>
(Caretaker government under Japanese occupation)
none
(The 1943 Constitution did not provide for a Vice President.)
- Second Republic
4 Sergio Osmeña Ph pres osmena.jpg August 1, 1944 May 28, 1946 Nacionalista Party vacant 2 Commonwealth
(Restored)
5 Manuel Roxas Ph pres roxas.jpg May 28, 1946 April 15, 1948<ref name="test6">Died of a heart attack at Clark Air Base. The Philippine Presidency Project. Entry on Manuel Roxas (accessed November 21, 2007).</ref> Liberal Party Elpidio Quirino 3
Third Republic
6 Elpidio Quirino Ph pres quirino.jpg April 17, 1948 December 30, 1953 Liberal Party vacant
Fernando Lopez 4
7 Ramon Magsaysay Ph pres magsaysay.jpg December 30, 1953 March 17, 1957<ref name="test7">Died in a plane crash at Mount Manunggal, Cebu. The Philippine Presidency Project. Entry on Ramon Magsaysay (accessed November 21, 2007).</ref> Nacionalista Party Carlos P. Garcia 5
8 Carlos P. Garcia Ph pres garcia.jpg March 18, 1957 December 30, 1961 Nacionalista Party vacant
Diosdado Macapagal 6
9 Diosdado Macapagal Ph pres macapagal.jpg December 30, 1961 December 30, 1965 Liberal Party Emmanuel Pelaez 7
10 Ferdinand E. Marcos Ph pres marcos.jpg December 30, 1965 February 25, 1986<ref name="test8">Deposed in the 1986 EDSA Revolution. The Philippine Presidency Project. Entry on Ferdinand E. Marcos (accessed November 21, 2007).</ref> Nacionalista Party Fernando Lopez 8
9
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan vacant 10 Second Dictatorship
"The New Society"
11 Fourth Republic
Arturo Tolentino 12
11 Corazon C. Aquino Ph pres aquino.jpg February 25, 1986<ref name="test9">Assumed presidency by claiming victory in the disputed 1986 snap election. The Philippine Presidency Project. Entry on Corazon C. Aquino (accessed November 21, 2007).</ref> June 30, 1992 United Nationalists Democratic Organizations Salvador Laurel
Fifth Republic
12 Fidel V. Ramos Ph pres ramos.jpg June 30, 1992 June 30, 1998 Lakas-National Union of Christian Democrats-United Muslim Democrats of the Philippines Joseph Ejercito Estrada 13
13 Joseph Ejercito Estrada Ph pres estrada.jpg June 30, 1998 January 20, 2001<ref name="test10">Deposed after the Supreme Court declared Estrada as resigned and the office of the presidency as vacant as a result, after the 2001 EDSA Revolution. The Philippine Presidency Project. Entry on Joseph Ejercito Estrada (accessed November 21, 2007).</ref> Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino
(Partido ng Masang Pilipino-led coalition)
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo 14
14 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Philippine president arroyo.jpg January 20, 2001<ref name="test11">Succeeded into office after the Supreme Court declared Estrada as resigned and the office of the presidency as vacant as a result, after the 2001 EDSA Revolution. The Philippine Presidency Project. Entry on Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (accessed November 21, 2007).</ref> Present<ref name="test12">Reelected in 2004. The Philippine Presidency Project. Entry on Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. (accessed November 21, 2007).</ref> Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats vacant
Teofisto Guingona
Koalisyon ng Katapatan at Karanasan sa Kinabukasan
(Lakas-CMD-led coalition)
Noli de Castro 15

Statistics

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  • Longest serving President: Ferdinand Marcos (5,259 days)
  • Shortest serving President: Jose P. Laurel (479 days)

Footnotes

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References

See also


Citation

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