Life and Family
Don Francisco Mercado and Dona Teodora Alonso were strict parents. They believed in the maxim “spare the rod and spoil the child”. The Rizal family heard mass every Sundays and Christian holidays. At home, they practice the angelus and the rosary. After every family prayer, all their siblings kissed the hands of their parents.
Josefa Rizal or Panggoy had epilepsy, a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by seizures. These seizures are transient signs and/or symptoms of abnormal, excessive or hypersynchronous neuronal activity in the brain. Due to lack of medical resources to cure her illness during that time, she became a spinster.
Josefa Rizal died in at the age of 80 years old.
- Zaide, Gregorio F. Jose Rizal: Life, Works and Writings. Reprint, Mandaluyong City: National Bookstore, Inc., 2005.
- Chapter 5: Home  (Accessed August 5, 2011)
- The Mercado - Rizal Family  (Accessed August 5, 2011)
- To access full-text of José Rizal's literary works and correspondence, visit The Complete José Rizal collection at Filipiniana.net.