Hiligaynon

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Hiligaynon
Ilonggo
Spoken in: Philippines 
Region: Visayas
Total speakers: first language: 7 million

second language: 4 million (est.) 

Ranking: 83
Language family:
 Malayo-Polynesian
  Borneo-Philippines
   Central Philippine
    Visayan
     Central Visayan
      Hiligaynon
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: hil
ISO 639-3: hil

Hiligaynon is an Austronesian language spoken in Western Visayas in the Philippines. Hiligaynon is concentrated in the provinces of Iloilo and Negros Occidental. It is also spoken in the other provinces of the Panay Island group, such as Capiz, Antique, Aklan, Guimaras, and many parts of Mindanao like Koronadal City, South Cotabato and Sultan Kudarat. There are approximately 7,000,000 people in and outside the Philippines who are native speakers of Hiligaynon, and an additional 4,000,000 who are capable of speaking it with a substantial degree of proficiency.

It is a member of the Visayan language family.

The language is referred to as "Ilonggo" in Negros Occidental and in Iloilo. More precisely, "Ilonggo" is an ethnoliguistic group referring to the people living in Panay and the culture associated with the people speaking Hiligaynon. The boundaries of the the dialect called Ilonggo and that called Hiligaynon are unclear. The disagreement of where what name is correct extends to Philippine language specialists and native laymen.

Contents

Writing System

The core alphabet consists of 20 letters used for expressing consonants and vowels in Hiligaynon, each of which comes in an upper case and lower case variety.

Alphabet

First 10 letters
Symbol A a B b K k D d E e G g H h I i L l M m
Name a ba ka da e ga ha i la ma
Pronounce [a/ə] [aw] [aj] [b] [k] [d] [ɛ/e] [g] [h] [I/i] [IO] [l] [m]
in context a aw/ao ay b k d e g h i iw/io l m
Next 10 letters
Symbol N n Ng ng O o P p R r S s T t U u W w Y y
Name na nga o pa ra sa ta u wa ya
Pronounce [n] [ŋ] [ɔ/o] [oj] [p] [r] [s] FIX ME [t] [ʊ/u] [w] [w] [j]
in context n ng o oy p r s sy t u ua w y

Additional Symbols

It should be noted that the apostrophe(') and dash(-) also appear in Hiligaynon writing, and might be considered letters. In addition, some English letters, may be used in borrowed words.


Grammar

Personal Pronouns

  Absolutive Ergative Oblique
1st person singular ako nakon, ko akon
2nd person singular ikaw, ka nimo, mo imo
3rd person singular siya niya iya
1st person plural inclusive kita naton, ta aton
1st person plural exclusive kami namon amon
2nd person plural kamo ninyo inyo
3rd person plural sila nila ila

Sounds

Hiligaynon has sixteen consonants: p, t, k, b, d, g, m, n, ng, s, h, w, l, r and y. There are three main vowels: [a], [ɛ]/[i], and [o]/[ʊ]. [i] and [ɛ] (both spelled i) were allophones, where [i] in the beginning and middle and sometimes final syllables and [ɛ] in final syllables. The vowels [ʊ] and [o] were allophones, with [ʊ] always being used when it is the beginning of a syllable, and [o] always used when it ends a syllable. Consonants [d] and [ɾ] can sometimes interchange as they were once allophones.

Loan Words

Hiligaynon has some Spanish words, like santo (from santo, saint), berde (from verde, green), and pero (from pero, but).

Examples

Numbers

Number Hiligaynon
1 Isá
2 Duhá
3 Tatlo
4 Apat
5 Limá
6 Anum
7 Pitó
8 Waló
9 Siyám
10 Púlô

Days of the week

The names of the days of the week are derived from their Spanish equivalents.

Day Adlaw
Sunday Domingo
Monday Lunes
Tuesday Martes
Wednesday Miyerkoles
Thursday Huwebes
Friday Biyernes
Saturday Sabadó

Months of the year

The first set of Hiligaynon names of the months are derived from Spanish.

Month Bulan
January Enero; ulalong
February Pebrero; dagangkahoy
March Marso; dagangbulan
April Abril; kiling
May Mayo; himabuyan
June Hunio; kabay
July Hulyo; hidapdapan
August Agosto; lubad-lubad
September Septiyembre; kangurolsol
October Oktubre; bagyo-bagyo
November Nobiyembre; panglot-diotay
December Disiyembre; panglot-daku

Quick Phrases

English Hiligaynon
Yes. Hu-o.
No. Indî.
Thank you. Salamat.
Sorry. Pasensya/Pasaylo.
Help! Bulig! / Tabang!
Delicious! Namit!
Take care. Halong.
Are you mad? Akig ka?
I don't know. Ambot.

Greetings, Friends and Lovers

English Hiligaynon
Good morning. Maayong aga.
Good noon. Maayong udto.
Good afternoon. Maayong hapon.
Good evening. Maayong gab-i.
How are you? Kumusta ka?
I'm fine. Maayo man.
I am fine, how about you? Maayo man, ikaw ya?
How old are you? Pila na ang edad nimo?
I am 25 years old. Beinte singko anyos na (a)ko./ Duha ka pulo kag lima ka tuig na (a)ko.
I am John. Ako si John.
I am Oskee. Ako si Oskee.
What is your name? Ano/sin-o imo ngalan?/ Ano/sin-o ngalan (ni)mo?
I love you. Palangga ko ikaw./Palangga ta ka
I love you (romantic love) Ginahigugma ko ikaw
Thank you very much. Salamat gid.
Girl you're so beautiful. Day tama sa imo ka-anyag./Day, gwapa ka gid!
Can I get your cellphone number? Puede ko makuha ang numero sang cellphone (ni)mo?

This, That, and Whatnot...

English Hiligaynon
What is this? Ano (i)ni?
This is a sheet of paper. Isa (i)ni ka panid sang papel.
What is that? Ano (i)nâ?
That is a book. Libro (i)nâ.
What will you do? Ano ang himu-on (ni)mo? / Ano ang buhaton (ni)mo?
What are you doing? Ano ang ginahimo (ni)mo?
I don't know. Ambut

Space and Time

English Hiligaynon
Where shall we go? Diin kita makadto?
Where are we going? Diin kita pakadto?
Where are you going? (Sa) diin ka makadto?
We shall go to Bacolod. Makadto kita sa Bacolod.
I am going home. Mapa-uli na ko (sa balay).
Where do you live? Diin ka naga-istar?/Diin ka na-

gapuyô?

Where did you come from? (Where have you just been?) Diin ka nahalin?
Have you been here long? Dugay ka na diri?
(To the) left. (Sa) wala.
(To the) right. (Sa) tuô.
What time is it? Ano'ng takna na?/Ano'ng horas na?
It's ten o'clock. Alas diyes na.

The Market Place

English Hiligaynon
May I buy? Pwede ko mabakal?
How much is this? Tag-pila ini?
How much is this/that? Tagpilá iní/inâ?

See also

Children's Books

Ang Bukid Nga Nagpalangga Sang Pispis

Ang Bukid Nga Nagpalangga Sang Pispis is a fully illustrated children's picture book in color. The original story is The Mountain That Loved A Bird, by Alice McLerran. Originally published in the U.S. with illustrations by Eric Carle, the story has been translated to Hiligaynon by Genevieve L. Asenjo and illustrated with new art by Beaulah Pedregosa Taguiwalo drawn from the landscapes of the Philippines.

The publisher is Mother Tongue Publishing Inc., a new publishing company based in Manila, Philippines that was formed in November 2006 by Mario and Beaulah Taguiwalo. Their mission is to publish books in as many languages and dialects as possible. They are inspired by the words of science fiction writer Ursula K. Le Guin: “Literature takes shape and life in the body, in the wombs of the mother tongue.” They also agree with neuro-scientist Elkhonon Goldberg who refers to mother tongues as “an extremely adaptive and powerful device for modeling not only what is, but also what will be, what could be, and what we want and do not want to be.”

External links

Template:Incubator

Hiligaynonbr:Ilongoeg ceb:Hiligaynon es:Hiligaynon ilo:Pagsasao a Hiligaynon fi:Hiligainon kieli tl:Wikang Hiligaynon war:Hiligaynon



Original Source

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