Filipino Americans

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The Filipino American (abbreviated Fil-Am) community is the second largest Asian American group in the United States, following the Chinese community and the largest Southeast Asian American group. Filipino Americans trace their ancestry back to the Philippines, an archipelagic nation in Southeast Asia that is south of Taiwan and east of the South China Sea. [2]

The United States 2000 Census counted 2.4 million Americans who identified as Filipino. This makes the Filipino American community account for about 22% of the Asian American population. In 2007, the population rose to 4 million. [1]

Filipino Americans are the largest subgroup of the Overseas Filipinos. More than half of the community are either naturalized or American-born, while the remainder are Filipino nationals or dual citizens of both the Philippines and the United States.

Most Filipino Americans reside in California, Hawaii, Washington, Guam, Chicago Metropolitan Area, and the New York City Metropolitan Area. They form the largest group of Asians in Alaska, California, Maine, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Virginia, Washington, Wyoming, and Guam. And in addition to they are the second largest group of Asians in Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Illinois, Maine, Mississippi, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia.

Congress has established two months in celebration of Filipino American culture in the United States. Asian Pacific American Heritage Month, which is celebrated in May. Upon becoming the largest Asian American group in California, Filipino American History Month was established in October. This is to commemorate the first landing of Filipinos on October 18, 1587 in Morro Bay, California and is widely celebrated by Fil-Ams in the United States. [3] [4]

Contents

Culture

Ethnically closer to other Austronesian-speaking groups (this includes indigenous Taiwanese, Indonesian, and Malaysians) than to mainland Asians, although their culture has influenced Filipinos.

However, many Filipino Americans identify with the Pacific Islanders for historical reasons, such as the introduction of English, the suppression of native languages, the presence of military bases, and promotion of American ideologies attributed to the colonial rule by the United States, although this topic has been debated.

Culturally, the Philippines is the most Westernized country in Asia, a legacy of over three centuries of Spanish and American colonial rule. Filipino culture has taken a small but distinct Latin/Catholic flavor from Spain and Mexico, which ruled the country from Mexico City. Today, most Filipinos are distinguishable from other Asians by having a Hispanic-sounding name and/or surname (see: Catálogo alfabético de apellidos), by practicing the Catholic religion, and by speaking fluent English.

Background

The culture of the Filipinos originated from the culture of the Austronesian speakers from Taiwan. Upon arrival to the Philippines, these migrants began to establish settlements call barangays.

Trade with Indians, Arabs, Malays, Chinese, and other Asian groups began to flourish over the next centuries and Filipinos began to adopt cultural contributions from these traders, such as Baybayin.

The Spanish meanwhile, arrived in the islands in 1521 from Mexico. This led to a massive Hispanization of Filipino culture, which include the adoption of the Roman Catholic faith.

The period after the Philippine American War resulted in the Philippines becoming heavily influenced by American culture. Elements of Americana have been embraced (or imposed) in Filipino society due to the educational and government policies imposed when the Philippines was a American territory.

After the Republic of the Philippines was established, the influence of American culture continued. English language instruction is required in most schools beginning, causing it to have one of the highest rates of English-speakers. The presence of two large military bases for quite long time, Clark Air Force Base and Subic Naval Base, did contribute a lot to acquiring American culture and assimilating into the Philippine culture. Companies such as McDonald's, Nike, Pizza Hut, and Coca-cola have also made an impact in the nations culture.

Nevertheless, there is very minimal culture shock when Filipino nationals migrate to the United States.

Language

Tagalog language spread in the United States.

Filipinos speak Tagalog, Bikol, Visayan languages, Ilokano, Capampangan, Pangasinan and other Philippine languages at home. However, an overwhelming majority of Filipinos are fluent in English since it is one of the official languages in the Philippines and many Filipino American parents urge their children to enhance their English-language skills.

Tagalog is the fifth most-spoken language in the United States, with 1.262 million speakers. [5] The standardized version of this language is officially known as Filipino. Many Filipino American civic organizations and Philippine consulates offer Filipino language courses.

Many of California's public announcements and correspondences are translated in Tagalog due to the large constituency of Filipino Americans in the Golden State. Tagalog is also taught in public schools as a foreign language course, as well as in higher education.

Another significant Philippine language is Ilokano, which a major language of Hawaii and is taught in school as a foreign language course. [6]

Fluency in Tagalog, Ilokano, Visayan and in the other languages of the Philippines tend to be lost among second- and third-generation Filipino Americans since many immigrants already come to the U.S with a knowledge of English. This has sometimes created a language barrier between old and new generations.

Religion

Filipino Americans largely share mainstream American religious beliefs and values, which are rooted in their Christian heritage. This is caused by the introduction, and subsequent adoption, of Catholicism and Christian values by Filipinos as a result of over 300 years of Spanish colonial rule.

In New York, the first-ever Church for Filipinos, San Lorenzo Ruiz Church, is hosted by the city. It is named after the first patron saint of the Philippines, San Lorenzo Ruiz. This is officially designated as the Church for Filipinos in July 2005, the first in the United States, and the second in the world, after a church in Rome. [7]

There are other religious faiths with smaller numbers of Filipino American adherents, including various Protestant denominations, Islam, and Buddhism.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints reports that Tagalog is the fourth most-spoken language among members worldwide, and other Filipino languages are among the ten most-spoken in the Church, with so many of those members in American congregations that they hold separate services in Tagalog.

A sizable group of Filipino Americans are Muslim, while others believe in atheism or agnosticism.

Education

Many Filipino Americans are among the highest educated Asians. Nursing education in the Philippines is highly regarded worldwide therefore Filipino nurses are preferred by many American hospitals [8] It is relatively easy for Filipino nationals to enter the American health care workforce, inspiring them to settle and seek United States citizenship upon arrival. With the shortage of American nurses beginning in the 1980s, clinics and hospitals in the United States have been hiring directly from the Philippines offering substantial salaries. According to the United States Census Bureau, 60,000 Filipino nationals migrated to the United States every year in the 1990s to take advantage of such professional opportunities. Other Filipino nationals come to the United States for a college or university education, return to the Philippines and end up migrating to the United States to settle.

American schools have also considered the highly-calibrated Filipino teachers and instructors. More US states have been looking to the Philippines to recruit and fill in the need of their respective schools, particularly North Carolina, Kansas, and Virginia. [9]

Many of the newer generations of Filipino Americans born in the United States, gravitate towards business, architecture, business administration, economics, education, engineering, medicine and nursing.

The Arts

Filipinos can be seen all over the arts and entertainment world and the inclusion of Jasmine Trias and Camile Velasco in the 3rd season of American Idol introduced many mainstream American viewers to Filipino American talent. Apl.de.ap of The Black Eyed Peas is another well-known Filipino American musician. Lalaine, a Filipino American, can be seen from Broadway musicals to the Disney Channel's Lizzie McGuire. She has also been a spokesperson for a Filipino channel, been hailed as a role-model by Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, and has been a promoter for Philippine tourism.

Other famous Filipino Americans in the entertainment industry include Country music singer, Neal McCoy, of mixed Filipino heritage; pop singer Enrique Iglesias, his half Filipina mother and Spanish-mestiza socialite Isabel Preysler, actress and occasional singer Tia Carrere, dance recording artist Jocelyn Enriquez; Vanessa Anne Hudgens of Disney's successful made-for-television movie High School Musical; and comedian SNL alumnus Rob Schneider, who has appeared in such films as The Hot Chick and The Benchwarmers. Nicole Scherzinger, lead vocalist of the Pussycat Dolls and also an actress, is a Filipino American. Chad Hugo from the rock band N.E.R.D. is a Filipino American. Cassie, half Filipina, is the singer of the hit single "Me & U". Vincent Ramos, a Filipino American from Long Beach, CA and professionally known as DJ Glaze, is highly recognized in the Filipino Community as a rap/hip-hop music producer for the group Foesum. WWE Superstar Batista is Filipino American, and has tattooed the Filipino flag, along with the Greek flag on his upper left arm. The list also includes the lead role of the motion picture the Crying Freeman and Iron Chef America host, Mark Dacascos.

Kirk Hammett of Metallica is of Filipino descent, Jared Palomar of Augustana is also half Filipino. Joey Santiago, the guitarist for the Pixies and The Martinis, was born in Manila, and spent his early childhood there. Dan Inosanto, Ernie Reyes Sr. and Ernie Reyes Jr. martial arts experts. Michael Copon of One Tree Hill is Fil-Am. The former Miss Teen USA/host of MTV's TRL Vanessa Minnillo's mother is Filipina. Other celebrities of Filipino descent: Broadway actress (Kim in Miss Saigon), Lea Salonga, Jose Llana of the Flower Drum Song, Shannyn Sossamon of A Knight's Tale, actors Paolo Montalban, and Lou Diamond Phillips. Jerome Fontamillas of the band Switchfoot plays guitar (the band popularized the song "Dare You To Move").

A number of Filipino American filmmakers have produced and released notable films. Richard Wong and H.P. Mendoza wrote and directed film festival hit Colma: The Musical. Rod Pulido wrote and directed Flipside. Francisco Aliwalas wrote and directed Disoriented. Gene Cajayon directed and co-wrote The Debut with co-writer John Manal Castro. In 2006, Producer Pia Clemente (The Debut) was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film for her work on Our Time is Up.

21st Century Issues

Immigration

To date, Filipino remain the second-largest immigrant population in the United States, behind Mexicans, with an average of 70,000 people migrating annually. About 75% consist of family sponsorship or immediate relatives of American citizens while the remainder is employment-oriented. A majority of this number prefer to live in California, followed by Hawaii, Illinois, New York, New Jersey, Washington, Florida, Louisiana, Texas, Nevada, Alaska, and Virginia.

However Filipinos suffer one of the longest waiting periods among immigrant groups. Petitions for immigrant visas that date all the way back to 1984 are just now being granted in 2006. [10] Many visa petitions by Filipino Americans for their relatives are on hold or backlogged and as many 1.4 million petitions are affected causing delay to the reunification of Filipino families.

Dual citizenship

As a result of the passage of Philippines Republic Act No. 9225, also known as the Citizenship Retention and Re-Acquisition Act of 2003, Filipino Americans are eligible for dual citizenship in both the United States and the Philippines. However, dual citizens are barred from participating in homeland elections through the recently-passed absentee voting bill. Overseas suffrage was first employed in the May 2004 elections in which Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo was reelected to a second term.

In 2004, about 6,000 people became dual citizens of the Philippines and the United States. This act encourages many Filipino Americans to invest in the Philippines, buy land (only Filipino citizens are allowed to purchase land in the Philippines), vote in Philippine elections, retire in the Philippines, and participate in representing the Philippine flag.

Many dual citizens have been recruited to participate in international sports events such as the Olympic Games in Athens 2004, the recent 23rd Southeast Asian Games in Manila, the upcoming 15th Asian Games in 2006 and Olympic Games in Beijing 2008.

In addition, the Philippine government actively encourages Filipino Americans to visit or return permanently to the Philippines via the "Balikbayan" program and to invest in the country. Philippine consulates facilitate this process in various areas of the United States. These are located in Chicago; Guam; Honolulu; Los Angeles; New York; Saipan; and San Francisco while honorary consulates are also available in Atlanta, Fort Lauderdale, Houston, Majuro, Miami and New Orleans.

Settlement

Philippine Center in New York City

The first permanent Filipino settlement in North America was established in 1763 in Saint Malo, Louisiana. Other settlements appeared throughout the bayous of Louisiana with the Manila Village in Barataria Bay being the largest.

Mass migration, however, occurred at around the end of the Nineteenth century, when the demand for labor in the plantations of Hawaii and California attracted thousands of mostly male laborers. Due to their isolation and enforced segregation, the migrants created the first Little Manilas in urban areas.

Unlike, other Asian Americans, such as the Chinese and the Vietnamese, they, have had a tendency to settle in a more dispersed fashion, living in communities across the country, many of them living in communities with a highly diverse population. The vast majority of them live in the suburbs or in master planned communities.

In areas with sparse Filipino populations, they often form loosely-knit social organizations aimed at maintaining a sense of "family", a key feature of Filipino culture. Such organizations generally arrange social events, especially of a charitable nature, and keep members up-to-date to local events. While these events are well-attended, the associations are otherwise a small part of the Filipino American life.

There are also instances where Filipino Americans form close-knit neighborhoods of their own, especially in California and Hawaii. A few townships in these parts of the country have established "Little Manilas", civic and business districts tailored for the Filipino American community.

The City of Los Angeles designated a section of Westlake as Historic Filipinotown. Los Angeles is also home to as many as 500,000 Filipino Americans. San Francisco also has a large Filipino American community, while New York City is the fourth largest metropolitan area of Filipino concentration. Metropolitan areas such as Chicago, Houston, Las Vegas, and Seattle are also seeing dramatic growth in their Filipino populations.

New York City's bustling environment carries a collection of many different ethnicities, each with their own festivals and parades. This includes the Philippine Independence Day Parade, which is traditionally held on the first Sunday of June at Madison Avenue. The celebration occupies nearly twenty-seven city blocks which includes a 3.5-hour parade and an all-day long street fair and cultural performances. It gathers as many as 200,000 marchers, participants, and spectators and is filled with a variety of organization banners, bands, dances, and an abundance of Philippine flags. The parade receives a sufficient amount of media attention, especially in many local news broadcasters in the New York City Metro Area.

In June of 2002, Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and representatives of U.S. President George W. Bush presided over the grand opening and dedication of the Filipino Community Center in Waipahu, Hawaii. It is the largest Filipino American institution in the United States, with the goal of preserving Filipino American history and culture.

"The Invisible Minority"

When people speak of Asian American, they tend to identify that label with Chinese American, Korean American or Japanese American, but seldom Filipino Americans. This is partly due to the lack, or invisibility of representation, of Filipino American role models in the wider community and media, despite being the second-largest Asian American group in the United States. Also, due to the extreme ethnic diversity that exists in the Philippines, having iconic role models is particularly difficult.

Ease of integration and assimilation has gained the Filipino American the label of "Invisible Minority." Recent Filipino immigrants tend to assimilate rapidly, as most are fluent in English. The label also extends to the lack of political power and representation. In the mid-1990s, only 100 Filipino Americans held elected office, with all but one serving at the municipal or state level.

Intermarriage among Filipinos with other races is common and they have the largest number of interracial marriages among Asian immigrant groups, as documented in California. [11] It is also noted that 21.8% of Filipino Americans are of mixed blood, second among Asian Americans, and is the fastest growing [12]

Economics

As a result of education, many Filipino Americans are in the middle class, and many are in the upper-middle class. The community possesses an economic well-being. [13] [14] [15] Filipino Americans, grouped with other Asians, are considered to have one of the highest average per household incomes in the nation, although Pacific Islanders and Asians also have a high rate of poverty in the U.S. [16] The buying power of the Filipino American community is at $52 billion dollars. See invest in the Philippines

Among Overseas Filipinos, Filipino Americans are the largest senders of US dollars to the Philippines. In 2005, their combined dollar remittances reached a record-high of almost $6.5 billion dollars. The period of January-August of 2006, they have already remitted more than $4.4 billion, a 3% increase from the same period in the year 2005. [17]

As any other ethnic group, many Filipino Americans are business-owners, particularly in the field of small business. Many own restaurants, while others are in the medical, dental, and optical fields. Filipino-owned businesses numbered to be over 125,000 according to the 2002 US Economic Census. [18] These firms employ more than 132,000 people and generate an almost $14.2 billion in revenue. Of these businesses, 38.6% are health care and social assistance oriented and produces 39.3% of the collective Filipino-owned business revenue. California had the most number of these businesses followed by Hawaii, New York, Illinois, New Jersey, Florida, and Texas. [18]

At the point of retirement, some Filipino-Americans tend to head back to the Philippines, because of the significance of the dollar in the Philippine economy. Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo has encouraged the Filipino American community business entrepreneurs to invest back home so as to boost job-creation in the Philippines.

Discrimination

Like most immigrants, Filipino Americans suffer from discrimination. In the early 20th century, Filipino Americans were barred from marrying White Americans, a group which included Hispanic Americans. This was because many Filipino men secretly married or cohabitated with White women in California and the South during the 1920s and 1930s. [19] Many were racially segregated into small settlements and were forbidden to travel. The situation became worse after events such as the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair and the Philippine-American War created many negative stereotypes.

However, after World War II attitudes towards Filipinos changed. Still, discrimination only subsided during the 1960s, when racial discrimination against minorities became illegal.

Today, Filipino Americans are working against racial discrimination in the work force. Despite the level of education and workplace productivity, the community continues to see discrepancies between their salaries and compared to the salaries of other ethnicities. There is also a lack of those or few who have actually reached the upper rungs of executive positions.

Recent race-based hate crimes against Filipino Americans have occurred, the most notably the 1999 murder of Joseph Ileto by white supremacist Aryan Nations member Buford Furrow and the March 16, 2007 assault of Marie Stefanie Martinez. [20] There have also been cases of unreasonable deportation and visa rejection against Filipino Americans, and greater scrutiny when re-entering the United States from Mexico and Canada, even for native-born US citizens. [21] Filipino Americans today are continuing to be active in the fight against racial discrimination against any race.

Post 9/11 Issues

After the attacks on 11 September 2001, the United States government led a crackdown on foreign visitors and workers, which included Filipinos who entered the United States on temporary education and work visas but often choose to stay after their visas expire. The United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization Service was dissolved and replaced with the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services in hopes of more aggressive prevention of visa fraud.

Also, due to the links of Philippine Islamist group Abu Sayyaf to Al-Qaeda, some Filipino Americans have been under suspicion, and have allegedly been mistreated based on the assumption that they are collaborators to extremists. [22]

World War II veteran benefits

During World War II, over 200,000 Filipinos fought with Americans against the Japanese. They were promised with all the benefits afforded to those serving in the Military of the United States. Unfortunately, in 1946, the American Congress passed the Rescission Act which stripped Filipinos of all the benefits promised. Of the sixty-six countries allied with the United States during the war, the Philippines is the only country that did not receive military benefits from the United States.

Since the passage of the Rescission Act, many Filipino veterans have traveled to the United States to lobby Congress for the benefits promised to them for their service and sacrifice. Over 30,000 of such veterans live in the United States today, with most being American citizens. Sociologists introduced the phrase "Second Class Veterans" to describe the plight of these Filipino Americans. Since 1993, numerous bills were introduced in Congress to return the benefits taken away from these veterans. However, the bills died in committee. but the struggle continues today. The current "full equity" bills are S. 146 in the Senate, and H.R. 4574 in the House of Representatives.

Holidays and Celebrations

Filipino Americans are fond of celebration. It is not unusual for a families (and extended families) to host at least a dozen occasions a year (i.e., baptisms, birthdays, funerals, holidays, showers, weddings). Celebrations are highlighted by large buffets of traditional Filipino food including but not limited to adobo (savory soy sauce and vinegar stewed beef, pork or chicken), lumpia (egg rolls), pansit (fried noodles), litson (pronounced leh-chon, whole roasted pig), and fresh grilled fish. In Ilocano celabrations, the food tends to be bitter such as pinapaitan (beef stewed in bile broth). Often such affairs can grow to become major neighborhood block parties.

Filipino American fondness for festivities has led to the establishment of community-wide festivals celebrating the Filipino culture. These usually take the form of fiestas, street fairs, and parades. Most festivals occur in May during Asian Pacific American Heritage Month, which includes Flores de Mayo, a Roman Catholic harvest feast in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Several events commemorating the Philippine Declaration of Independence occur mostly in June since it is the most imporatant event for the community. An example of these is the Philippine Independence Day Parade in New York City, the largest Filipino celebration of any kind in country.

Major Celebrations in the United States
Date Name Region
January (Third Sunday) Winter Sinulog Philadelphia, PA
April Easter Salubong Nationwide, USA
April PhilFest Tampa, FL
May Asian Pacific American Heritage Month Nationwide, USA
May Filipino Festival New Orleans, LA
May Filipino Fiesta and Parade Honolulu, HI
May Flores de Mayo Nationwide, USA
June (First Sunday) Philippine Independence Day Parade New York, NY
June (Second Sunday) Philippine Day Parade Passaic, NJ
June Pista Sa Nayon Vallejo, CA
June New York Filipino Film Festival at The ImaginAsian Theatre New York, NY
June Empire State Building commemorates Philippine Independence [23] New York, NY
June (Last Sunday) Philippine-American Friendship Day Parade Jersey City, NJ
June 12 Fiesta Filipina San Francisco, CA
June 12 Philippine Independence Day Nationwide, USA
June Pagdiriwang Seattle, WA
July Fil-Am Friendship Day Virginia Beach, VA
July Pista sa Nayon Seattle, WA
July Philippine Weekend [24] Delano, CA
August Annual Philippine Fiesta [25] Secaucus, NJ
August (Third Sunday) Summer Sinulog Philadelphia, PA
September 27 Festival of San Lorenzo Luis New Orleans, LA
September Festival of Philippine Arts and Culture (FPAC) Los Angeles, CA
October Filipino American History Month Nationwide, USA
December 16 to 24 Simbang Gabi Christmas Dawn Masses Nationwide, USA
December 25 Pasko Christmas Feast Nationwide, USA
December 30 Jose Rizal Day Nationwide, USA

Timeline

  • 1763, first permanent Filipino settlements established in North America near Barataria Bay in southern Louisiana
  • 1781, Antonio Miranda Rodriguez chosen a member of the first group of settlers to establish the City of Los Angeles, California
  • 1898, United States annexes the Philippines
  • 1903, first Pensionados, Filipinos invited to attend college in the United States on American government scholarships, arrive
  • 1906, first Filipino laborers migrate to the United States to work on the Hawaiian sugarcane and pineapple plantations, California and Washington asparagus farms, Washington lumber, Alaska salmon canneries
  • 1920s, Filipino labor leaders organize unions and strategic strikes to improve working and living conditions
  • 1933, California Civil Code, section 60, amended to prohibit marriages between between white persons and members of the Malay race (i.e. Filipinos). (Stats. 1933, p. 561.)
  • 1936, Philippines becomes self-governing. Commonwealth of the Philippines inaugurated
  • 1939, Washington Supreme Court rules unconstitutional the Anti-Alien Land Law of 1937 which banned Filipino Americans from owning land
  • 1955, Peter Aduja becomes first Filipino American elected to office becoming a member of the Hawai'i State House of Representatives
  • 1956, Bobby Balcena becomes first Filipino American to play Major League baseball, for the Cincinnati Reds
  • 1965, Delano grape strike begins when members of Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee, mostly Filipino farm workers in Delano, California walked off the farms of area table grape growers demanding wages on level with the federal minimum wage. Labor leader Philip Vera Cruz subsequently served as second vice president and on the managing board of the United Farm Workers.
  • 1981. Silme Domingo and Gene Viernes were both assassinated on June 1, 1981 inside a Seattle downtown union hall. The late Philippine Dictator Ferdinand Marcos hired gunmen to murder both ILWU Local 37 officers to silence the growing movement in the United States opposing the dictatorship in the Philippines.
  • 1987, Benjamin J. Cayetano becomes the first Filipino American and second Asian American elected Lt. Governor of a state of the Union
  • 1993, Mario R. Ramil appointed Associate Justice to the Hawai'i Supreme Court, the second Filipino American to reach the court
  • 1994, Benjamin J. Cayetano becomes the first Filipino American and second Asian American elected Governor of a state of the Union
  • 2003, Philippine Republic Act No. 9225, also known as the Citizenship Retention and Re-Acquisition Act of 2003 enacted, allowing natural-born Filipinos naturalized in the United States and their unmarried minor children to reclaim Filipino nationality and hold dual citizenship
  • 2006, Congress passes legislation that commemorates the 100 Years of Filipino Migration to the United States

Notable people

Further information: List of Filipino Americans

Further reading

  • Carl L. Bankston III, "Filipino Americans," in Pyong Gap Min (ed.), Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues ISBN 1-4129-0556-7
  • Bautista, Veltisezar. The Filipino Americans from 1763 to the Present: Their History, Culture, and Traditions , ISBN 0-931613-17-5
  • Crisostomom Isabelo T. Filipino Achievers in the U.S.A. & Canada: Profiles in Excellence, ISBN 0-931613-11-6
  • Isaac, Allan Punzalan. American Tropics: Articulating Filipino America, (University of Minnesota Press; 205 pages; 2007) Analyzes images of the Philippines in Hollywood cinema, Boy Scout adventure novels, Progressive Era literature, and other realms
  • A. Tiongson, E. Gutierrez, R. Gutierrez, eds. Positively No Filipinos Allowed, ISBN 1-59213-122-0
  • Filipino American Lives by Yen Le Espiritu, ISBN 1-56639-317-5
  • Filipinos in Chicago (Images of America)] by Estrella Ravelo Alamar, Willi Red Buhay ISBN 0-7385-1880-8

News

  • "Filipino Population in U.S. rivals Chinese-Americans", Honolulu Advertiser, 18 November 1996, Gannett News Service

Fiction

See also

References

  1. ^ a b US-Philippine relations. Retrieved on 2007- 05-17.
  2. ^ US demographic census. Retrieved on [2006]- 08-28.
  3. ^ Sulat sa Tanso. Retrieved on 2006- 08-28.
  4. ^ history. Retrieved on 2006- 08-28.
  5. ^ Statistical Abstrac of the United States: page 47: Table 47: Languages Spoken at Home by Language: 2003. Retrieved on 2006- 07-11.
  6. ^ Statistical Most spoken languages in Hawai'i. Retrieved on 2007- 01-20.
  7. ^ http://www.chapelofsanlorenzoruiz.org/Home.html
  8. ^ Filipino nurses preferred. Retrieved on 2006- 09-01.
  9. ^ More US States hire teachers from the Philippines. Retrieved on 2007- 01-21.
  10. ^ Green-card limbo. Retrieved on 2006- 12-15.
  11. ^ http://www.asian-nation.org/interracial.shtml
  12. ^ http://www.asian-nation.org/multiracial.shtml
  13. ^ Speaking Truth to Power!!. Retrieved on 2006- 08-28.
  14. ^ U.S. economics. Retrieved on 2006- 08-28.
  15. ^ economics. Retrieved on 2006- 08-28.
  16. ^ http://www.asianweek.com/2002_11_01/feature_model.html
  17. ^ Overseas Filipino Remittances. Retrieved on 2006- 11-21.
  18. ^ a b Filipino-Owned Firms 2002. Retrieved on 2006- 12-06.
  19. ^ http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Du-Ha/Filipino-Americans.html
  20. ^ http://www.nypost.com/seven/03182007/news/regionalnews/girls_bloody_beating_regionalnews_dan_mangan________and_leela_de_kretser.htm
  21. ^ http://policy.miis.edu/docs/sayyaf.pdf
  22. ^ http://policy.miis.edu/docs/sayyaf.pdf
  23. ^ Empire State lights up for Filipinos — again. Retrieved on 2006- 08-28.
  24. ^ Filipino weekend. Retrieved on 2006- 08-28.
  25. ^ Philippine Fiesta.. Retrieved on 2006- 08-28.

External links

Original Source

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