Coconut pests and diseases

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The following are some of the pests that cause damage to coconuts in the Philippines.

  1. Brontispa longissima or coconut hispine beetle, is a flat and slender beetle generally 1 centimeter long that feeds on the soft tissues of coconut fronds enough to kill the coconut. Infestation is characterized by the brownish appearance of young fronds while the outer older fronds might still be green - the opposite of the normal, in which the inner younger fronds are green while the outer older fronds are brown. To combat this pest, the Philippine Coconut Authority introduces earwigs which eat Brontispa larvae. <ref name="test1">Philippine Coconut Authority website. War against Brontispa (accessed November 7, 2007).</ref>
  2. Chromolaena odorata, or hagonoy, is an aggressive weed pest that forms dense stands that prevent the establishment of other species. It may have allelopathic effects. Its biological control agent is Cecidochares connexa, or the stem gall fly.<ref name="test2">Global Invasive Species Database website. This website is managed by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the IUCN Species Survival Commission (accessed November 7, 2007).</ref>
  3. Phytophthora castaneae Katsura & K. Uchida is a fungus that causes coconut bud rot and coconut fruit rot and premature nut fall.<ref name="test3"> website. Datasheet on Phytophthora (accessed November 7, 2007).</ref>
  4. Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) causes premature decline and death of coconut palms in the Philippines associated with viroid infection. Cadang-cadang is derived from the Bikol word gadan-gadan which means "dead" or "dying".<ref name="test4">Philippine Coconut Authority website. Technoguide on pest management of CCCVd(accessed November 7, 2007).</ref>
  5. Rodents may also infest coconut palms as well as their intercrops.<ref name="test5">Philippine Coconut Authority website. Technoguide on pest management of rodent infestation of coconuts(accessed November 7, 2007).</ref>
  6. Oryctes rhinoceros, or coconut rhinoceros beetle, feeds on the palm shoot or palm heart and kills the young palms. The Philippine Coconut Authority came up with a study using sawdust trap boxes to control this pest.<ref name="test6">Bureau of Agricultural Research publication. Article on the use of sawdust to wipe out rhinoceros beetle(accessed November 7, 2007).</ref>
  7. Slug caterpillars (Limacodids) eat coconut leaves. Heavy infestations can defoliate whole palms.<ref name="test7">Philippine Coconut Authority website. Technoguide on pest management of slug caterpillars(accessed November 7, 2007).</ref>
  8. Pestalozzia palmarum and Helminthosporium sp. are fungi that cause leaf spot disease in coconut palms.<ref name="test8">Philippine Coconut Authority website. Technoguide on pest management of leaf spot disease(accessed November 7, 2007).</ref>
  9. Thielaviopsis paradoxa causes stem bleeding disease in coconut palms.<ref name="test9">Philippine Coconut Authority website. Technoguide on pest management of stem bleeding disease(accessed November 7, 2007).</ref>
  10. Rarosiella cocosae Rimando, or false spider mite, damage coconut leaflets by sucking plant sap. Severe infestations make the palms appear burnt at a distance. Cocchinellid beetles are voracious predators of false spider mites.<ref name="test10">Philippine Coconut Authority website. Technoguide on pest management of false spider mites(accessed November 7, 2007).</ref>


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