|This article needs further research.|
This article or section contains statements, claims, or records that need verification.
| 9.8 million|
11.5% of the Philippine population<ref>Fact sheet no. 1 n.d. Kaisa para sa Kaunlaran.</ref>
|Regions with significant populations|
Metro Cebu, Metro Manila, Angeles, Bacolod, Davao, Iligan, Iloilo, Lucena, Tarlac, Vigan, Zamboanga
|Lan-nang, Hokkien, Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Standard Mandarin, Standard Cantonese, Filipino, English, other Chinese languages, other Philippine Languages|
|Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism, Chinese folk religion, Confucianism, Taoism|
|Related ethnic groups|
A Chinese Filipino (Template:Zh-s; Traditional Chinese: 華菲; Template:Zh-p Insert non-formatted text here; Hokkien: Huâ-hui; Cantonese: Wàhfèi; Tagalog/Filipino: "Tsinoy" (pronounced: /ʧɪnɔj/) derived from two words: "Tsino" (meaning "Chinese") and "Pinoy" (the slang word for "Filipino") is a person with Chinese blood born in the Philippines.
Use of the term Chinese Filipino
While many people in the Philippines, including Chinese Filipinos themselves, tend to use the term "Filipino Chinese"/"Filipino-Chinese"<ref>Lim, Cherry T. (31 January 2003). Filipino-Chinese or Chinese-Filipino? Sun Star Cebu. Cebu.</ref>, these are wrong according to North American English usage, on which Philippine English is largely based.
The term "Chinese Filipino" may or may not<ref>http://www.librarylink.org.ph/revdetails.asp?rev=92 Palanca, Ellen / Clinton (ed.). Chinese Filipinos. 2003.</ref><ref>California State University–Los Angeles Editorial Style Guide</ref> be hyphenated. The website of the organization Kaisa para sa Kaunlaran omits the hyphen, adding that Chinese Filipino is the noun where "Chinese" is an adjective to the noun "Filipino." The Chicago Manual of Style and the APA<ref>http://www.docstyles.com/archive/apacrib.pdf</ref>, among others, also recommend dropping the hyphen. When used as an adjective, "Chinese Filipino" may take on a hyphenated form or may remain unchanged. For instance, when hyphenated, "Chinese-Filipino community," "Chinese-Filipino Catholic," or "Chinese-Filipino student."<ref>http://web.xs.edu.ph/sections/luceatluxstory.php Mena S.J., Santos. Luceat Lux: The Story of Xavier School. 2005.</ref><ref>http://web.xs.edu.ph/issues0607/2006%20-%20October%2019/Juiblee%20Updates/OurPrideandGloryNowAvailable.php Dy S.J., Aristotle (ed.). Our Pride and Glory, Xavier School at Fifty. 2006.</ref><ref>Gomez, Peter Martin (ed.). The Xavier School Institutional Identity Book. 2005.</ref> Chicago style, on the other hand, explicitly advises against using the hyphen even when "Chinese Filipino" is used as an adjective. For instance, "Chinese Filipino student" and "Chinese Filipino community"<ref>American Anthropological Association Style Guide</ref><ref>Michigan State University Style Sheet</ref><ref>Hyphens, en dashes, em dashes. (n.d.) Chicago Style Q&A. Chicago Manual of Style Online. (15th ed.)</ref>, but "Chinese-Filipino Catholic," given that three consecutive words are capitalized and that Filipino in that sense is linked to Chinese rather than being an adjective to Catholic.<ref>http://www.jesuits.ph/New%20Web/pop_ups/print_weaving.html Dy S.J., Aristotle. Weaving a Dream: Reflections for Chinese-Filipino Catholics Today. 2000.</ref>
During the Spanish colonial period, Chinese residents in Parian, Manila were called "Sangley" In 1576 Francisco de Sande wrote: "Throughout these islands they call the Chinese 'Sangleyes,' meaning 'a people who come and go.'" Two Hokkien words were conflated, shang (business) and lai (coming), probably meaning Chinese itinerary merchants.
Spaniards referred to the Chinese as "Chino" but continued to use the term "Sangley." Modern Filipinos refer to them as "instik", which in turn is probably derived from how Hokkienese address their uncle, i.e., "din chiek" (your uncle). Through time it took on a pejorative overtone, especially used in the context of "Intsik beho." (Beho meaning old viejo in Spanish.)
After World War II and as a new generation of Chinese came of age in the Philippines, a new term was coined to underscore the primacy of a Filipino identity Chinese Filipino. The term gained currency through the efforts of Teresita Ang See and Kaisa Foundation, culminating in the usage of "Tsinoy."
Both Chinese Filipinos and Filipinos espouse different terminologies to refer to the former.
- Of pure Chinese descent: Chinese (English), Tsino/Chino (Filipino, Spanish), Intsik (Filipino), and Lan-lang (Chinese Minnan Dialect)
- Of mixed Chinese and Filipino descent: Filipino Chinese/Chinese Filipino/Philippine Chinese (Eng.), Tsinoy/Chinoy (Fil., Sp.), Mistisong Intsik (Fil.), and Chhut-si-ia (Chi. Minnan) (The term Sangley was also used during the Spanish Colonial Period to refer to people of mixed Chinese and Filipino blood, but it is now out of date in terms of usage).
- Of mixed Chinese and Spanish descent: Tornatras (Eng., Fil., Sp.; archaic)
There's a distinction between the following as well: 华人，华侨，华裔，华菲。
- 华人/華人 -- Huárén -- Chinese, of pure Chinese descent and nationality
- 华侨/華僑 -- Huáqiáo -- Overseas Chinese, usually China-born Chinese who have immigrated elsewhere
- 华裔/華裔 -- Huáyì -- People of Chinese ancestry, born, living and has citizenship of another country
- 华菲/華菲 -- Huáfēi -- Chinese Filipino
"Filipino Chinese" (Traditional Chinese: 菲律賓華僑; Simplified Chinese: 菲律宾华侨; Hanyu Pinyin: Fēilǜbīn Huáqíao; Hokkien: Hui-lu̍t-pin Huâ-kiâo; Cantonese: Fèileuhtbàn Wàhkìuh) is a deprecated term.
The Chinese in the Philippines have always been one of the largest Filipino ethnic groups, making up about 5% (4 million) of the country's total population. The rate of intermarriage between Filipinos and Chinese is among the highest in Southeast Asia, exceeded only by Thailand. However, intermarriages happened mostly in the Spanish colonial eras because Chinese immigrants to the Philippines up to the 19th century were predominantly male. It was only in the 20th century that Chinese women and children came in comparable numbers. These Chinese mestizos, products of intermarriages in the Spanish colonial era, then often opted to marry other Chinese mestizos (as was the case with the ancestors of national hero Dr. Jose Rizal). Some studies have shown that at least 40% of the Filipino population has some Chinese ancestry, mostly comprising the Filipino social and political elite, and that 50% of Filipino genes are of Chinese origin. Generally, the term Chinese mestizo is reserved for those who have more recent Chinese ancestry; those who still retain, in full or in part, the surnames of their Chinese ancestors; or those who have "Chinese eyes" or comparatively fair complexion which can be attributed to their Chinese ancestry. By this definition, Chinese Filipinos, along with Chinese mestizos, number about 9.8 million.
Most Chinese in the Philippines belong to either the Fujianese or Cantonese dialect groups of the Han nationality. 98.5% of all unmixed Chinese in the Philippines came from the province of Fujian in China and are thus called Fujianese, or Hoklo. They speak the Lan-nang (Philippine) variant of the Minnan language, which is further subdivided into several dialects. The most common Minnan (Southern Fujianese) dialect in the Philippines is the Amoy dialect, which is mutually intelligible with the Chuanchew dialect, another common dialect in the Philippines. The remaining 1.5% of the unmixed Chinese in the Philippines are mostly of Cantonese origin, with notably large circles of descendants from the Taishan city. They speak the Cantonese dialect group/language, although many are raised to speak only the Minnan dialect. Most are not as economically prosperous as their Fujianese cousins in Philippine society. Some ghettoes of the Cantonese people are found in Santa Mesa, Manila and in Tondo. There are also a minority of Cantonese who have Portuguese ancestry - they are called Macanese. Unmixed Chinese who are of both Fujianese and Cantonese parentage are classified simply as Cantonese. Other non-resident Chinese in the Philippines, such as expatriates and envoys are of Mandarin, Shanghainese, and Hunanese origin.
See also: Mestizos in the Philippines.
Chinese mestizos are those in the Philippines of mixed Chinese and either Filipino or Spanish ancestry (or both). They make up about 11.5% of the country's total population (those who are pure Chinese make up 5% of the population). A number of Chinese mestizos have surnames that reflect their heritage, mostly two or three syllables that have Chinese roots (e.g., the full name of a Chinese ancestor) with a Spanish phonetic spelling. Chinese mestizos may also be known as Tsinoys (alternatively spelled as "Chinoy"), although this term may also refer to the full-blooded Chinese Filipinos; and/or Chinito, a term that largely denotes physical characteristics (referring to slanted eyes) rather than ethnic/cultural.
Starting from the Spanish period, mestizos were often afforded opportunities that full-blooded Chinese or native Filipinos did not have access to. Historically, mestizos have been economically more successful than the non-mestizo population. Even to this day, a large percentage of land or plantation owners in the Philippines are the Chinese mestizos. Due to their fairer complexion, a coveted attribute among Filipinos even to this day, a sizeable number of people in the film industry are Chinese or Spanish-Chinese mestizos.
Chinese Filipinos have been classified into three types, based on when their ancestors first entered to the country. Most Chinese mestizos, especially the landed gentry, trace their ancestry to the Spanish era. They are the "First Chinese," whose descendants nowadays are mostly either the Chinese mestizos or have integrated into the local population.
The largest group of Chinese Filipinos in the Philippines are the "Second Chinese," who are descendants of migrants in the first half of the 20th century, between the Manchu revolution in China and the Chinese Civil War. This group accounts for most of the "full-blooded" Chinese.
The "Third Chinese" are the recent immigrants from mainland China, after the Chinese economic reform of the 1980s. Generally, the "Third Chinese" are the most entrepreneurial and have not lost their Chinese cultural heritage. Paradoxically, this leads to them being misunderstood or feared by the "Second Chinese" and "First Chinese," many of whom have lost their entrepreneurial drive and have adopted the laid-back Spanish cultural values of Philippine society.
As many as 98.5% of the Chinese in the Philippines trace their ancestry to the southern part of Fujian province. The Lan-nang variant of Min Nan, also locally known as Fukien or Lán-lâng-oē (咱人話; "our people's language"), is the lingua franca of the Chinese-Filipino community. Most of the other 10% are descendants of migrants from Guangdong, Hong Kong, or Taiwan. The other Chinese "dialects" that can be heard in the Chinese-Filipino communities are Mandarin (which is taught in Chinese schools in the Philippines and spoken in varying degrees of fluency by Chinese Filipinos), Taiwanese (which is mutually intelligible with the Chuanchew and Amoy dialects), and Cantonese.
The vast majority of the Chinese in the Philippines, however, are fluent in English as well as Tagalog, and for those residing outside of Metro Manila, the local language of the region, like Ilokano, Cebuano (Cebu, Davao, Iligan, and Zamboanga), and Chabacano.
Mandarin Chinese used to be the medium of instruction in Chinese schools prior to the Filipinization policy of Former President Ferdinand Marcos. Partly as a result of Marcos' measures, Tagalog and English are gradually supplanting Chinese (Minnan and Mandarin) as the preferred medium of communication among the younger generation.
The majority of Chinese in the Philippines are business owners and their life centers around the family business. These mostly small and medium enterprises play a significant role in the Philippine economy. A handful of these entrepreneurs run large companies and are respected as some of the most prominent business tycoons in the Philippines. Chinese Filipinos attribute their success in business to frugality and hard work, and entrepreneurship is highly valued and encouraged among the young.
Most Chinese Filipinos are urban dwellers. An estimated 60% of Chinese Filipinos live within Metro Manila, with the rest in the other larger cities. In contrast with the Chinese mestizos, few Chinese are plantation owners. This is partly due to the fact that until recently when Chinese Filipinos became Filipino citizens, the law prohibited them from owning land.
As with other Southeast Asian nations, the Chinese community in the Philippines has become a repository of traditional Chinese culture. Whereas in Mainland China many cultural traditions and customs have been suppressed by the Cultural Revolution or simply regarded as old-fashioned and obsolete, these traditions have remained largely untouched in the Philippines. Many new cultural twists have evolved within the Chinese community in the Philippines, distinguishing it from other overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia. These cultural variations are highly evident during festivals such as Chinese New Year, Chap Goh Mei (pronounced as Tzap), and Ching Ming Festival. The Chinese Filipinos have developed unique funerary and wedding customs as well.
Chinese mestizos, or Chinese Filipinos and Chinese-Spaniards, live more like the Filipinos, and are in the higher echelons of society.
Unique among Chinese groups in Southeast Asia, Chinese Filipinos are overwhelmingly Christian. A majority of Chinese Filipinos, including Chinese mestizos but excluding recent immigrants, have been baptized and have their marriages in Christian churches. Catholics form the largest group.
However, many Chinese-Filipino Catholics still practice traditional Chinese religions side by side with Catholicism. There is also a small percentage who solely practice traditional Chinese religions. Mahayana Buddhism, Taoism and ancestor worship (including Confucianism) are the traditional Chinese beliefs that continue to have adherents among the Chinese Filipinos. Some may have Jesus Christ as well as Buddha statues or Taoist gods on their altars. It is not unheard of to venerate the blessed Virgin Mary using joss sticks and Buddhist offerings, much as one would have done for Mazu. Buddhist-Taoist temples can be found in Chinese communities, especially in urban areas like Manila. Chinese usually go to pay respects to their ancestors at least once a year, either by going to the temple or visiting the Chinese burial grounds, often burning incense and bringing offerings like fruits and accessories made from paper. Some Chinese-Filipino Catholics do have problems with this religious duality, but due to Christian proselytization, the elderly vastly outnumber the young in the Chinese temples in the Philippines.
A comparatively large number of Chinese Filipinos are also Protestants. One of the largest evangelical churches in the Philippines, the United Evangelical Church of the Philippines, was founded by Chinese Filipinos, who form the majority of its worshippers. In contrast to the Catholics, the Chinese-Filipino Protestants are more mainstream and tend to eschew more frequently from non-Christian religions and practices.
Many Chinese Filipinos today have Chinese surnames, the most common of which are Tan, Go, Sy, Co, Chua, Lim, and Cheng, though there are also some who have inherited or chosen Filipino or Spanish surnames, like Gatchalian, Chavez, and Ramos, among others.
Chinese Filipinos as well as Chinese mestizos who trace their roots back to Chinese immigrants to the Philippines during the Spanish colonization usually have Chinese-sounding surnames that have Hispanicized spellings, such as Lacson, Biazon, Tuazon, Ongpin, Yuchengco, Quebengco, Cojuangco, and Tanbengco, among such others. Many Chinese mestizos (as well as Spanish-Chinese and Tornatras) have also either inherited or took on Spanish or Filipino surnames, like Bautista, Madrigal, or Santos.
The presence of peoples from the Chinese mainland in the Philippines have been evident since the Ice Age, when a land bridge enabled many people from southern China to settle in the Philippines. But they are not to be confused with the later Sinitic-speaking peoples (ethnic Chinese) who came long after the land bridge subsided. These ethnic Chinese sailed down and frequently interacted with the local natives, and this is evidenced by a collection of priceless Chinese artifacts found in the Philippines, dating back to the 10th century. Prehistoric evidence attests to the fact that many datus and rajahs (native rulers) in the Philippines were of mixed Filipino and Chinese ancestry. They formed the group which is to be called principalia during the Spanish period, and were given privileges by the Spanish colonial government.
The arrival of the Spaniards to the Philippines attracted many Chinese traders from China, and maritime trade flourished during the Spanish occupation. The Spanish era restricted the activities of the Chinese residents. With low chances of employment and prohibited from owning land, most of them engaged in trading and other businesses. Many of the Chinese who arrived during the Spanish period were Cantonese, who worked as stevedores and porters, but there were also Fujianese, who entered retail trade. The Chinese revolted three times, against Spanish rule, but their revolts were quickly put down by joint forces of Filipinos, Mexicans, and Spaniards. There were three genocides conducted by the Spaniards against the Chinese, two of which were successful.
During American colonization, the Chinese Exclusion Act in the United States was also put into act in the Philippines. Nevertheless, Chinese were able to settle in the Philippines, despite strict American law enforcement. During World War II, the Japanese massacred many unmixed Chinese. Following the war and the fall of the Chinese mainland to communism, many Chinese moved from Fujian province in China to the Philippines. This group formed the bulk of the current population of Chinese Filipinos.
After independence, successive Philippine presidents have had ambivalent attitudes towards Chinese Filipinos. Presidents Ramon Magsaysay and Carlos Garcia promoted the Filipino First policies, and put in tough government directives to hinder the ownership of businesses by Chinese Filipinos who were still citizens of the People's Republic of China.
During the Martial Law, Chinese language schools were ordered to close or else limit the time alloted for Chinese language, history, and culture subjects from 4 hours to 2 hours, and instead devote time to the study of Filipino languages and culture. This model of education persists to this day. Marcos' policy eventually led to the formal assimilation of the Chinese Filipinos into mainstream Filipino society. Following the People Power Revolution, the Chinese Filipinos quickly gained national spotlight when Corazon Cojuangco Aquino, a Chinese mestiza, became president. She encouraged free press and cultural harmony, a process which led to the burgeoning of the Chinese language media.
Mild racist riots occurred in 1992 when several Filipinos, led by businessman Jay Ducat, campaigned to '[kick out] the [Chinese-Filipinos] instead of the Americans', referring to the formal closure of the American miltary bases in the Philippines. These also occured in 1998, when Chinese mestizo Senator Fred Lim entered the presidential race.
Most Chinese Filipinos are descendants of Chinese who migrated three or four generations ago. In the cases of some Chinese mestizos, this can be as far back as five, six, or up to eight generations ago. Unlike in Malaysia and Indonesia where intermarriage is uncommon and people can generally be classified ethnically just by physical appearance, the Philippine definition of who is Chinese Filipino and who is Chinese mestizo can be based on one's cultural beliefs. A full-blooded Chinese who can no longer speak Chinese and no longer practices Chinese culture or beliefs is more often than not identified as a Chinese mestizo. By the same token, a Chinese mestizo who still speaks fluent Chinese and practices Chinese culture might be reintegrated into the Chinese-Filipino culture. As "mestizo" often evokes a person of higher social strata, there is also a tendency to not identify those in the lower class as "mestizo" even if they are in fact of mixed descent.
Due to widespread Westernization in the Philippines, younger Chinese Filipinos are gradually shifting to English as their preferred language, thus identifying more with the Chinese mestizo culture. Some Chinese mestizos tend also to reintegrate into Filipino or sometimes Chinese societies. Although at a slower rate than in Thailand, cultural assimilation is gradually taking place in the Philippines. But integration without losing Chinese culture is advantageous for the Philippines and for Chinese Filipinos.
List of Chinese-Filipinos with Fujianese ancestry
- AJ Dee — actor and swimmer.
- Albino SyCip — Known as the "Dean of Philippine Banking". A lawyer by profession, he earned his law degree from the University of Michigan Law School in Ann Arbor, Michigan. He co-founded Chinabank and set up branches in Xiamen and Shanghai, China. Father of Washington and Alexander SyCip.
- Alexander SyCip — Founder of SyCip Salazar Hernandez & Gatmaitan, largest and leading law firm in the Philippines.
- Alfonso Yuchengco (Chinese-Tagalog) — insurance tycoon with roots in Nan'an, Fujian and founder of controversial Pacific Plans.
- Alfredo Lim (Chinese-Tagalog) — current Manila mayor and former senator of the Philippines.
- Amy Chua — John M. Duff, Jr. Professor of Law at Yale Law School. Author of World on Fire. Daughter of Leon O. Chua.
- Andrew Gotianun — real estate tycoon.
- Arthur Yap — Secretary of Department of Agriculture.
- Fortunano "Atoy" Co — Professional basketball player, politician, former councillor of Pasig City.
- Benedicto Dimaculangan Tuazon illegitimate son of Don Antonio Tuason, the Grand Patriarch of te Tuason Family.
- Benigno "Noynoy" Aquino III (Chinese-Kapampangan-Spanish-Tagalog) — politician, genuine opposition, son of President Aquino.
- Brent Chua — model.
- Bob Ong -- cult author.
- Bobby Ongpin — former Trade and Industry Minister in martial law.
- Charlie Chao — Feng Shui Expert.
- Chris Tiu — TV Host of Pinoy Records, Ateneo Blue Eagles Team Captain-Point Guard in Basketball, said to be surnamed Xu.
- Chua Cu (now Chuacuco) — founder of Che Yong Cua Chua Family association.
- Claudio Teehankee, Sr. (Chinese-Tagalog) — Retired Chief Justice
- Corazon Cojuangco-Aquino (Chinese-Kapampangan-Spanish-Tagalog) — became President of the Philippines in 1986 and moral leader of the People Power uprising against the Marcos authoritarian regime; her ancestral roots are in Hong Chiam Village in Tung-An county near Xiamen City of Fujian province, China
- David Mendoza Consunji (Chinese-Spanish-Tagalog) — civil engineer, construction company founder, former Philippine Secretary of Public Works, Transportation and Communication.
- Dennis Trillo — (Chinese-Tagalog) Philippine actor his acting career soar and make him in a matinee idol in his movie "Ashite Imasu 1941:Mahal Kita"
- Dominic Penalosa (Chinese-Filipino Canadian) — Founder of worldfriends.tv.<ref>Expats for Olympic Torchbearers</ref>
- Eduardo "Danding" Cojuangco Jr. (Fujian Chinese-Kapampangan-American) — tycoon and politician, boss of San Miguel Corporation and leader of Nationalist People's Coalition.
- Edwin Lacierda (Chinese-Boholano) - Legal counsel and co-convenor of the civil society group, The Black and White Movement. A Constitutional Law Professor and a regular legal resource person for the major Philippine television networks dealing with current political and constitutional issues.
- Emilio Aguinaldo (Chinese-Tagalog) —Filipino general, politician, independence leader, first president of the Philippines, dictator of the Dictatorial Government, President of the Revolutionary Government, president of the nascent first Philippine Republic
- Emilio Yap — Manila Bulletin, Manila Hotel and Euro-Phil Laboratories owner.
- Enchong Dee (Chinese-Bikolano) — Actor, model and Philippine Swim team member.
- Enrique T. Yuchengco — Insurance tycoon and father of controversial Pacific Plans, Inc. founder Alfonso Yuchengco.
- Ferdinand Marcos (Chinese-Japanese-Ilocano) — President from 1965 to 1986. In a speech before the Federation of Filipino-Chinese Chambers of Commerce and Industry, Inc. (FFCCCII) in 1966, he remarked: "I have Chinese blood in me...I am not ashamed to admit that perhaps the great leaders of our country all have Chinese blood."
- Francis "Ang Biao" Chua — President of the Federation of Filipino-Chinese Chambers of Commerce and Industry, Inc. (FFCCCII)
- George Ty — banking tycoon. Management Association of the Philippines 2007 Man of the Year.<ref>Metrobank Foundation, Inc. | Profile - Metrobank Foundation President</ref>
- Hayden Kho, Jr. — doctor, actor, model, director
- Heart Evangelista — Actress
- Henry Lim Bon Liong - Chairman and CEO of Sterling Paper Group of Companies; Dr. Jose Rizal Awardee for excellence in the field of Management and Finance; Aurelio Periquet, Jr. Business Leadership Awardee.
- Henry Sy — Shopping mall tycoon.
- Howard Q. Dee — former Philippine Ambassador to the Vatican and Malta, government negotiator with Communist rebels, past President of top pharmaceuticals firm United Laboratories, head of various civic organizations and a great-grandnephew of 19th century lumber pioneer Dy Bo Lan.
- Ignacio Paua (pure Fujianase) --- pure-blooded Chinese general from the village of Lao-Na, who supported the Katipuneros in the fight against the Spaniards and later joined Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo’s army in the short-lived war against the Americans. When Aguinaldo proclaimed Philippine independence in Kawit, Cavite and raised the Philippine flag for the first time, Paua cut off his queue (braid). When Garcia and the other comrades teased him about it, Paua said: “Now that you are free from your foreign master, I am also freed from my queue.” (The queue was a sign of subjugation of the Chinese race because it was imposed by the Manchu rulers of the Qing dynasty. The Chinese revolutionaries in China cut off their queues only in 1911 when the uprising which toppled the Manchu government succeeded.) Gen. Paua retired in, and was elected mayor of, Manito, Albay.
- James Yap — professional basketball superstar player for the Purefoods Tender Juicy Giants in the Philippine Basketball Association
- Jaime Cardinal Sin (Chinese-Capiznon) — powerful Philippine Catholic leader ember College of Cardinals.
- JC Tiuseco — Basketball player, model, and actor.
- Jeffrey Espiritu (known as Mister Fu) - TV host, and DJ of Energy FM 91.5, known for his words "May ganun?".
- John Gokongwei — self-made tycoon, founder of JG Summit Holdings.
- Jose Mari Chan — singer and songwriter, son of Chinese immigrant sugar tycoon Antonio Chan from Fujian, China
- José Rizal (Spanish-Chinese-Tagalog) — Filipino national hero, polymath, physician, novelist, nationalist, propagandist, martyr and considered to be the greatest Filipino surnamed Chua before his late Hispanic surname.
- Jose Yao Campos — founder of United Laboratories.
- Joseph Yeo — De La Salle Green Archers standout guard-forward in basketball. Currently playing for the Sta. Lucia Realtors in PBA.
- Jun Lozada — witness of the NBN-ZTE deal
- Ken Tan — just recently edited the Article of "The Young Jodi", Barbie Forteza.
- Kim Chiu (Chinese-Visayan) — actress, teen icon.
- Kris Aquino-Yap (Chinese-Kapampangan-Tagalog) — popular TV talk show host and daughter of President Aquino
- Leon O. Chua — Professor of Electrical Engineering at UC Berkeley. World-renowned pioneer in neural networks, chaos theory, and nonlinear circuits. Father of Amy Chua.
- Lim Eng Beng — Professional basketball player.
- St. Lorenzo Ruiz (Chinese-Tagalog) — first Filipino saint, said to be surnamed Li.
- Lucio Tan — Billionaire and patron of Chinese language education.
- Manuel Tinio (Chinese-Tagalog) — was the youngest General of the Philippine Revolutionary Army, Governor of the Province of Nueva Ecija and former director of the Bureau of Lands.
- Imee Marcos (Chinese-Japanese-Ilocano-Waray-Spanish) — Congresswoman of Ilocos Norte.
- Mikee Cojuangco (Chinese-Spanish-Tagalog) — equestrienne, former actress.
- Peter S. Lim (Chinese-Bikolano) — Civil Engineer, Sanitary Engineer, Dean of University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Engineering, 2006 - 2009.
- Ramon A. Cukingnan Jr. — Prominent Cardiothoracic Surgeon and Professor at UCLA.
- Engr. Roman Ting Go and Dr. Mildred Go (pure Fujian Chinese) — Banaag Awardee (2000); Founder and proprietor of the Manila Xiamen International School in Fujian, China, the first Filipino-owned international school in China.<ref>http://www.cfo.gov.ph/presidential/Roman%20Ting%20Go.htm 2000 Banaag Awardee, Commission on Filipinos Overseas.</ref>
- Robert Parungao (Chinese-Filipino Canadian) — Founder of New Voices Project in Vancouver.<ref>Comme les Chinois » Regarde les Chinois : Robert Parungao</ref>
- Román Ongpin — patron of artists and revolutionaries against Spanish rule.
- Sergio Osmeña (Chinese-Cebuano-Spanish) — third President of the Philippines.
- Simon L. Chua — famous mathematics educator, founder and president of the Mathematics Trainers' Guild, Philippines, and the first Filipino awardee of the Paul Erdos Award which is considered by the mathematics world as the Nobel Prize of Mathematics.
- Stanley Chi — "Point of view" Stand up comedian, and Cartoonist for Manila Bulletin's comic strip "Chopsticks".
- Tan Yu — real-estate tycoon and owner of Fuga Island in Babuyan group of islands, Cagayan.
- Teresita Ang See — Civil and human rights activist.
- Tomas Pinpin (Chinese-Tagalog) — known as the "Prince of Filipino Printers" or the "Patriarch of Filipino Printing." He learned the art of printing in 1608 in the Dominican-owned printing press in Abucay, Bataan
- Tony Tan Caktiong — fast food chain tycoon.
- Gen. Vicente Lim — the first Filipino to graduate from West Point.
- Victor Tan — Owner of San Pablo Trading
- Washington SyCip — Founder of SyCip Gorres & Verayo, one of the largest accounting firms in Asia; Chairman Emeritus, Asian Institute of Management.
- Wesley So — chess grandmaster
- Wilson Lee Flores — Multi-awarded writer, editor and journalist, a college professor, a real estate entrepreneur and also two-term former president and now 2-term chairman of the The Anvil Business Club.
- Fact sheet no. 1 n.d. Kaisa para sa Kaunlaran.
- Lim, Cherry T. (31 January 2003). Filipino-Chinese or Chinese-Filipino? Sun Star Cebu. Cebu.
- http://www.librarylink.org.ph/revdetails.asp?rev=92 Palanca, Ellen / Clinton (ed.). Chinese Filipinos. 2003.
- California State University–Los Angeles Editorial Style Guide
- http://web.xs.edu.ph/sections/luceatluxstory.php Mena S.J., Santos. Luceat Lux: The Story of Xavier School. 2005.
- http://web.xs.edu.ph/issues0607/2006%20-%20October%2019/Juiblee%20Updates/OurPrideandGloryNowAvailable.php Dy S.J., Aristotle (ed.). Our Pride and Glory, Xavier School at Fifty. 2006.
- Gomez, Peter Martin (ed.). The Xavier School Institutional Identity Book. 2005.
- American Anthropological Association Style Guide
- Michigan State University Style Sheet
- Hyphens, en dashes, em dashes. (n.d.) Chicago Style Q&A. Chicago Manual of Style Online. (15th ed.)
- http://www.jesuits.ph/New%20Web/pop_ups/print_weaving.html Dy S.J., Aristotle. Weaving a Dream: Reflections for Chinese-Filipino Catholics Today. 2000.
- Bahay Tsinoy Museum of the Chinese in Philippine Life
- Kaisa Heritage Center
- Filipino community
- Article on Kaisa experience in the Philippines
- Kaisa Para Kaunlaran Inc.
- Tulay Fortnightly, Chinese-Filipino Digest
- Chinese Commercial News
- World News (Chinese newspaper)
- Chinese Mestizo surnames
- Tsinoy.com (Filipino Chinese website)